Delhi Mass Rapid Transit System

Delhi Mass Rapid Transit System

Infobox Public transit
name = Delhi MRTS
दिल्ली मेट्रो



imagesize = 200px
locale = Delhi, India
transit_type = Rapid transit
began_operation = December 24, 2002
system_length = km to mi|68
lines = 3
stations = 62
ridership = 702,731 cite web | title=Delhi Metro Ridership jumps 25 % | work=ThaIndian News | url= http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/uncategorized/delhi-metro-ridership-jumps-25-percent-revenue-32-percent_10066727.html]
track_gauge = 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) (broad gauge)
operator = [http://www.delhimetrorail.com Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd]

The Delhi Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS), or Delhi Metro ( _hi. दिल्ली मेट्रो), is a rapid transit system in the Indian National Capital Territory of Delhi operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited. The MRTS was built and is operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC). [ [http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/about_us.html Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd.: About Us] ]

The Delhi Metro was opened on December 24, 2002. It became the second underground rapid transit system in India, after the one in operation in Kolkata. Unlike the Kolkata Metro, the Delhi Metro has a combination of elevated, at-grade and underground lines. Trains operating within the network typically travel at speeds below 80 km/h, or 50 mph, and stop about 20 seconds at each MRTS station. The MRTS rolling stock are manufactured by ROTEM, relying on 1676 mm (5 ft 6 in) track gauge (broad gauge). As of 2008, the metro system has a total network length of 68 km, with 62 stations on 3 separate lines (13 underground, 48 elevated and 1 at-grade station).

History

The concept of a metro for Delhi was first formalized in the Delhi Master Plan of 1960"Delhi Metro Development Plan", Vinay Choubey, "ezinearticles.com".] , and the legal framework for the metro was laid out in the "Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act" of 1978.

Actual work towards building the metro, however, only started in March 5, 1995, when the DMRC was established. After the previous problems experienced by the Calcutta Metro, which was badly delayed and 12 times over budget due to "political meddling, technical problems and bureaucratic delays" [http://www.expressindia.com/news/fullstory.php?newsid=84775 Delhi Metro showcases public sector success ] ] , the DMRC was given full powers to hire people, decide on tenders and control funds.

Physical construction work started on October 1, 1998. Aside from one major spat in 2000, where the Ministry of Railways forced the system to use broad gauge despite the DMRC's preference for standard gauge [ [http://www.hinduonnet.com/businessline/2000/08/07/stories/140760l1.htm Delhi Metro Rail to adopt BG system ] ] , construction proceeded smoothly. The first line opened on December 24, 2002 and the entire Phase I of the project was completed in December 2005, on budget and almost three years ahead of schedule, an achievement described as "nothing short of a miracle" by "BusinessWeek". [ [http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/07_12/b4026009.htm Online Extra: The Miracle-Worker of the Delhi Metro ] ]

Mr. E. Sreedharan, the Managing Director of the Metro during the Phase I construction, was declared "Indian of the Year for 2007" by CNN-IBN news channel.

Routes

Phase I of the network comprises 65.11 km of route length with 13.01 km underground called Metro corridor and 52.10 km surface/elevated called Rail Corridor.

Phase II of the network comprises 128 km of route length and 79 stations, and is presently under construction, with the first section opened in June 2008 and a target completion date of 2010. [http://www.hindu.com/2007/09/17/stories/2007091753860400.htm The Hindu : New Delhi News : Delhi Metro confident of meeting deadline ] ] Delhi Metro Masterplan 2021]

Phase III (112 km) and IV (108.5 km) are planned to be completed by 2015 and 2020 respectively, with the network spanning 413.8 km by then, making it larger than London's Underground (408 km) [map of extensions, DMRC [http://www.delhimetrorail.com/commuters/images/metro_map_big.jpg] ] [The Times of India] [Discovery channel : 24 hours with Delhi Metro] As the city expands beyond its city limits [Master Plan of Delhi 2021, Delhi Development Authority] , there will be further extensions of the network in suburbs, because the northern outskirts of Delhi (Narela) and the suburbs beyond it (Kundli, Sonepat) and the south-eastern suburb of Greater Noida are currently left untouched in the Delhi Metro Masterplan 2021. Northern extensions would be provided by extending Yellow line (Line 2) northwards. Also plans have been mooted to construct a new line from Noida Sector-62 to Greater Noida which will intersect Indraprastha - Noida Sector-32 line (blue line) which is already under construction [The Hindu : Front Page : Delhi Metro map to cover Greater Noida]

