- Giordano Bruno
region = Western Philosophy
color = #B0C4DE
name = Giordano Bruno
birth = 1548,
Nola, Campania, Spanish Kingdom of Naples
February 17, 1600(aged age|1548|0|0|1600|2|17), Rome
main_interests = Philosophy, Cosmology, and Memory
Nicolaus Copernicus, Nicolaus Cusanus, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, Marsilo Ficino, Ramon Llull, Pico della Mirandola, Giulio Camillo
Nicola Antonio Stigliola, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Baruch Spinoza, James Joyce, Umberto Eco, Giorgio Agamben, Hans Blumenberg
Giordano Bruno (1548 –
February 17, 1600) was an Italian philosopherbest-known as an early proponent of heliocentrismand the infinity of the universe. In addition to his cosmological writings, he also wrote extensive works on the art of memory, a loosely-organized group of mnemonictechniques and principles. He is often considered an early martyr for modern scientific ideas, in part because he was burned at the stake as a heretic by the Roman Inquisition, though his actual heresy was his beliefs about God, not science.
More recent assessments, beginning with the pioneering work of
Frances Yates, suggest that Bruno was deeply influenced by magical views of the universe inherited from Arab astrological magic, Neoplatonismand Renaissance Hermeticism. [The primary work on the relationship between Bruno and Hermeticism is Frances Yates, "Giordano Bruno and The Hermetic Tradition", 1964; for an alternative assessment, placing more emphasis on the Kabbalah, and less on Hermeticism, see Karen Silvia De Leon-Jones, "Giordano Bruno and the Kabbalah", Yale, 1997; for a return to emphasis on Bruno's role in the development of Science, and criticism of Yates' emphasis on magical and Hermetic themes, see Hillary Gatti, "Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science", Cornell, 1999] Other recent studies of Bruno have focused on his qualitative approach to mathematics and his application of the spatial paradigms of geometry to language. [Alessandro G. Farinella and Carole Preston, "Giordano Bruno: Neoplatonism and the Wheel of Memory in the 'De Umbris Idearum'", in "Renaissance Quarterly", Vol. 55, No. 2, (Summer, 2002), pp. 596-624; Arielle Saiber, "Giordano Bruno and the Geometry of Language", Ashgate, 2005]
Early years, 1548-1576
Filippo Bruno was born in
Nola(in Campania, then part of the Kingdom of Naples) in 1548, the son of Giovanni Bruno, a soldier, and Fraulissa Savolino. As a youth, he was sent to Naplesfor education. He was tutored privately at the Augustinian monastery there, and attended public lectures at the Studium Generale. [Dorothea Waley Singer, "Giordano Bruno, His Life and Thought", New York, 1950] At the age of 17, he entered the Dominican Orderat the famous monastery of San Domenico Maggiorein Naples, taking the name Giordano, after, Giordano Crispo, his metaphysics tutor. He continued his studies there, completing his novitiate, and became an ordained priestin 1572 at age 24. During his time in Naples he became known for his skill with the art of memoryand on one occasion traveled to Rome to demonstrate his mnemonic system before Pope Pius Vand Cardinal Rebiba. Bruno in later years claimed that the Pope accepted his dedication to him of the lost work "On The Ark of Noah" at this time. [This is recorded in the diary of one Guillaume Cotin, librarian of the Abbey of St. Victor, who recorded recollections of a number of personal conversations he had with Bruno. Bruno also mentions this dedication in the Dedicatory Epistle of "The Cabala of Pegasus" ("Cabala del Cavallo Pegaseo", 1585)]
Such an honor suggests that Bruno was distinguished for outstanding ability. But Bruno's taste for free thinking and forbidden books soon caused him difficulties, and given the controversy he caused in later life it is surprising that he was able to remain within the monastic system for eleven years. In his testimony to Venetian inquisitors during his trial, many years later, he indicates that proceedings were twice taken against him for having cast away images of the saints, retaining only a crucifix, and for having made controversial reading recommendations to a novice. Such behavior could perhaps be overlooked, but Bruno's situation became much more serious when he was reported to have defended the Arian heresy, and when a copy of the banned writings of
Erasmus, annotated by him, was discovered hidden in the convent privy. When he learned that an indictment was being prepared against him in Naples he fled, shedding his monastic habit, as least for a time. [Gosselin has argued that Bruno kept his tonsure after fleeing Naples, and suggests that Bruno's report that he returned to Dominican garb in Padua suggests that he kept his tonsure at least until his arrival in Geneva in 1579. He also suggests it is likely that Bruno kept the tonsure even after this point. According to this view the tonsure would show a continued and deep religious attachment contrary to the way in which Bruno has been portrayed as a martyr for modern science. Instead, Gosselin argues Bruno should be understood in the context of reformist Catholic dissenters. Edward A. Gosselin, "A Dominican Head in Layman's Garb? A Correction to the Scientific Iconography of GiordanoBruno", in "The Sixteenth Century Journal", Vol. 27, No. 3 (Autumn, 1996), pp. 673-678]
First years of wandering, 1576-1583
Bruno first went to the Genoese port of
Noli, then to Savona, Turinand finally to Venice, where he published his lost work "On The Signs of the Times" with the permission (so he claimed at his trial) of the Dominican Remigio Nannini Fiorentino. From Venice he went to Paduawhere he met fellow Dominicans who convinced him to wear his priest's habit again. From Padua he went to Bergamoand then across the Alps to Chambéryand Lyon. His movements after this time are obscure.
