- Type 052C destroyer
The Type 052C destroyer (NATO code name Luyang II class, often referred to as "
Lanzhou" class after the lead ship name) is a class of destroyerbuilt by the People's Republic of China. Two Type 052C (Lanzhou class) air defence missile destroyers have been built by Jiangnan Shipyardof Shanghaifor the PLA Navy. The destroyers, based on the same hull of the Type 052B (Guangzhou class) destroyer, feature an APAR-style active phased array radarsystem and vertically launched HQ-9naval version long-range air defence missile system. This class represents China's first true fleet air defence capability. The first-of-class No.170 "Lanzhou" was commissioned in 2004, followed by the second hull No.171 "Haikou" in 2005.
Following the launch of two Type 52B multirole missile destroyers in 2002, Shanghai-based Jiangnan Shipyard started to build two Type 052C destroyers based on the same hull design, but with more advanced weapon systems and sensors specifically for fleet air defence role. The first-of-class "Lanzhou" (170) was laid down in late 2002, launched on
29 April 2003, and commissioned in July 2004. The second ship, "Haikou" (171) was launched on 30 October 2003 and entered service in 2005. Since Mr. Pan Jingfu (潘镜芙), the designer of the previous three classes had already retired when the design of Type 052C was approved in September, 2001, it is widely reported that the chief designer of this class was Mr. Zhu Yingfu (朱英富), the director of the 701st Research Institute of the 7th Academy of China Shipbuilding Heavy Industrial Group.
Unlike the Type 052B destroyer which is equipped with a mixture of Russian and indigenous systems, the Type 052C is completely based on indigenous technology (apart from a few sensors). The most notable feature is the indigenously developed four-array multifunction active
phased array radar Type 348 Radar(PAR) similar to the Netherlands APAR system. Additionally, the destroyers are also fitted with the vertical launch system(VLS) for the indigenous HQ-9 long-range air defence missile system, and the latest YJ-62 (C-602) anti-ship missile, both of which are not seen on previous Chinese surface warships.
The destroyer is based on the same hull design and propulsions as the Type 052B destroyers which were launched earlier in the same shipyard. This modular approach would have saved construction time and costs. Compared to the Type 052B, the Type 052C has a much taller bridge, embedded with four fixed active
phased array radarantennas on the four sides. There is a stern helicopter flight deck and a hangar to accommodate one Russian Ka-28-A or one Z-9 (Chinese version of the Eurocopter DauphinAS 365N) ASW/SAR helicopters.
The destroyer’s overall air defence, surface strike, and
anti-submarine warfare(ASW) capabilities will largely depend on how well different weapon systems and sensors are integrated together by the combat system. Most Chinese warships use the command and control system derived from the French Thomson-CSF TAVITAC, but the Type 052C might have a newly developed system with improved processing power to engage anti-ship missile threats. Another reason for the increased processing capability is to accommodate the Ka-28ASW helicopters which lack the onboard processing capability to process the information gathered, so the information has to be passed to the host ship for processing and then passed back to the helicopter via data links. Although Chinese claimed that combat data systems based on MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic databus standard have been already successfully developed by the early 2000s, it is highly unlikely this latest version is adopted for Type 052C, which is most likely still to have MIL-STD-1553B databus standard. Domestic Chinese media have claimed that the latest combat data systems based on MIL-STD-1553B standard currently in Chinese service are versatile enough to be upgraded to MIL-STD-1773 standard eventually, but this is yet to be confirmed by sources outside China.
In together with its long-range air defence missile and
close-in weapon system(CIWS), the Type 052C is the first Chinese-made surface combatant with a true fleet air defence capability. The combat system will ensure that the ship can engage multiple air targets such as sea-skimming missile and aircraft simultaneously. The ship might also be able to transmit combat information to other ships and aircraft via datalink and satellite communications to form a maritime combat network.
A total of 48
HQ-9naval air defence missiles are carried in and launched from eight 6-cell vertical launch systems (VLS). In contrast to previous reports which suggested that the system may be based on Russian technology, the VLS on board the Type 052C appears to be an indigenous design [http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/surface/type052cluyangii.asp] . Unlike the Russian-style revolver VLS, each missile launch cell of the Type 052C VLS has its own lid, but it does use the same cold-gas ignition method. The missile system uses the so-called ‘ cold launch’, in which the missile is first ejected from the launch tube, and then ignites its rocket engine at low altitude. This launch style avoids the complex flame and gas exhausting pipes on the Western-style ‘ hot launch’ VLS. In comparison to the Russian cold-launch system, the Chinese VLS eliminates the revolver design by providing a lid for every launching tube, which can independently fire the missile inside because each has a cold-gas ignition chamber directly below. The Chinese claim the result is simplified maintenance, decreased size, weight, and cost; and, due to the elimination of the revolver mechanism, the power consumption is also reduced in comparison to the Russian revolver design.