Current routes

As of June 2008, including opened Phase II extensions:

Total length = 68.2 km [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Metro_zips_into_Dilshad_Garden_today/articleshow/3097762.cms Metro zips into Dilshad Garden today-Delhi-Cities-The Times of India ] ]

Phase II routes

The following extensions for Phase II of the Delhi Metro project have been conceived [http://www.delhimetrorail.com/commuters/images/metro_map_big.jpgMap of extensions] , DMRC] and are either completed or under construction. This phase has completion deadline of 2010. Overall progress of Phase-II has been 16% as of December, 2007 [ [http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/projectupdate/present_status.html Status of the Phase-II] ] [ [http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/projectupdate/phase1_network.html Phase I and Phase-II distances] ] .

Total Length = 127 km

Future Routes (Phases III & IV)

Phase III

This phase has a 2015 deadline. The following lines are tentatively planned:
*1. Mukundpur - Azadpur - Rajouri Garden - AIIMS - Sarai Kale Khan ISBT = 31 km
*2. Central Secretariat - Mandi House - Daryaganj - Welcome - Gokulpuri - Nawada (Ghaziabad) = 18 km
*3. Rithala - Barwala (western extension of Line 1/Red Line) = 6 km
*4. Dilshad Garden - Ghaziabad ISBT (eastern extension of Line 1/Red Line) = 9.5 km
*5. Airport link - Sushant Lok (Gurgaon) = 16.5 km
*6. Mundka - Delhi border - Bahadurgarh (western extension of Line 5) = 11 km
*7. Badarpur - YMCA chowk, Faridabad (southern extension of Line 6) = 14 km
*8. Sushant Lok (Gurgaon) - T-junction of Sectors 47 & 48, Gurgaon (southern extension of Line 2/Yellow Line) = 6.5 km

Total length = 112 kmhttp://www.delhimetrorail.com/commuters/images/metro_map_big.jpg]

Phase IV

This phase has a 2020 deadline. The following lines are tentatively planned:

*1. Sarai Kale Khan ISBT - Anand Vihar - Dilshad Garden - Yamuna Vihar - Sonia Vihar = 22 km
*2. Sarai Kale Khan ISBT - Nehru Place - Palam - Reola Khanpur = 28 km
*3. Mukundpur - GTK By-Pass - Pitampura - Piragarhi - Janakpuri - Palam = 20 km
*4. Barwala - Mundka - Najafgarh - Dwarka = 20 km
*5. Ghazipur - Noida Sector 62 = 7 km
*6. Dwarka Sector 21 - Chhawla = 6 km
*7. Arjonda - Kheri = 5.5 km

Total length = 108.5 km

Total length of all Phases = 413 km

Apart from these lines in Phases I-IV, additional lines are expected to be announced in near future, like northern extension of line 2 (yellow line) to Kundli (Sonepat) via Narela and a new line between Noida and Greater Noida.

Also, Ghaziabad Development Authority is planning to extend Delhi Metro lines further deep into Ghaziabad in 5 phases, like extension of Indraprastha - Anand - Vaishali (Ghaziabad) line from Vaishali to Mehrauli (Ghaziabad). [ [http://in.news.yahoo.com/hindustantimes/20080124/r_t_ht_nl_general/tnl-ghaziabad-on-fast-track-7244580.html Ghaziabad on fast track - Yahoo! India News ] ] [ [http://www.gdaghaziabad.com/metro.php# Ghaziabad Development Authority ] ]

Operations and safety

Each train consists of four coaches and can carry up to 240 seated and 400 standing passengers. The trains operate at intervals of 3 to 4.5 minutes between 6:00 to 23:00. Coaches on all trains are well ventilated and air-conditioned at a temperature of 20~22°C.

All metro stations and trains are monitored constantly by more than 1200 closed-circuit cameras, and specially trained Delhi Metro police are stationed at all stations and trains to deal with law and order issues in the system. Trains are at platform level with a small platform gap to allow easy movement of passengers. The Delhi Metro is also one of the few metros in the world to have plainclothed metro-marshals on trains. Intercoms are provided in each train car for emergency communication between the passengers and the driver.