In 1579 he arrived in
Geneva. It seems that while there he briefly joined the Calvinists. [Bruno's name appears in a list, compiled one hundred years later, of Italian refugees who had belonged to the Protestant church of Geneva.] However, during his Venetian trial he told inquisitors that while in Geneva he told the Marchese de Vico of Naples, who was notable for helping Italian refugees in Geneva, "I did not intend to adopt the religion of the city. I desired to stay there only that I might live at liberty and in security." Bruno had a pair of breeches made for himself and the Marchese and others apparently made Bruno a gift of a sword, hat, cape and other necessities for dressing himself. There can be no question that in such clothing Bruno could no longer be considered a priest. Things apparently went well for Bruno for a time, as he entered his name in the Rector's Book of the University of Geneva in May of 1579. But in keeping with his personality he could not keep his mouth shut. In August he published an attack on the work of Antoine de la Faye, a distinguished professor. He and the printer were promptly arrested. Instead of simply apologizing Bruno insisted on continuing to defend his publication. He was refused the right to take sacrament. Though this was eventually reversed, Geneva was no longer safe for him.
He left for France, arriving first in
Lyon, and thereafter settling for a time (1580-1581) in Toulouse, where he took his doctorate in theology and was elected by students to lecture in philosophy. It seems he also attempted at this time to return to the Catholic fold, but was denied absolution by the Jesuit priest he approached. When religious strife broke out in the summer of 1581 he relocated to Paris. There he held a cycle of thirty lectures on theological topics. At this time, he also began to gain fame for his prodigious memory. Bruno's feats of memory were based, at least in part, on his elaborate system of mnemonics, but some of his contemporaries found it easier to attribute them to magical powers. His talents attracted the benevolent attention of the king Henry III, who supported a conciliatory, middle-of-the-road cultural policy between Catholic and Protestant extremism.
Parishe enjoyed the protection of his powerful French patrons. During this period, he published several works on mnemonics, including "De umbris idearum" ("On The Shadows of Ideas", 1582), "Ars Memoriae" ("The Art of Memory", 1582), and "Cantus Circaeus" ("Circe's Song", 1582). All of these were based on his mnemonic models of organised knowledge and experience, opposed to the simplistic logic-based mnemonic techniques of Petrus Ramusthen becoming popular. Bruno also published a comedy summarizing some of his philosophical positions, titled "Il Candelaio" ("The Torchbearer", 1582). "On The Shadows of Ideas" was dedicated to King Henry III. In the 16th century dedications were, as a rule, approved beforehand, and hence were a way of placing a work under the protection of an individual. Given that Bruno dedicated various works to the likes of King Henry III, Philip Sydney, Michel de Castelnau (French Ambassador to England), and possibly Pope Pius V, it is apparent that this wanderer had experienced a meteoric rise and moved in powerful circles.
