Ivory-billed Woodpecker

Ivory-billed Woodpecker

name = Ivory-billed Woodpecker
status = CR
status_system = IUCN3.1
trend = down
status_ref = [IUCN2006|assessors=BirdLife International|year=2005|id=3712|title=Campephilus principalis|downloaded=9 May 2006 Database entry includes justification for why this species is critically endangered ]

image_width = 250px
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
ordo = Piciformes
familia = Picidae
genus = "Campephilus"
species = "C. principalis"
binomial = "Campephilus principalis"
binomial_authority = (Linnaeus, 1758)
The Ivory-billed Woodpecker ("Campephilus principalis"), a very large member of the woodpecker family, Picidae, is officially listed as an endangered species, but by the end of the 20th century had widely been considered extinct.

Reports of at least one male bird in Arkansas in 2004 and 2005 were suggested in April 2005 by a team led by the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology (Fitzpatrick "et al.", 2005). If confirmed, this would make the Ivory-billed Woodpecker a lazarus species, a species that is rediscovered alive after being considered extinct for some time.

In June 2006, a $10,000 reward was offered for information leading to the discovery of an Ivory-billed Woodpecker nest, roost or feeding site. [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | date = 21 June 2006 | url = http://www.myeyewitnessnews.com/news/tristate/story.aspx?content_id=2CF788B2-BA49-4E9D-A5F0-63E21CE2DBF4 | title = Wildlife Group Proposes $10,000 Reward For Ivory-billed Evidence| format = | work = Eyewitness News everywhere | publisher = Clear Channel Broadcasting | accessdaymonth = 8 July | accessyear = 2006]

In late September 2006, a team of ornithologists from Auburn University and the University of Windsor published a paper detailing suggestive evidence for the existence of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers along the Choctawhatchee River in northwest Florida (Hill "et al.", 2006).

Despite the initial reports from both Arkansas or Florida, conclusive evidence for the existence of a population of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers, in the form of unambiguous photographs/videos, specimens, or DNA from feathers, has not been forthcoming. Nonetheless, land acquisition and restoration efforts are currently underway to protect the possible survival of this woodpecker.


The Ivory-billed Woodpecker is the second largest woodpecker in the world, and the largest in the United States. The largest of all woodpeckers is the closely related Imperial Woodpecker ("C. imperialis") of western Mexico, another rare species which is very likely to be extinct. The Ivory-billed has a total length of 20 inches (50 centimeters) and weighs 20 ounces (570 grams). It has a 30 inch (75 centimeters) wing span.The bird is shiny blue-black with white markings on its neck and back and extensive white on the trailing edge of both the upper- and underwing. The underwing is also white along its forward edge, resulting in a black line running along the middle of the underwing, expanding to more extensive black at the wingtip. In adults, the bill is ivory in color, chalky white in juveniles. Ivory-bills have a prominent crest, although in juveniles it is ragged. The crest is black in juveniles and females. In males, the crest is black along its forward edge, changing abruptly to red on the side and rear. The chin of an ivory-bill is black. When perched with the wings folded, ivory-bills of both sexes present a large patch of white on the lower back, roughly triangular in shape. These characteristics distinguish it from the smaller and darker-billed Pileated Woodpecker. The Pileated normally is brownish-black, smoky, or slaty black in color. It also has a white neck stripe but the back is normally black. Pileated juveniles and adults have a red crest and a white chin. Pileateds normally have no white on the trailing edges of their wings and when perched normally show only a small patch of white on each side of the body near the edge of the wing. However, Pileated Woodpeckers, apparently aberrant individuals, have been reported with white trailing edges on the wings, forming a white triangular patch on the lower back when perched. Like all woodpeckers, the ivory-bill has a strong and straight bill and a long, mobile, hard-tipped, barbed tongue. Among North American woodpeckers, the ivory-bill is unique in having a bill whose tip is quite flattened laterally, shaped much like a beveled wood chisel. The bird's drum is a single or double rap. Four fairly distinct calls are reported in the literature and 2 were recorded in the 1930s. The most common, a kent or hant, sounds like a toy trumpet often repeated in series. When the bird is disturbed, the pitch of the kent note rises, it is repeated more frequently, and is often doubled. A conversational call, also recorded, is given between individuals at the nest, and has been described as "Kent-Kent-Kent".