The HQ-9 is China's new generation medium- to long-range,
semi-active radar homingair defence missile. The missile is said to be an indigenous design while incorporating some Russian S-300rocket technique. The naval HQ-9 appears to be identical to the land-based variant.
The destroyer also carries two 4-cell YJ-85/C-805 or YJ-62/C-602 (disputed) anti-ship missile launchers installed between rear mast and the helicopter hangar [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/luhai.htm] . Unlike previous YJ-8X/C-80X series anti-ship missiles which are launched from box-shape launchers, the missile is launched from a new tube-shape launcher. The missiles are guided by the Band Stand radar installed on top of the bridge and a Light Bulb datalink forward of the hangar. The Band Stand targeting radar suggests some similarity with the 3M80 Moskit missiles used on the Sovremenny-class.
The Type 052C has two (one front, one rear) Type 730
close-in weapon system(CIWS) designed by 713th Research Institute for short-range air defence. Two seven-barrel 30 mm Type 730 CIWSare located both sides behind the bridge. The weapon system has a maximum rate of fire of 4,600~5,800 rounds/min.
The ship has a
Type 210 100 mm naval gundeveloped by 713 Institute on the basis of the French Creusot-Loire T100C design. The gun can be used against surface targets and air targets such as aircraft and low speed missile, with a maximum rate of fire of 90 rounds/min. The gun can be operated in fully automatic mode from the radar control system, from the shipborne optical sighting system, or laid manually. The turret design incorporates strong radar cross-section reduction features. China has indigenously developed various guided projectiles for the 100 mm gun, such as the laser guided projectiles based on the similar projectiles developed for Chinese main battle tanks, but it is highly unlikely that these guided projectiles are in service on board the destroyer since the laser designators needed have not been observed yet. Chinese also claimed that infraredguided projectiles for the 100 mm (3.9 in) gun was also successfully developed, but trials revealed that the rate of fire would be significantly decreased because the loading system must switch between different rounds when the guided projectiles and the unguided projectiles are mixed in the same ammunition drum.
The ship is fitted with two triple 324 mm
torpedo tubes that is capable of launching both Yu-7 and ET52 light ASW torpedoes. Additionally, the Type 726-4 decoy launching system on installed on the front deck was capable of launching ASW rockets against submarines when needed, though this function is normally not used. ECM
For expandable decoys, the destroyer is armed with a fully digitized and solid state Type 726-4 decoy launching system that is consisted of four launchers installed on the front deck and a control console, though this is not necessary since the system can be fully automatic in combat via the combat data system. The system can also be directly linked to other subsystems on board such as sonar control consoles but it can not be confirmed if this capability is incorporated or not. The system incorporate modular design and during past exhibitions in China, for example, at least three types of displays had been shown, including CRT, LCD and plasma displays. Each launcher is consisted of 18 launching tubes arranged in three rows with six tubes in each row, and a variety of decoys and chaffs could be deployed.
As a secondary role, the system is armed with ASW rockets which could be used against enemy submarines when needed, but this function is mostly used as a defense against torpedo and frogmen. The other alternative function of the Type 726-4 decoy launching system is that the system can be used for shore bombardment.
The last mission of the system is photo / electro-optical reconnaissance. Chinese manufacturers had revealed in the past defense exhibitions a variety of electro-optical camera / sensor packages for rockets, as a cheaper alternative of gun-launched systems since the latter had to sustain much greater g-force. Chinese manufacturers claimed that such systems were to provide images in areas such as behind hills where the line-of-sight of on board electro-optical sensors were blocked. The disadvantage of such rocket launched system is that the range is much shorter than that of UAV, but Chinese manufacturers had claimed that the unit cost of UAV was much greater and could not be equipped in large numbers like rockets. Despite the Chinese manufacturers' advertisement (some even with pictures of Type 052C destroyers), there is no evidence either inside China or outside China that confirms such system is being carried on board.