In April 1583, Bruno went to
Englandwith letters of recommendation from Henry III, as a guest of the French ambassador, Michel de Castelnau. There he became acquainted with the poet Philip Sidney(to whom he dedicated two books) and other members of the Hermetic circle around John Dee, though there is no evidence that Bruno ever met Dee himself. He also lectured at Oxford, and unsuccessfully sought a teaching position there. His views spurred controversy, notably with John Underhill, Rector of Lincoln College and from 1589 bishop of Oxford, and George Abbot, who later became Archbishop of Canterbury, who poked fun at Bruno for supporting “the opinion of Copernicus that the earth did go round, and the heavens did stand still; whereas in truth it was his own head which rather did run round, and his brains did not stand still.” [Andrew D. Weiner, "Expelling the Beast: Bruno's Adventures in England", in "Modern Philology", Vol. 78, No. 1 (Aug., 1980), pp. 1-13] and who reports accusations that Bruno plagiarized Ficino's work. Still, the English period was a fruitful one. During that time Bruno completed and published some of his most important works, the "Italian Dialogues," including the cosmological tracts "La Cena de le Ceneri" ("The Ash Wednesday Supper", 1584), "De la Causa, Principio et Uno" ("On Cause, Principle and Unity", 1584), "De l'Infinito Universo et Mondi" ("On the Infinite Universe and Worlds", 1584) as well as "Lo Spaccio de la Bestia Trionfante" ("The Expulsion of the Triumphant Beast", 1584) and "De gl' Heroici Furori" ("On Heroic Frenzies", 1585). Some of the works that Bruno published in London, notably the "The Ash Wednesday Supper", appear to have given offense. It was not the first time, nor was it to be the last, that Bruno's controversial views coupled with his abrasive sarcasm lost him the support of his friends.
Last years of wandering, 1585-1592
In October 1585, after the French embassy in London was attacked by a mob, he returned to
Pariswith Castelnau, finding a tense political situation. Moreover, his 120 theses against Aristotelian natural science and his pamphlets against the mathematician Fabrizio Mordentesoon put him in ill favor. In 1586, following a violent quarrel about Mordente's invention, "the differential compass," he left Francefor Germany.
ans, continuing the pattern of Bruno's gaining favor from lay authorities before falling foul of the ecclesiastics of whatever hue.
During this period he produced several Latin works, dictated to his friend and secretary Girolamo Besler, including "De Magia" ("On Magic"), "Theses De Magia" ("Theses On Magic") and "De Vinculis In Genere" ("A General Account of Bonding"). All these were apparently transcribed or recorded by Besler (or Bisler) between 1589 and 1590. [Giordano Bruno, "Cause Principle and Unity, and Essays on Magic", Edited by Richard J. Blackwell and Robert de Lucca, Cambridge, 1998, xxxvi] He also published "De Imaginum, Signorum, Et Idearum Compositione" ("On The Composition of Signs, Images and Ideas", 1591).
The year 1591 found him in
Frankfurt. Apparently, during the Frankfurt Book Fair, he received an invitation to Venicefrom the patrician Giovanni Mocenigo, who wished to be instructed in the art of memory, and also heard of a vacant chair in mathematics at the University of Padua. Apparently believing that the Inquisitionmight have lost some of its impetus, he returned to Italy.
He went first to
Padua, where he taught briefly, and applied unsuccessfully for the chair of mathematics, which was assigned instead to Galileo Galileione year later. Bruno accepted Mocenigo's invitation and moved to Venice in March 1592. For about two months he functioned as an in-house tutor to Mocenigo. When Bruno announced his plan to leave Venice to his host, the latter, who was unhappy with the teachings he had received and had apparently developed a personal rancour towards Bruno, denounced him to the Venetian Inquisition, which had Bruno arrested on May 22, 1592. Among the numerous charges of blasphemyand heresybrought against him in Venice, based on Mocenigo's denunciation, was his belief in the plurality of worlds, as well as accusations of personal misconduct. Bruno defended himself skillfully, stressing the philosophical character of some of his positions, denying others and admitting that he had had doubts on some matters of dogma. The Roman Inquisition, however, asked for his transferral to Rome. After several months and some quibbling the Venetian authorities reluctantly consented and Bruno was sent to Romein February 1593.
Imprisonment, trial and execution, 1592-1600
In Rome he was imprisoned for seven years during his lengthy trial, lastly in the
Tower of Nona. Some important documents about the trial are lost, but others have been preserved, among them a summary of the proceedings that was rediscovered in 1940. ["II Sommario del Processo di Giordano Bruno, con appendice di Documenti sull'eresia e l'inquisizione a Modena nel secolo XVI", edited by Angelo Mercati, in "Studi e Testi", vol.101] The numerous charges against Bruno, based on some of his books as well as on witness accounts, included blasphemy, immoral conduct, and heresy in matters of dogmatic theology, and involved some of the basic doctrines of his philosophy and cosmology. Luigi Firpo lists them as follows: [Luigi Firpo, Il processo di Giordano Bruno, 1993]
*Holding opinions contrary to the
CatholicFaith and speaking against it and its ministers.
