- Active Phased Array Radar
APAR (Active Phased Array Radar) is a shipborne multi-function
radar(more specifically, an Active Electronically Scanned Array), developed and manufactured by Thales Nederland. The same company's SMART-Lradar (which operates at L bandfrequencies) complements APAR, providing full volume search and tracking up to 400 km. The whole system is called Anti-Air Warfare Systems (AAWS) and is based on the NATO Anti-Air Warfare (NAAWS) concept of the late 1980s.
APAR has four fixed (i.e., non-rotating) sensor arrays (faces), fixed on a pyramidal structure. Each face consists of 3424 transmit/receive (TR) modules operating at
The radar provides the following capabilities:
* air target tracking out to 150 km
* surface target tracking out to 32 km
* horizon search out to 75 km
* "limited" volume search (in order to back up the volume search capabilities of the
* cued search (a mode in which the search is cued using data originating from another sensor)
* surface gunfire support
* missile guidance using the Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination (ICWI) technique, thus allowing up to 16 simultaneous engagements (guiding a total of up to 32 missiles simultaneously)
APAR is installed on four Dutch LCF De Zeven Provinciën and three German F124 Sachsen class frigates. In August 2006, the
Royal Danish Navyselected an anti-air warfare system designed around APAR and SMART-Lover the competing BAE Systems SAMPSONIntegrated Weapon System (SIWS) for their three new frigates, unofficially known as the Ivar Huitfeldt class. SIWS is based on SAMPSONmulti-function and CEA-MOUNTfire control radars.
Live Missile Firings
APAR's missile guidance capability supports the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (
ESSM) and the SM-2 Block IIIA missile. In November 2003, the missile guidance capabilities were first tested with live firings. The firings were performed by the Royal Dutch Navy's HrMs De Zeven Provinciën and involved the firing of a single ESSMand a single SM-2 Block IIIA. These firings were the first ever live firings involving a ship-borne Active Electronically Scanned Arrayguiding missiles using the ICWI technique. In August 2004, the German Navy's Sachsen completed a series of live missile firings that included a total of 11 ESSMand 10 SM-2 Block IIIA missiles.
* Jane's International Defence Review, February 2004, "Missile Management: phased array MFRs go live"
* Jane's Navy International, October 2005, "APAR shines the guiding light"
* [http://www.thalesgroup.com/markets/Activities/Product-page.html?url=/Activities/Navies/Naval-Radar-Systems.html&link=02487B5B-563B-1774-0529-681E682C3A28:central&locale=EN-gb&Title=APAR&dis=1&marketId=65570204-0F18-343C-661E-5D3025785E02&type=Market Manufacturer page about APAR]
* [http://www.thales-systems.ca/projects/apar/apar.pdf Thales Canada page about APAR TMU development]
* [http://www.thales-nederland.nl/nl/news/archive/2005/april26-2005.shtml Thales Nederland page about March 2005 missile firings supported by APAR]
* [http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/dezeven/ NavalTechnology page about De Zeven Provinciën class frigates]
* [http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/f124/ NavalTechnology page about Sachsen class frigates]
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