The launchers themselves could be incorporate as part of larger system with automatic loading systems, but based on the released photos of the destroyer, this does not appear to be the case and the system seemed to need to be loaded manually instead. Additionally, the destroyers is armed with a variety of electronic warfare arrays and the Chinese had claimed the on board
ESMgear is capable of 100% interception rate. Additionally, ECMmission can be also carried out via UAV's when UAV's are carried.
This class is equipped with a variety of radars, sonars and electro-optical sensors.
The ship is the first Chinese ship fitted with a multifunction active
phased array radarwith four antenna arrays, with a reported name Type 348 Radar. China originally imported a Ukrainian C-band active phased array radarfor evaluation, but decided that the radar did not meet the Chinese requirement. Instead, China adopted a domestic S-band multifunction active phased array radarwith four antenna arrays. The radar is indigenously developed by the Research Institute of Electronic Technology (also more commonly known as the 14th Institute) at Nanjing, Jiangsuprovince, and it is a successor to the 14th Institute's earlier indigenously developed Type H/LJG-346 SAPARS (Shipborne Active Phased Array Radar System) that was completed in 1998. Chinese discovered that the S-band adopted by the American AN/SPY-1passive phased arraycould be better suited for the requirements for the active phased array radaras well. The radar has reported name of Type 348 Radar and a maximum range of 450 km, and a maximum resolution of 0.5 metres.
Ukraine provided technical expertise in integrating the active phased array radar with ESM and the anti-stealth radar with
Yagi antenna, which in turn, is a successor to the earlier Type 517H-1 (NATO codename: Knife Rest) long-range 2D air search radar. This metre-wave radar operates in the VHF band and is designated as Type 517M by the Chinese. Like the Type 348 Radar, this radar is also totally indigenous, and Chinese claim that it has better performance than the similar land-based JY-27 radar, which its accuracy is 150 meters for distance, one degree for angle, and its maximum range is 330 km. Type 517M radar, in contrast, has a maximum range of 350 km, but China has not released the details of its accuracy.
A Russian MR331 Mineral-ME (with
NATO reporting nameBand Stand) fire-control radar (for anti-ship missile and for the main gun as its secondary mission) was capable of over the horizon targeting, and it has been installed on other newly built PLAN ships including Type 054A frigate. The Type 344 Radaris installed to provide fire control for the main gun, and for the Type 730 CIWSas its secondary mission in case the locally mounted fire control radars for the CIWSmalfunctioned or damaged in battles. Two locally mounted LR66/TR47C radars derived from Type 347 Radarprovide fire control for the Type 730 CIWS, and although these radars are also capable of providing fire control for the main gun, it is not known if such capability has been incorporated via the combat data system. Type 364 Radaris installed in a radomefor air and surface search, and this radar acts as a supplement of the Type 348 Radarand as a provider of target information for SAM and CIWS, while also have the anti-ship missile targeting as its secondary mission.
The OFC (Optical Fire Control) -3 electro-optical fire control system is a modular design that is consisted of a laser range finder, a color TV camera, and an IR camera, and the laser range finder can be replaced by a laser designator (for the laser beam riding SAM), the TV camera can be replaced by a night vision camera, and the IR camera can be replaced by an ImIR, at higher cost. Development to incorporate the dual band IR, night vision camera, and the color TV camera has been successfully completed, but it is unclear if these newly developed versions will be installed on any of the ships. The OFC-3 optronics is designed by the Central China Optronic (electro-optical) Research Institute. Although the advanced versions have been successfully tested, only the most basic version have been installed on board Type 052C class, as acknowledged by the developer, and domestic Chinese media rumored the main reason was to reduce the cost. However, the adaptation of the most basic version of OFC-3 results in great decrease in the performance and effectiveness of the main gun, because without the laser designator needed, laser beam riding and semi-active laser guided projectiles can not be deployed for the
Type 210 100 mm naval gun.