*Holding erroneous opinions about the
Trinity, about Christ's divinity and Incarnation.
*Holding erroneous opinions about
*Holding erroneous opinions about
*Claiming the existence of a plurality of worlds and their eternity.
metempsychosisand in the transmigrationof the human soul into brutes.
*Dealing in magics and divination.
*Denying the Virginity of Mary.
In these grim circumstances Bruno continued his Venetian defensive strategy, which consisted in bowing to the Church's dogmatic teachings, while trying to preserve the basis of his philosophy. In particular Bruno held firm to his belief in the plurality of worlds, although he was admonished to abandon it. His trial was overseen by the inquisitor Cardinal Bellarmine, who demanded a full recantation, which Bruno eventually refused. Instead he appealed in vain to
Pope Clement VIII, hoping to save his life through a partial recantation. The Pope expressed himself in favor of a guilty verdict. Consequently, Bruno was declared a heretic, and told he would be handed over to secular authorities. According to the correspondence of one Gaspar Schopp of Breslau, he is said to have made threatening gesture towards his judges and to have replied: "Perhaps you, my judges, pronounce this sentence against me with greater fear than I receive it." [This is discussed in Dorothea Waley Singer, "Giordano Bruno, His Life and Thought", New York, 1950, Ch. 7, "A gloating account of the whole ritual is given in a letter written on the very day by a youth named Gaspar Schopp of Breslau, a recent convert to Catholicism to whom Pope Clement VIII had shown great favour, creating him Knight of St. Peter and Count of the Sacred Palace. Schopp was addressing Conrad Rittershausen. He recounts that because of his heresy Bruno had been publicly burned that day in the Square of Flowers in front of the Theatre of Pompey. He makes merry over the belief of the Italians that every heretic is a Lutheran. It is evident that he had been present at the interrogations, for he relates in detail the life of Bruno and the works and doctrines for which he had been arraigned, and he gives a vivid account of Bruno's final appearance before his judges on 8th February. To Schopp we owe the knowledge of Bruno's bearing under judgement. When the verdict had been declared, records Schopp, Bruno with a threatening gesture addressed his judges: "Perchance you who pronounce my sentence are in greater fear than I who receive it." Thus he was dismissed to the prison, gloats the convert, "and was given eight days to recant, but in vain. So today he was led to the funeral pyre. When the image of our Saviour was shown to him before his death he angrily rejected it with averted face. Thus my dear Rittershausen is it our custom to proceed against such men or rather indeed such monsters."] He was quickly turned over to the secular authorities and, on February 17, 1600 in the Campo de' Fiori, a central Roman market square, "his tongue imprisoned because of his wicked words" he was burned at the stake. ["II Sommario del Processo di Giordano Bruno, con appendice di Documenti sull'eresia e l'inquisizione a Modena nel secolo XVI", edited by Angelo Mercati, in "Studi e Testi", vol.101; the precise terminology for the tool used to silence Bruno before burning is recorded as "una morsa di legno", "a vise of wood", which will hopefully be noted and put to rest the sensationalistic claims (as though being burned alive were not sensationalistic enough) that his tongue was pierced with an iron spike.] When the fire had died out his ashes were dumped into the Tiber river. All Bruno's works were placed on the " Index Librorum Prohibitorum" in 1603.
Four hundred years after his execution, official expression of "profound sorrow" and acknowledgement of error at Bruno's condemnation to death was made, during the papacy of John Paul IIFact|date=September 2008. Attempts were made by a group of professors in the Catholic Theological Faculty at Naples, led by the Nolan
Domenico Sorrentino, to obtain a full rehabilitation from the Catholic authorities.
Retrospective views of Bruno
Some authors have characterized Bruno as a "martyr of
science", making a parallel to the Galileo affair. They assert that, even though Bruno's theological beliefs were an important factor in his heresy trial, his Copernicanism and cosmological beliefs also played a significant role for the outcome. Others oppose such views, and claim this alleged connection to be exaggerated, or outright false.