Habitat and diet

Ivory-billeds are known to prefer thick hardwood swamps and pine forests, with large amounts of dead and decaying trees. Prior to the American Civil War, much of the Southern United States was covered in vast tracts of primeval hardwood forests that were suitable as habitat for the bird. At that time, the Ivory-billed Woodpecker ranged from east Texas to North Carolina, and from southern Illinois to Florida and Cuba. [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 2006 | url = http://www.birds.cornell.edu/ivory/id_tips/bird_wilderness_html/document_view | title = The search for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker| format = | work = | publisher = Cornell Lab of Ornithology | accessdaymonth = 8 July | accessyear = 2006] After the Civil War, the timber industry deforested millions of acres in the South, leaving only sparse isolated tracts of suitable habitat.

The Ivory-billed Woodpecker feeds mainly on the larvae of wood-boring beetles, but also eats seeds, fruit, and other insects. The bird uses its enormous white bill to hammer, wedge, and peel the bark off dead trees to find the insects. Surprisingly, these birds need about 25 km² (10 square miles) per pair so they can find enough food to feed their young and themselves. Hence, they occur at low densities even in healthy populations. The more common Pileated Woodpecker may compete for food with this species.

Breeding biology

The Ivory-billed Woodpecker is thought to pair for life. Pairs are also known to travel together. These paired birds will mate every year between January and May. Before they have their young, they excavate a nest in a dead or partially dead tree about 8–15 m up from the ground. Usually two to five eggs are laid and incubated for 3 to 5 weeks. Both parents sit on the eggs and are involved in taking care of the chicks, with the male taking sole responsibility at night. They feed the chicks for months. About five weeks after the young are born, they learn to fly. Even after the young are able to fly, the parents will continue feeding them for another two months. The family will eventually split up in late fall or early winter.


Heavy logging activity exacerbated by hunting by collectors devastated the population of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers in the late 1800s. It was generally considered extinct in the 1920s, when a pair turned up in Florida, only to be shot for specimens.

By 1938, an estimated 20 individuals remained in the wild, some 6-8 of which were located in the old-growth forest called the Singer Tract in Louisiana, where logging rights were held by the Chicago Mill and Lumber Company. The company brushed aside pleas from four Southern governors and the National Audubon Society that the tract be publicly purchased and set aside as a reserve, and clearcut the forest. By 1944 the last known Ivory-billed Woodpecker, a female, was gone from the cut-over tract ("Smithsonian" p 98).

Reported sightings: 1940s to 1990s

The Ivory-billed Woodpecker was listed as an endangered species on March 11 1967, though the only evidence of its existence at the time was a possible recording of its call made in East Texas. The last reported sighting of the Cuban subspecies ("C. p. bairdii"), after a long interval, was in 1987; it has not been seen since. The Cuban Exile journalist and author John O'Donnell-Rosales, who was born in the area of Cuba with the last confirmed sightings, reported sightings near the Alabama Coastal Delta in 1994 but these were never properly investigated by State wildlife officials.

Two tantalizing photos were given to LSU museum director George Lowery in 1971 by a source who wished to remain anonymous but who came forward in 2005 as outdoorsman Fielding Lewis.cite web | last = Morris | first = Tim | authorlink = | coauthors = | date = 9 January 2006 | url = http://www.uta.edu/english/tim/lection/060109.html | title = the grail bird | format = | work = lection | publisher = | accessdaymonth = 8 July | accessyear = 2006]

The photos, taken with a cheap Instamatic camera, show what appears to be a male Ivory-billed perched on the trunks of two different trees in the Atchafalaya Basin of Louisiana. The bird's distinctive bill is not visible in either photo and the photos - taken from a distance - are very grainy. Lowery presented the photos at the 1971 annual meeting of the American Ornithologists Union. Skeptics dismissed the photos as frauds, believing that the bird seen is either a misidentifed Pileated, or - seeing that the bird is in roughly the same position in both photos - a mounted specimen.