The OFC-3 Electro-optical system is further supplemented by the IR-17 Infrared Surveillance Device optronics, which is an infrared system only, and like OFC-3 system, it has also been installed on
Luzhou class destroyerand Guangzhou class destroyer. The IR-17 system is usually installed on the forward mast just below the 3-D air search radar, and it is consisted of three parts: sensor head, operator console and electronic cabinet that contains other electronics including power supply. In comparison to OFC-3, more information is released on IR-17, including:
*Sensor head weight: < 160 kg
*Control console weight: < 390 kg
*Electrical cabinet weight: < 300 kg
*Sensor head size: 0.6 m x 0.9 m x 1.1 m
*Control console size: 0.72 m x 1.05 m x 1.65 m
*Electrical cabinet size: 0.6 m x 0.7 m x 1.65 m
*Accuracy: 3 mrad
*Range against sea-skimming
anti-ship missilewith 0.1 square meter radar cross section: > 8 km
cruise missile: > 20 km
*Range against aircraft with 3 square meter radar cross section: > 30 km
The JRSCCS integrated command and control system is used to direct both the OFC-3 and IR-17. In addition, the system can also be used to direct all on board weaponry and sensors, though as only an emergency backup measure for the combat data system, which JRSCCS integrated command and control system is linked to. The JRSCCS system is full automatic and only require a single operator when necessary. The operator console of the JRSCCS is designated as JRMC and is consisted of two multifunction color displays and a joy stick, and up to five JRMC consoles can be deployed when required. According to the developer, such five consoles arrangement as the emergency backup of combat data system is located separately from the main combat information center where the combat data system is located to ensure survivability, but it is not known for sure if this configuration had been adopted for Type 052C destroyer.
Like the H/ZBJ-1 combat data system on board, the JRSCCS is fully distributed and other computers can take over if one of the computer failed. The Chinese design reflected both the Russian and western influence: following the Russian / Soviet design tradition, information gathered by each sensor is processed locally as much as possible, and whenever it is possible by the local computer of the sensor, so that the burden on the combat data system and other C4I systems, so that their designs can be simplified. Despite this Russian / Soviet design tradition that is highly praised by the Chinese, the indigenous Chinese system still follows the western C4I design tradition in that even though the combat data system and JRSCCS system could be simplified due to the increased local processing capability, they are not. Instead, they were designed as complex as their western counterparts so that they could process all of the information gathered by onboard sensors, so that in case the local computers of the sensors had malfunctioned, the information gathered could still be processed by passing it to JRSCCS or combat data systems, which in turn, would take over the control and command of the sensors from its malfunctioned local computers. However, the cost of having such back up is that the price has been significantly increased, resulting in half of the cost of the ship for C4I. Another western design tradition incorporated by the Chinese was the open architecture software design.
Sovremenny class destroyers, the ASW weaponry on board Type 052C destroyer is mainly for self-defense, since it is a class of air-defense destroyer. The ship is equipped with hull mounted SJD-8/9 medium-frequency hull-mounted active / passive sonar, which is a development of French DUBV-23 sonar, and the improvements in both the hardware and the software over the original French design enabled the sonar to be used as a torpedo approaching warning system as well. When in active mode, the range of the hull mounted sonar is at least 12 kmor greater, and when in passive mode, the range is at least 60 kmor greater, a 20% increase to the 50- kmmaximum range of the hull mounted sonar on board Sovremenny class destroyers. Encrypted underwater telephone and other communication gears are installed on board to enable this class to be better coordinated with submarines in joint maneuvers.
Although both variable depth sonar such as ESS-1 medium-frequency VDS (the Chinese development of French DUBV-43 VDS) and towed array sonar were successfully tested on board, these were abandoned because incorporating these extra sonars would lead to significant redesign of the hull and increased cost. Despite the fact that the extra processing capability reserved in the combat data system for the towed sonar and VDS when needed, it is highly unlikely that the towed sonar and VDS would ever be incorporated in the near future. The high frequency obstacle / mine avoidance sonar once originally planned to equip this class failed to materialize due to the same financial concern of reducing the cost.
According to the advertisements Chinese released during various defense / aerospace / electronic exhibitions in the past, conversion kits have been developed for destroyers to deploy multiple UAVs. and the developers of both the JRSCCS and the combat data system have claimed that their products could handle the information needed to control UAVs. However, it is highly unlikely that any long range UAVs will ever be deployed on board this class because the complete handling system to support these large UAVs would need the entire hangar, thus displacing the only helicopter on board. Chinese governmental media, however, did release photos of a variety of propeller driven light UAVs being launched from destroyers and claimed that these light UAVs could be deployed on every destroyer class currently in Chinese service, and some of the pictures have depicted some UAVs carry laser targeting pods, providing guidance for laser guided projectiles. However, as of mid-2007, it still can not be confirmed that if any light UAVs has been on board Type 052C class on a regular basis. The lack of regular deployment of
UVAs on board only seems to confirm the claim that the laser guided projectiles for the main gun are not deployed due to the lack of associating guidance equipment. On August 17, 2008, another type of UAV named as Hummingbird carrying electro-optical pod were deployed on board for the successful test of a new data link developed by China Northern Co. (中国北方公司). The new data link is a two-way real-time encrypted data link desgined to replace the current HN-900 data link, and it is designated as NCTDL, short for Naval Common Tactical Data Link. The new data link is claimed by many Chinese to be at least equal to the Link 16, and even comparable to Link 22, but such claims have yet to be verified by both the Chinese government and sources outside China. However, it is certain that the new data link will replace HN-900 currently in service on board PLAN ships.
