name = Tityridae

image_caption = Chestnut-crowned Becard
image_width = 210px
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
ordo = Passeriformes
subordo = Tyranni
familia = Tityridae
familia_authority = (Vieillot, 1816)
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision = "7, see text"

Tityridae is family of suboscine passerine birds found in forest and woodland in the Neotropics. The approximately 30 species in this family were formerly spread over the families Tyrannidae, Pipridae and Cotingidae ("see Taxonomy"). As yet, no widely accepted common name exists for the family, although Tityras and allies and Tityras, Mourners and allies have been used. They are small to medium-sized birds. Most have relatively short tails and large heads.


Traditionally, the genus "Laniocera" was included in the family Tyrannidae, the genera "Iodopleura", "Laniisoma", "Tityra", "Pachyramphus" and "Xenopsaris" were included in the family Cotingidae, and "Schiffornis" was included in the family Pipridae. Three of these genera, "Tityra", "Pachyramphus" and "Xenopsaris", were later moved to Tyrannidae based on the morphology of their skull and syrinx. [ Ames, P. L. 1971. "The morphology of the syrinx in passerine birds." Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin, v. 37.]

The existence of the family Tityridae (although simply treated as a clade) was first proposed in 1989 based on the morphology of several syringeal and skeletal features. [Prum, R. O., & W. E. Lanyon. 1989. "Monophyly and phylogeny of the Schiffornis group (Tyrannoidea)." Condor 91: 444-461.] The existence of this family has later been confirmed by multiple studies involving both mtDNA and nDNA.Chesser, R. T. 2004. "Molecular systematics of New World suboscine birds." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 11-24.] Johansson, U. S., M. Irestedt, T. J. Parsons, & P. G. P. Ericson. 2002. "Basal phylogeny of the Tyrannoidea based on comparisons of cytochrome b and exons of nuclear c-myc and RAG-1 genes." Auk 119: 984-995.] Prum, R. O., N. H. Rice, J. A. Mobley, and W. W. Dimmick. 2000. "A preliminary phylogenetic hypothesis for the cotingas (Cotingidae) based on mitochondrial DNA." Auk 117: 236-241.] Evidence suggests there are two basal clades within this family, the first including the genera "Schiffornis", "Laniocera", and "Laniisoma" (with strong bootstrap support), and the second include "Iodopleura", "Tityra", "Xenopsaris", and "Pachyramphus" (with poor bootstrap support).Barber, B., & N. Rice. 2007. "Systematics and evolution in the Tityrinae (Passeriformes: Tyrannoidea)." Auk 124(4): 1317-1329.]


In addition to the species listed below, the Swallow-tailed Cotinga and Kinglet Calyptura may belong in this family, but hard scientific data is lacking, and they are therefore considered "incertae sedis" by recent authorities such as SACC. [Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, & K. J. Zimmer. 2007. [http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html "A classification of the bird species of South America."] American Ornithologists' Union. Accessed 12 December 2007.] Recent evidence suggests that the Sharpbill belong in this family,Ericson, P. G. P., D. Zuccon, U. S. Johansson, H. Alvarenga, and R. O. Prum. 2006. "Higher-level phylogeny and morphological evolution of tyrant flycatchers, cotingas, manakins, and their allies (Aves: Tyrannida)." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:471-483.] Ohlson, J. I., R. O. Prum, and P. G. P. Ericson. 2007. "A molecular phylogeny of the cotingas (Aves: Cotingidae)." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42:25-37.] but, as recommended by SACC, it is retained as "incertae sedis" until this placement is confirmed by additional data.

* genus "Tityra".
** Black-crowned Tityra ("Tityra inquisitor").
** Black-tailed Tityra ("Tityra cayana").
** Masked Tityra ("Tityra semifasciata").
** White-tailed Tityra ("Tityra leucura") - validity questionable.

* genus "Schiffornis".
** Greater Schiffornis ("Schiffornis major"); alternatively Várzea Mourner.
** Thrush-like Schiffornis ("Schiffornis turdina"); alternatively Thrush-like Mourner - probably includes several species-level taxa. [Nyári, Á. S. 2007. "Phylogeographic patterns, molecular and vocal differentiation, and species limits in "Schiffornis turdina" (Aves)." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 154–164]
** Greenish Schiffornis ("Schiffornis virescens"); alternatively Greenish Mourner.

* genus "Laniocera".
** Speckled Mourner ("Laniocera rufescens").
** Cinereous Mourner ("Laniocera hypopyrra").

* genus "Iodopleura".
** White-browed Purpletuft ("Iodopleura isabellae").
** Dusky Purpletuft ("Iodopleura fusca").
** Buff-throated Purpletuft ("Iodopleura pipra").

* genus "Laniisoma".
** Elegant Mourner ("Laniisoma elegans"); alternatively Shrike-like Cotinga/Laniisoma.
*** Brazilian Laniisoma ("Laniisoma (elegans) elegans").
*** Andean Laniisoma ("Laniisoma (elegans) buckleyi").

* genus "Xenopsaris"; possibly better merged with "Pachyramphus".
** White-naped Xenopsaris ("Xenopsaris albinucha") .

* genus "Pachyramphus".
** Green-backed Becard ("Pachyramphus viridis).
*** Yellow-cheeked Becard ("Pachyramphus (viridis) xanthogenys).
** Barred Becard ("Pachyramphus versicolor).
** Slaty Becard ("Pachyramphus spodiurus).
** Cinereous Becard ("Pachyramphus rufus).
** Cinnamon Becard ("Pachyramphus cinnamomeus")
** Chestnut-crowned Becard ("Pachyramphus castaneus").
** White-winged Becard ("Pachyramphus polychopterus").
** Black-and-white Becard ("Pachyramphus albogriseus").
** Grey-collared Becard ("Pachyramphus major").
** Black-capped Becard ("Pachyramphus marginatus").
** Glossy-backed Becard ("Pachyramphus surinamus").
** Rose-throated Becard ("Pachyramphus aglaiae").
** Jamaican Becard ("Pachyramphus niger").
** One-colored Becard ("Pachyramphus homochrous").
** Pink-throated Becard ("Pachyramphus minor").
** Crested Becard ("Pachyramphus validus").


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