According to the "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy", "in 1600 there was no official Catholic position on the Copernican system, and it was certainly not a heresy. When […] Bruno [...] was burned at the stake as a heretic, it had nothing to do with his writings in support of Copernican cosmology." [Sheila Rabin, [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/copernicus/ Nicolaus Copernicus] in the "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy" (online, accessed
19 November 2005).]
Similarly, the "Catholic Encyclopedia" (1908) asserts that "Bruno was not condemned for his defence of the Copernican system of astronomy, nor for his doctrine of the plurality of inhabited worlds, but for his theological errors, among which were the following: that Christ was not God but merely an unusually skilful magician, that the Holy Ghost is the soul of the world, that the Devil will be saved, etc." [Turner, William. "Giordano Bruno.” "Catholic Encyclopedia". 1908. Online, accessed
2 Jan 2007, at http://newadvent.org/cathen/03016a.htm.]
However, the webpage of the "Vatican Secret Archives" discussing the document containing a summary of legal proceedings against him in Rome, suggests a different perspective: "In the same rooms where Giordano Bruno was questioned, for the same important reasons of the relationship between science and faith, at the dawning of the new astronomy and at the decline of Aristotle’s philosophy, sixteen years later, Cardinal Bellarmino, who then contested Bruno’s heretical theses, summoned Galileo Galilei, who also faced a famous inquisitorial trial, which, luckily for him, ended with a simple abjuration." [ [http://asv.vatican.va/en/doc/1597.htm Vatican Secret Archives] accessed 3 November 2006.]
In 1885 an international committee for a monument to Bruno on the site of his execution was formed, ["Site of Bruno's execution:" coord|41|53|44|N|12|28|20|E|type:landmark_region:IT.] including
Victor Hugo, Herbert Spencer, Ernest Renan, Ernst Haeckel, Henrik Ibsenand Ferdinand Gregorovius. [ [http://nsula.edu/campaniafelix/CandelaioNaples.html Alan Powers, Bristol Community College, Campania Felix: Giordano Bruno’s Candelaio and Naples] accessed 27 May 2007] [ [http://wdr5.de/sendungen/lebenszeichen/manuskript/060507ms-findeisen.pdf Hans-Volkmar Findeisen: „Gegenpapst und Designer des Darwinismus“ – Wer kennt heute eigentlich noch Ernst Haeckel?] (in German) accessed 27 May 2007] The monument was sharply opposed by the clerical party, but was finally erected by the RomeMunicipality and inaugurated in 1889.
A statue of Bruno designed by Alexander Polzin depecting Bruno's death at the stake was placed in
Potsdamer Platzstation in Berlinon March 2, 2008. [cite journal | title=Think About It |last = Bhattacharjee | first = Yudhiijit| year = 2008| month =3 |day=13 | journal =Science | volume = 319| pages = 1467]
Bruno's cosmology in context
Cosmology before Bruno
Aristotleand Plato, the universe was a sphere. Its ultimate limit was the "primum mobile", whose diurnal rotation was conferred upon it by a transcendental God, not part of the universe, a motionless prime mover and first cause. The fixed stars were part of this celestial sphere, all at the same fixed distance from the immobile earth at the center of the sphere. Ptolemyhad numbered these at 1,022, grouped into 48 constellations. The planets were each fixed to a transparent sphere.
In the first half of the 15th century
Nicolaus Cusanusreissued the ideas formulated in Antiquity by Democritusand Lucretiusand dropped the Aristotelean cosmos. He envisioned an infinite universe, whose center was everywhere and circumference nowhere, with countless rotating stars, the Earthbeing one of them, of equal importance. He also considered neither the rotation orbits were circular, nor the movement was uniform.
In the second half of the 16th century, the theories of
Copernicusbegan diffusing through Europe. Copernicus conserved the idea of planets fixed to solid spheres, but considered the apparent motion of the stars to be an illusion caused by the rotation of the Earth on its axis; he also preserved the notion of an immobile center, but it was the Sunrather than the Earth. Copernicus also argued the Earth was a planet orbiting the Sun once every year. However he maintained the Ptolemaic hypothesis that the orbits of the planets were composed of perfect circles— deferentsand epicycles—and that the stars were fixed on a stationary outer sphere.
Few astronomers of Bruno's time accepted Copernicus's heliocentric model. Among those who did were the Germans
Michael Maestlin(1550-1631), Christoph Rothmann, Johannes Kepler(1571-1630), the Englishman Thomas Digges, author of "A Perfit Description of the Caelestial Orbes," and the Italian Galileo Galilei(1564-1642).
Bruno believed, as is now universally accepted, that the Earth revolves and that the apparent diurnal rotation of the heavens is an illusion caused by the rotation of the Earth around its axis. He also saw no reason to believe that the stellar region was finite, or that all stars were equidistant from a single
center of the universe.