The ship’s stern hangar accommodates 1 Kamov Ka-28 (export version of the
Kamov Ka-27, NATO codename: "Helix") antisubmarine warfare (ASW) helicopter, or alternatively, 1 Z-9 ASW helicopter (Chinese version of the Eurocopter DauphinAS 365N), and both type can carry various weapons including torpedoes and depth charges. The Ka-28 helicopter can operate in all weather conditions up to 200 km from the host ship, but its onboard dipping sonar only has half the range of the Chinese copy of the French dipping sonar on board Z-9, furthermore, it lacks the processing capability to process the information gathered, so the information has to be passed back to the host ship for processing via data links, while in contrast, Z-9 can process the information gathered on board the helicopter, but with shorter range.
Although the sensors and weaponry carried by both helicopters are somewhat comparable to their western counterparts, the overall capabilities as ASW platforms for these helicopters are seriously hampered due to the installation of their radars: unlike the western belly-mounted radars with 360-degree coverage, the radars for Ka-28 and Z-9 are chin-mounted and nose-mounted respectively, thus creating huge blind spots. In order to overcome these blind spots, Ka-28 and Z-9 must fly in very complicated flight patterns, resulting in significant fuel consumption, thus decreasing the endurance and range in comparison to western ASW helicopters.
The ship’s propulsion is in the form of CODOG, consisting of two Ukraine-made DA80/DN80
gas turbines rated at 48,600 hp and two Shaanxi diesel engines (Chinese copy of the MTU 20V956TB92) rated at 8,840 hp (6.5 MW). The DA80/DN80 gas turbineis the export version of UGT-25000 of Ukrainian Zorya-Mashprocket State State Enterprise Gas Turbine Research & Production Complex, purchased by China in the late 1990s as part of license-production in China. [http://www.zmturbines.com/Eng/Products/ProductsEng.htm] The UGT25000 has power rating of 25-27 kW depending on configuration. [http://www.zmturbines.com/Eng/Products/Engines/UGT_25000Eng.htm] A total of eight units were originally purchased and Chinese sources have claimed that all had been updated, mainly in the area of turbine blade production techniques, and such update had greatly increased reliability and maintainability. The main parameters of DA80/DN80 included:
*length: 6.4 meter
*Widith: 2.5 meter
*Height: 2.7 meter
*Weight: 16 tons
*Exhaust gas flow: 90 kg / second
*Exhaust temperature: 465ºС
* Unit cost - Up to 800 million US$ per ship, including 200 million for
CIWS, SAM, & VLS, and 400 million for C4Isystems.Fact|date=July 2007
* Ships - DDG 170 "Lanzhou" and DDG 171 "Haikou" as of 2006
* Propulsion - 2 Ukraine DN80 gas-turbines and 2
MTU Friedrichshafen12V 1163TB83 diesels
* Length - 153 m
* Beam - 16.5 m
* Draft - 6 m
* Displacement - 7,000 t (full load)
* Speed - 30 knots (56 km/h)
* Crew - 250 (40 officers)
* Combat Data System - H/ZBJ-1
Information processing systemdesigned by the 704th Institute (Reported speed: > 100 Mbit/s)
Data link: HN-900 (Chinese equivalent of Link 11A/B). To be replaced by NCTDL
* Communication: SNTI-240
** 8 YJ-62 Anti-ship Missile in 2 x quad cells
** 48 vertically launched
** 1 x 100 mm
** 2 x 30 mm
Type 730 CIWS
** 4 x Type 726-4, 18 barrel decoy
Multiple rocket launcher
** 2 x Triple 324 mm ASW torpedo tubes
** Aviation: 1
Kamov Ka-28ASW helicopter
* [http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/surface/type052cluyangii.asp Chinese Defense Today (Sinodefense) page on 052C Destroyer]
* [http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/navalmissile/yj62.asp Chinese Defense Today (Sinodefense) page on the YJ-62 (C-602) Anti-Ship Missile]
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