- Paper model
Paper models, also called card models or papercraft, are models constructed mainly from sheets of heavy
paperor card stock as a hobby. It may be considered a broad category that contains origami, and card modelling, with origami being a paper model made from folding paper (without using glue), and card modelling as the making of scale models from sheets of card on which the parts were printed, usually in full colour, for one to cut out, fold, score and glue together. They appear to be generally more popular in Europeand Japanthan in the United States.
Printed card models became common in
magazines in the early part of the 20th century. The popularity of card modeling boomed during World War II, when paper was one of the few items whose use and production was not heavily regulated. Micromodels, designed and published in Englandfrom 1941 were very popular with 100 different models of architecture, ships, aircraft... But as plastic modelkits became more commonly available, interest in paper decreased. The availability of numerous models on the Internetat little or no cost, which can then be downloaded and printed on inexpensive inkjet printers has caused its popularity again to increase worldwide. Home printing also allows models to be scaled up or down easily (for example, in order to make two models from different authors, in different scales, match each other in size), although the paper weight might need to be adjusted in the same ratio.
Kits can also be purchased inexpensively from dedicated publishers (mostly based in
Eastern Europe, examples include [http://www.halinski.com.pl/ Halinski] and [http://www.malymodelarz.frontsite.eu/ Maly] ), some of which dates back to 1950. Experienced hobbyists often scratchbuild, either by drawing their models by hand, or, increasingly, with software such as Adobe Illustrator. CAD and CG software such as Rhino 3D, 3DS Max, and specialist softwares like PePaKuRa Designer from Tama softwareand Waybe Designer also exists to convert 3D computer models into two-dimensional printable models that can then be cut out and assembled. Because of this, there is no practical limit to the variety of models available. Ships, automobiles, aircraft, spacecraft(both real and fictional), buildings, and animals are common. In recent years Japanese subjects such as Gundams and animefigures also starts to make an appearance in papercraft.
Since papercraft patterns can be easily printed and assembled, the
Internethas become a popular means of exchanging them. Commercial corporations have recently begun using downloadable papercraft for their marketing (examples are [http://www.yamaha-motor.co.jp/global/entertainment/papercraft/index.html Yamaha] and [http://cp.c-ij.com/english/3D-papercraft/ Canon] )
Sometimes the models can be punched out, but more frequently the printed parts must be cut out with a hobby knife (or a pair of scissors). Edges may be scored to aid folding. The parts are usually glued together with
polyvinyl acetateglue ("white glue" "PVA"). One of the features of this kind of modeling is that the models are usually pre-painted, and there is no need to paint the model after completion. Although some may enhance the as-built model by painting and detailing. Due to the nature of the paper medium, the model may be sealed with varnish to be able to last longer.
* [http://www.papercraft.cl/eng/ Papercraft.cl ] Paper Model Search Engine - Papercraft
* [http://personal.lig.bellsouth.net/n/8/n8hfi/card-faq/ Card modeling FAQ]
* [http://www.cardmodeling.org Card Model Database] - Card Model Database with approximately 11,000 models
* [http://cp.c-ij.com/english/index.html Paper Models freely downloadable from the Canon site.] They are in pdf format for A4 or 8x11 sheets. There is no obvious promotional purpose as any make of colour printer might be used.
* [http://www.yamaha-motor.co.jp/global/entertainment/papercraft/index.html Paper models of motorcycles and animals] Again a commercial site but the free downloads reflect a Japanese art form with potential models to the highest standard.
* [http://www.bertsimons.nl/zenphoto/paperworks/ Papercraft models of real people] A personal site showing realistic papercraft portraits.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.