Eating, drinking, smoking, and chewing of gum are prohibited in the entire system. Automated station announcements are recorded in Hindi and English. Many stations have services such as ATMs, food outlets, cafés and convenience stores.

Delhi Metro customers have the following choices for ticket purchase.

MRTS RFID Tokens and Smart Cards are used to collect fares. Fares range from Rs.6 to Rs.22. [ [http://www.delhimetrorail.com/commuters/metro_fares.html Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. (DMRC) ] ]
* Smart card: These cards are most convenient for the frequent commuters. Valid for one year from the last time of use, these cards are available in denominations of Rs.50 to Rs. 800. A 10% discount is given on all travel made on it cite web | title= DMRC slashed smart card security to INR 50 |work= DMRC Corp.|url= http://www.delhimetrorail.com/commuters/whats_new.html#metrocards] needs to be made to buy a new card.

* RFID Token: These tokens are valid only for a single journey on the day of purchase and the value depends on the destination. Fares are decided based on the destination station using the token table.

* Tourist card: These cards can be used for unlimited travels on the delhi metro over a short period of time. There are two kinds of tourist cards - the 1 day and the 3 day. Cost of 1-day card is Rs. 70 and 3-day card is Rs. 200.

Rolling stock

The Metro rolling stock was initially manufactured by a consortium of companies comprising ROTEM, Mitsubishi Corporation (MC), and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO). The rolling stocks are now being built by Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML). Trains run on broad gauge (1676 mm) and consist of four 3.2 metre wide stainless steel lightweight coaches with vestibules permitting movement throughout their length. The system is extensible up to 8 coaches. As of September 2007, the Delhi Metro operates a total of 64 trains on the three lines.

Other systems

Power Supply

The power supply is at 25 kV AC through overhead catenary.

ignaling System

The underground sections have Centralized Automatic Train Control (CATC) comprising Automatic Train Operation (ATO), Automatic Train Protection (ATP) and Automatic Train Signaling (ATS) systems.

For metro line 3, Siemens Transportation Systems supplied the electronic interlocking Sicas, the operation control system Vicos OC 500 and the automation control system LZB 700 M. [cite web | title=Metro Line 3, New Delhi, India | work=Siemens AG | url=http://references.transportation.siemens.com/refdb/showReference.do?r=1881&div=2&l=en | date= | accessdate=2008-07-06]

Environment and aesthetics

Most of the Metro stations on the Blue Line conduct Rainwater harvesting as an environmental protection measure cite web | title= Metro doing rain water harvesting |work=Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (press)|url=http://www.delhimetrorail.com/commuters/whats_new.html#mdh] . The Delhi Metro has established large optimally-designed catchment areas at many stations.

Each station has been designed with a unique scheme. Local art college students have designed decorative murals at the Metro stations.

Delhi Metro in popular culture

* A book has been published about the Delhi Metro. It was released in 2003.
* Delhi Metro has been featured and has a special mention in 2005 Bollywood film Bewafaa.
*Delhi Metro has been featured in a Discovery Channel documentary "24 Hours with the Delhi Metro". cite web | title= 24 hours with the Delhi Metro |work=Discovery channel collaboration (press)|url=http://www.miditech.tv/content.aspx?page=DelhiMetro]
*Delhi Metro has been extensively shown in the 2008 Subhash Ghai film Black & White, featuring Anil Kapoor.
*The Delhi Metro is also featured in the Toronto Film Festival Production "Amal". cite web | title= Amal |url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0907674/]

ee also

* List of rapid transit systems
* Kolkata Metro
* Kolkata Suburban Railway
* Indian Railways
* Mumbai Metro
* Mumbai Suburban Railway

References

External links

* [http://www.delhimetrorail.com Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. (DMRC)]
* [http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=133216 Indian Express - color coding on Delhi Metro]
* [http://www.indianexpress.com/ie20020123/ed3.html Let horse sense prevail] - Why we should choose Standard Gauge over Broad for the Delhi Metro
* [http://www.tribuneindia.com/2004/20040129/science.htm#1 Trenchless Digging] - Article in the Tribune (Chandigarh) by D. S. Dhillon. Dated Thursday, January 29, 2004
* [http://www.indiarail.info/ Indian Railways Information Portal]


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