There were numerous unconfirmed reports of the bird,cite web | last = Keith | first = Stuart | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 1983 | url = http://www.worldtwitch.com/ivory-billed_woodpecker_auklet_gsk.htm | title = The Little-Known Status and Distribution of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker | format = | work = Worldtwitch | publisher = | accessdaymonth = 8 July | accessyear = 2006] cite web | last = Mendenhall | first = Matt | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 2005 | url = http://www.birdersworld.com/brd/default.aspx?c=a&id=471 | title = Reported Ivory-bill Sightings Since 1944 | format = | work = Birders World Magazine | publisher = | accessdaymonth = 8 July | accessyear = 2006] but many ornithologists believed the species had been wiped out completely, and it was assessed as "extinct" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in 1994. This assessment was later altered to "critically endangered" on the grounds that the species could still be extant.cite web | last = Birdlife International | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 2005 | url = http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php?species=3712 | title = IUCN Red List - Species Information - Campephilus principalis | format = | work = | publisher = IUCN | accessdaymonth = 8 July | accessyear = 2006]

2002 Pearl River expedition

In 1999, there was an unconfirmed sighting of a pair of birds in the Pearl River region of southeast Louisiana by a forestry student, David Kulivan, which some experts considered very compelling. In a 2002 expedition in the forests, swamps, and bayous of the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area by LSU, biologists spent 30 days searching for the bird.cite web | last = Mayell | first = Hillary | authorlink = | coauthors = | date = 20 February 2002 | url = http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0220_0220_newwoodpecker.html | title = "Extinct" Woodpecker Still Elusive, But Signs Are Good | format = | work = National Geographic News | publisher = National Geographic| accessdaymonth = 8 July | accessyear = 2006]

In the afternoon of January 27 2002, after ten days, a rapping sound similar to the "double knock" made by the Ivory-billed Woodpecker was heard and recorded. The exact source of the sound was not found because of the swampy terrain, but signs of active woodpeckers were found (i.e., scaled bark and large tree cavities). The expedition was inconclusive, however, as it was determined that the recorded sounds were likely gunshot echoes rather than the distinctive double rap of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker.cite web | last = Fitzpatrick | first = John W. | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = Summer 2002 | url = http://birds.cornell.edu/publications/birdscope/summer2002/ivory_bill_absent.html | title = Ivory-bill Absent from Sounds of the Bayous | format = | work = Birdscope | publisher = Cornell Lab of Ornithology | accessdaymonth = 8 July | accessyear = 2006]

Since 2002, most of the attention in the search for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker has turned away from the Pearl River region, although several unconfirmed sightings were reported there in February 2006, see [http://fishcrow.com/winter06.html video clips] .

2004/2005 Arkansas reports

A group of seventeen authors headed by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology reported the discovery of at least one Ivory-billed Woodpecker, a male, in the Big Woods area of Arkansas in 2004 and 2005, publishing the report in the journal "Science" on April 28 2005 (Fitzpatrick "et al.", 2005).

One of the authors, who was kayaking in the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge, Monroe County, Arkansas, on February 11 2004, reported on a website the sighting of an unusually large red-crested woodpecker. This report led to more intensive searches in the area and in the White River National Wildlife Refuge, undertaken in secrecy for fear of a stampede of bird-watchers, by experienced observers over the next fourteen months. About fifteen sightings occurred during the period (seven of which were considered compelling enough to mention in the scientific article), possibly all of the same bird. One of these more reliable sightings was on February 27, 2004. Bobby Harrison of Huntsville, Alabama and Tim Gallagher of Ithaca, New York, both reported seeing an ivory-billed woodpecker at the same time. The secrecy of the search permitted The Nature Conservancy and Cornell University to quietly buy up Ivory-billed habitat to add to the 120,000 acres (490 km²) of the Big Woods protected by the Conservancy.

A large woodpecker was videotaped on April 25 2004; its size, wing pattern at rest and in flight, and white plumage on its back between the wings were cited as evidence that the woodpecker sighted was an Ivory-billed Woodpecker. That same video included an earlier image of what was suggested to be such a bird perching on a Water Tupelo ("Nyssa aquatica").

The report also notes that drumming consistent with that of Ivory-billed Woodpecker had been heard in the region. It describes the potential for a thinly distributed population in the area, though no birds have been located away from the primary site. A current concern is that many bird enthusiasts will rush to the area in an attempt to catch a glimpse of this rare bird. Ornithologists and veteran birders tell of adult woodpeckers abandoning their nests and young out of alarm at the encroachments of overenthusiastic birdwatchers.

In the fall of 2006, researchers developed and installed an "autonomous observatory" using robotic video cameras with image processing software that detects and records high resolution video of birds in flight inside a high probability zone in the Cache River area. As of August 2007, hundreds of birds have been recorded, including pileated woodpeckers, but not the Ivory-billed woodpecker.


In June 2005, ornithologists at Yale University, the University of Kansas, and Florida Gulf Coast University submitted a scientific article skeptical of the initial reports of rediscovery.

We were very skeptical of the first published reports, and... data were not sufficient to support this startling conclusion.

In August 2005, despite the arguments for the existence of at least one Ivory-billed Woodpecker, questions about the evidence remained. For example, there were no findings of dead Ivory-bills nor were any nests found. Cornell could not say with absolute certainty that the sounds recorded in Arkansas were made by Ivory-bills. [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = Auguest 24, 2005 | url = http://www.birds.cornell.edu/ivory/field/listening/expert/document_view | title = The Search for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker| format = | work = | publisher = Cornell Lab of Ornithology | accessdaymonth = 9 July | accessyear = 2006]

Some skeptics, including Richard Prum, believe the video could have been of a Pileated Woodpecker. [cite web | last = Dalton | first = Rex | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = Auguest 02, 2005 | url = http://www.bioedonline.org/news/news-print.cfm?art=1940 | title = Ivory-billed woodpecker raps on| format = | work = | publisher = BioEd Online | accessdaymonth = 9 July | accessyear = 2006]

An article by Dina Cappiello in the Houston Chronicle published December 18th, 2005 presented Richard Prum's position as follows:

Prum, intrigued by some of the recordings taken in Arkansas' Big Woods, said the evidence thus far is refutable.

On page 13 of the American Birding Association publication "Winging It" (November/December 2005), it was announced:

The ABA Checklist Committee has not changed the status of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker from Code 6 (EXTINCT) to another level that would reflect a small surviving population. The Committee is waiting for unequivocal proof that the species still exists.

In a commentary published in "The Auk" in January 2006, Jerome Jackson expressed his skepticism of the Ivory-bill evidence in no uncertain terms:

Prum, Robbins, Brett Benz, and I remain steadfast in our belief that the bird in the Luneau video is a normal Pileated Woodpecker. Others have independently come to the same conclusion, and publication of independent analyses may be forthcoming [...] For scientists to label sight reports and questionable photographs as 'proof' of such an extraordinary record is delving into 'faith-based' ornithology and doing a disservice to science." (Jackson, 2006a),

sparking off a side debate coming close to personal accusation (Fitzpatrick "et al.", 2006b,c; Jackson, 2006b).

In March 2006, a research team headed by David A. Sibley of Concord, MA published findings in the journal "Science", saying that the videotape was most likely of a Pileated Woodpecker, with mistakes having been made in the interpretation of its posture. They conclude that it lacks certain features of an Ivory-billed Woodpecker, and has others consistent with the Pileated (Sibley "at al.", 2006) The original Cornell research team stood by their original findings in a response article in the same issue of "Science", stating:

Claims that the bird in the Luneau video is a normal pileated woodpecker are based on misrepresentations of a pileated's underwing pattern, interpretation of video artifacts as plumage pattern, and inaccurate models of takeoff and flight behavior. These claims are contradicted by experimental data and fail to explain evidence in the Luneau video of white dorsal plumage, distinctive flight behavior, and a perched woodpecker with white upper parts." (Fitzpatrick "et al.", 2006a)

In May 2006, it was announced that a large search effort led by the Cornell team had been suspended for the season with only a handful of unconfirmed, fleeting sightings to report. Apparently conservation officers plan to allow the public back into areas of the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge that had been restricted upon the initial reported sightings. [ [http://www.fws.gov/cacheriver/news_release_maa.html "Refuge Opens Bayou DeView to Public Use] ," Press Release, Cache River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, May 18, 2006, accessed November 25, 2006.]

2005/2006 Florida reports

In September 2006, new claims that the Ivory-billed Woodpecker may not be extinct were released by a research group consisting of members from Auburn University in Alabama and the University of Windsor in Ontario. Dr. Geoff Hill of Auburn University and Dr. Daniel Mennill of the University of Windsor have revealed a collection of evidence that the birds may still exist in the cypress swamps of the Florida panhandle. Their evidence includes 14 sightings of the birds and 300 recordings of sounds that can be attributed to the Ivory-billed Woodpecker, but also includes tell-tale foraging signs and appropriately sized tree nest cavities (Hill "et al.", 2006). This evidence remains inconclusive as it excludes the photographic or DNA evidence that many experts cite as necessary before the presence of the species can be confirmed. While Dr. Hill and Dr. Mennill are themselves convinced of the bird's existence in Florida, they are quick to acknowledge that they have not yet conclusively proven the species' existence. The research team is currently undertaking a more complete survey of the Choctawhatchee River, in hopes of obtaining photographic evidence of the bird's existence. [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = Hill, G. E., D. J. Mennill, B. W. Rolek, T. L. Hicks, and K. A. Swiston. | coauthors = | year = 2006 | url = http://www.ace-eco.org/vol1/iss3/art2/ | title = Evidence suggesting that Ivory-billed Woodpeckers (Campephilus principalis) exist in Florida. | format = | work = | publisher = The Resilience Alliance | accessdaymonth = 30 November | accessyear = 2006] In April, 2007 the Florida Ornithological Society Records Committee voted unanimously not to accept the 2005-06 reports of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker on the Choctawhatchee River. [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 2007 | url = http://www.fosbirds.org/RecordCommittee/Board%20Report%20Spring%202007.htm | title = FOS BOARD REPORT--Florida Ornithological Society Records Committee, April 2007 | format = | work = | publisher = Florida Ornithological Society | accessdaymonth = 18 March | accessyear = 2008]


In economically struggling east Arkansas, the speculation of a possible return of the Ivory-bill has served as a great source of economic exploitation, with tourist spending up 30%, primarily in and around the city of Brinkley, Arkansas. A woodpecker "festival", a woodpecker hairstyle (a sort of mohawk with red, white, and black dye), and an "Ivory-bill Burger" have been featured locally. The lack of confirmed proof of the bird's existence, and the extremely small chance of actually seeing the bird even if it does exist (especially since the exact locations of the reported sightings are still guarded), have prevented the explosion in tourism some locals had anticipated.

Brinkley hosted "The Call of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Celebration" in February 2006. The celebration included exhibits, birding tours, educational presentations, a vendor market, and more.

Other facts

The Ivory-billed Woodpecker is sometimes referred to as the Grail Bird, the Lord God Bird, or the Good God Bird, all based on the exclamations of awed onlookers. [cite book|last=Hoose|first=Phillip M.|title=The Race to Save the Lord God Bird|publisher=Douglas & McIntyre|year=2004|id=ISBN 0374361738|quote=They gave it names like 'Lord God bird' and 'Good God bird'.]

Other nicknames for the bird are King of the Woodpeckers and Elvis in Feathers. [cite book|last=Steinberg|first=Michael K.|title=Stalking the Ghost Bird: The Elusive Ivory-Billed Woodpecker in Louisiana|publisher=LSU Press|year=2008|id=ISBN 9780807133057|quote=Nicknamed the 'Lord God Bird', the 'Grail Bird', 'King of the Woodpeckers', and 'Elvis in Feathers', the ivory-bill -- thought to be extinct since the 1940s -- fascinates people from all walks of life and has done so for centuries.]

Interviews with residents of Brinkley, Arkansas, heard on National Public Radio following the reported rediscovery were shared with musician Sufjan Stevens, who used the material to write a song titled "The Lord God Bird" ( [http://www.npr.org/programs/asc/archives/asc88/#stevens MP3] ). [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | date = July 6, 2005 | url = http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4721675 | title = Brinkley, Ark., Embraces 'The Lord God Bird'| format = | work = All Things Considered | publisher = National Public Radio | accessdaymonth = 9 July | accessyear = 2006]

Arkansas has made license plates featuring a graphic of an Ivory-billed Woodpecker.

The Ivory-billed Woodpecker was featured in an episode of ABC's "Grey's Anatomy" on November 1, 2007, entitled "Kung-Fu Fighting". The possibility of seeing the rare bird one day inspired a passionate bird watcher to make it through awake open-heart surgery.

In Woody Woodpecker's cartoon episode "Dumb Like a Fox", a museum offers 25 dollars for a "Campephilus principalis", Woody Woodpecker being a specimen of this species himself.



* Audubon, John James LaForest (1835-38): [http://www.abirdshome.com/Audubon/VolIV/00426.html The Ivory-billed Woodpecker] . "In: Birds of America" 4. ISBN 0-8109-2061-1 (H. N. Abrams 1979 edition - the book itself is in the public domain)

*Bevier, Louis (2007): Ivory-billed debate [http://web.mac.com/lrbevier/ivorybilled/Overview.html]

* Farrand, John & Bull, John, The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds, Eastern Region, National Audubon Society (1977)

* Fitzpatrick, John W.; Lammertink, Martjan; Luneau, M. David Jr.; Gallagher, Tim W.; Harrison, Bobby R.; Sparling, Gene M.; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Rohrbaugh, Ronald W.; Swarthout, Elliott C. H.; Wrege, Peter H.; Swarthout, Sara Barker; Dantzker, Marc S.; Charif, Russell A.; Barksdale, Timothy R.; Remsen, J. V. Jr; Simon, Scott D. & Zollner, Douglas (2005): Ivory-billed woodpecker ("Campephilus principalis") persists in continental North America. "Science" 308(5727): 1460-1462. DOI|10.1126/science.1114103 PMID 15860589 [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/1114103v1.pdf preprint PDF fulltext] [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;1114103/DC1 Supporting Online Material]

* Fitzpatrick, John W.; Lammertink, Martjan; Luneau, M. David Jr.; Gallagher, Tim W. & Rosenberg, Kenneth V. (2006a): Response to comment on "Ivory-billed Woodpecker ("Campephilus principalis") persists in continental North America". "Science" 311: 1555. DOI|10.1126/science.1123581 [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/311/5767/1555b.pdf PDF fulltext] [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;311/5767/1555b/DC1 Supporting Online Material] [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;312/5779/1472b Erratum (requires user account)]

* Fitzpatrick, John W.; Lammertink, Martjan; Luneau, M. David Jr.; Gallagher, Tim W.; Harrison, Bobby R.; Sparling, Gene M.; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Rohrbaugh, Ronald W.; Swarthout, Elliott C. H.; Wrege, Peter H.; Swarthout, Sara Barker; Dantzker, Marc S.; Charif, Russell A.; Barksdale, Timothy R.; Remsen, J. V. Jr; Simon, Scott D. & Zollner, Douglas (2006b): Clarifications about current research on the status of Ivory-billed Woodpecker ("Campephilus principalis") in Arkansas. "Auk" 123(2): 587–593. DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2006)123 [587:CACROT] 2.0.CO;2 [http://www.ibwo.org/PublishedAukLetter.pdf PDF fulltext]

* Fitzpatrick, John W.; Lammertink, Martjan; Luneau, M. David Jr.; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Gallagher, Tim W. & Rohrbaugh, Ronald W. (2006c): Response to letter by J. A. Jackson. "Auk" 123(4): 1189. DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2006)123 [1189:RTLBJA] 2.0.CO;2

* Gallagher, Tim W. (2005): "The Grail Bird: Hot on the Trail of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker" Houghton Mifflin, Boston. ISBN 0-618-45693-7

* Hill, Geoffrey E.; Mennill, Daniel J.; Rolek, Brian W.; Hicks, Tyler L. & Swiston, Kyle A. (2006): Evidence Suggesting that Ivory-billed Woodpeckers ("Campephilus principalis") Exist in Florida. "Avian Conservation and Ecology - Écologie et conservation des oiseaux" 1(3): 2 . [http://www.ace-eco.org/vol1/iss3/art2/ HTML fulltext] [http://www.ace-eco.org/vol1/iss3/art2/ACE-ECO-2006-78.pdf PDF fulltext with links to appendices] [http://www.ace-eco.org/vol1/iss3/art2/errata.html Erratum]

* Hoose, Phillip M. (2004): "The Race to Save the Lord God Bird". Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York. ISBN 0-374-36173-8 (children's book) [http://www.nature.org/magazine/fall2004/animals/ HTML excerpt]

* Jackson, Jerome A. (2004): "In Search of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker". Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-58834-132-1

* Jackson, Jerome A. (2006a): Ivory-billed Woodpecker ("Campephilus principalis"): hope, and the interfaces of science, conservation, and politics. "Auk" 123: 1-15. DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2006)123 [0001:IWCPHA] 2.0.CO;2 [http://www.aou.org/persp1231.pdf PDF fulltext]

* Jackson, Jerome A. (2006b): The public perception of science and reported confirmation of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in Arkansas. "Auk" 123(4): 1185–1189. DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2006)123 [1185:TPPOSA] 2.0.CO;2

* National Audubon Society (2006): [http://audubon2.org/webapp/watchlist/viewSpecies.jsp?id=110 Watchlist entry for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker] - Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.

* Sibley, David Allen; Bevier, Louis R.; Patten, Michael A. & Elphick, Chris S. (2006): Comment on "Ivory-billed Woodpecker ("Campephilus principalis") persists in continental North America". "Science" 311: 1555. DOI|10.1126/science.1122778 [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/311/5767/1555a.pdf PDF fulltext] [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;311/5767/1555a/DC1 Supporting Online Material]

* Tanner, James T. (1942). The Ivory-Billed Woodpecker. National Audubon Society, N.Y.

* U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2005). [http://www.fws.gov/southeast/news/2005/r05-029.html Once-thought Extinct Ivory-Billed Woodpecker Rediscovered in Arkansas] . April 28, 2005 Press Release. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.

* Weidensaul, Scott (2005): [http://smithsonianmag.com/issues/2005/august/presence.php Ghost of a chance] . "Smithsonian Magazine". August 2005: 97-102. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.

* Winkler, H.; Christie, D. A. & Nurney, D. (1995): "Woodpeckers: A Guide to the Woodpeckers of the World". Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. ISBN 0-395-72043-5

*Steinberg, Michael K. (2008). "Stalking the Ghost Bird: The Elusive Ivory-Billed Woodpecker in Louisiana". Louisiana State University Press ISBN 978-0-8071-3305-7


External links

* [http://www.ivorybill.org/ Big Woods Conservation Partnership] , formed in response to the bird's rediscovery. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://www.birdingamerica.com/Ivorybill/ivorybilledwoodpecker.htm The Ivory-billed Woodpecker is Still Flying!] from "Birding America", website of Arkansas birder Mary Scott. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* Ivory-billed Woodpecker [http://www.animalbehaviorarchive.org/assetSelect.do?catalogNum=6784&section=summary audio recording] from the Macaulay Library, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology- Date of recording April 9, 1935. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://www.fws.gov/ivorybill/ The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service draft recovery plan]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4493825.stm 'Extinct' woodpecker found alive.] BBC News, version of 2005-APR-28. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/10/13/60minutes/main940587.shtml Finding The 'Lord God Bird'.] CBS News, October 16, 2005. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://birds.cornell.edu/ivory/ The Search for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker.] Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology website with video and sound files. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~remsen/IBW.html The Search for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in the Pearl River area, Louisiana.] Louisiana State University website. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://www.npr.org/programs/re/archivesdate/2002/march/ Search for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker.] NPR Radio Expeditions, with streaming RealAudio and other media. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn8837 Doubts cast on superstar woodpecker's return.] New Scientist, 17 March 2006. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://media.eurekalert.org/scipub/images/Cornell_high.mov Quicktime movie about the rediscovery of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker] - includes footage from the Luneau video. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://www.nature.org/pressroom/features/photos.html Ivory-billed woodpecker photos.] The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://www.nature.org/pressroom/features/maps.html Maps of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker's Habitat.] The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://www.nature.org/ivorybill/ The search for the ivory-billed woodpecker.] The Nature Conservancy feature with information on the Ivory-bill, its habitat, and the core search team. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://www.nature.org/chat/lordgodbird/ A Live Chat with Phillip Hoose, author of "The Race to Save the Lord God Bird".] The Nature Conservancy, Tuesday, May 10, 2005. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://narsal.ecology.uga.edu/ivoryga.htm Ivory-Billed Woodpecker habitat range in Georgia.] University of Georgia Natural Resources Spatial Analysis Laboratory, Georgia GAP Project. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://ca.geocities.com/woodpeck2006/ivory.html Ivory-billed Woodpecker.] Extensive bibliography on "Woodpeckers of North America" website. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://www.yale.edu/opa/newsr/05-08-02-01.all.html Independent Researchers Confirm the Existence of Ivory-billed Woodpecker] Yale University press release, August 2, 2005. Retrieved 2006-OCT-6.
* [http://artofthestates.org/cgi-bin/piece.pl?pid=9 Art of the States: Wilson's Ivory-bill] Musical work by composer Lee Hyla using Ivory-billed woodpecker recordings
* [http://youtube.com/watch?v=SzCQ9ejEpCQ Is it Extinct?] Video showing differences between Ivory-billed and Pileated Woodpecker specimens
* [http://www.c-o-n-e.org/acone/ ACONE: Autonomous Collaborative Observatory for Natural Environments] NSF Project with robotic cameras scanning the skies over the Cache River.

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