In 1584, Bruno published two important philosophical dialogues, in which he argued against the planetary spheres. (Two years later, Rothmann did the same in 1586, as did
Tycho Brahein 1587.) Bruno's infinite universe was filled with a substance -- a "pure air," aether, or "spiritus" -- that offered no resistance to the heavenly bodies which, in Bruno's view, rather than being fixed, moved under their own impetus. Most dramatically, he completely abandoned the idea of a hierarchical universe. The Earth was just one more heavenly body, as was the Sun. God had no particular relation to one part of the infinite universe more than any other. God, according to Bruno, was as present on Earth as in the Heavens, an immanent God, the One subsuming in itself the multiplicity of existence, rather than a remote heavenly deity.
Bruno also affirmed that the universe was , made up everywhere of the
four elements(water, earth, fire, and air), rather than having the stars be composed of a separate quintessence. Essentially, the same physical laws would operate everywhere, although the use of that term is anachronistic. Spaceand timewere both conceived as infinite. There was no room in his stable and permanent universe for the Christian notions of divine creation and Last Judgement.
Under this model, the Sun was simply one more star, and the stars all
suns, each with its own planets. Bruno saw a solar systemof a sun/star with planets as the fundamental unit of the universe. According to Bruno, infinite God necessarily created an infinite universe, formed of an infinite number of solar systems, separated by vast regions full of Aether, because empty space could not exist. (Bruno did not arrive at the concept of a galaxy.) Comets were part of a "synodus ex mundis" of stars, and not -- as other authors sustained at the time -- ephemeral creations, divine instruments, or heavenly messengers. Each comet was a world, a permanent celestial body, formed of the four elements.
Bruno's cosmology is marked by infinitude, homogeneity, and
isotropy, with planetary systems distributed evenly throughout. Matterfollows an active animistic principle: it is intelligent and discontinuous in structure, made up of discrete atoms. This animism (and a corresponding disdain for mathematics as a means to understanding) is the most dramatic respect in which Bruno's cosmology differs from what today passes for a common-sense picture of the universe.
During the later 16th century, and throughout the 17th century, Bruno's ideas were held up for ridicule, debate, or inspiration.
Margaret Cavendish, for example, wrote an entire series of poems against "atoms" and "infinite worlds" in "Poems and Fancies" in 1664. Bruno's true, if partial, rehabilitation would have to wait for the implications of Newtonian cosmology.
Bruno's overall contribution to the birth of modern science is still controversial. Some scholars follow
Frances Yatesstressing the importance of Bruno's ideas about the universe being infinite and lacking structure as a crucial crosspoint between the old and the new. Others disagree. Others yet see in Bruno's idea of multiple worlds instantiating the infinite possibilities of a pristine, indivisible One a forerunner of Everett's Many-worlds interpretationof quantum mechanics. [ [http://www.hep.upenn.edu/~max/multiverse.pdf] Max Tegmark, Parallel Universes, 2003 ]
A note on the Bruno "portraits"
* "The Cabala of Pegasus by Giordano Bruno", ISBN 0-300-09217-2
*"Giordano Bruno", Paul Oskar Kristeller, Collier's Encyclopedia, Vol 4, 1987 ed., pg. 634
*"Il processo di Giordano Bruno", Luigi Firpo, 1993
* Giordano Bruno,"Il primo libro della Clavis Magna, ovvero, Il trattato sull'intelligenza artificiale", a cura di Claudio D'Antonio,
Di Renzo Editore.
* Giordano Bruno,"Il secondo libro della Clavis Magna, ovvero, Il Sigillo dei Sigilli", a cura di Claudio D'Antonio,
Di Renzo Editore.
* Giordano Bruno, "Il terzo libro della Clavis Magna, ovvero, La logica per immagini", a cura di Claudio D'Antonio,
Di Renzo Editore
* Giordano Bruno, "Il quarto libro della Clavis Magna, ovvero, L'arte di inventare con Trenta Statue", a cura di Claudio D'Antonio,
Di Renzo Editore
* Giordano Bruno "L'incantesimo di Circe", a cura di Claudio D'Antonio,
Di Renzo Editore
* Giordano Bruno, "De Umbris Idearum", a cura di Claudio D'Antonio,
Di Renzo Editore
* Guido Del Giudice, "La coincidenza degli opposti",
Di Renzo Editore, ISBN 8883231104 , 2005
* Giordano Bruno, "Due Orazioni: Oratio Valedictoria - Oratio Consolatoria", a cura di Guido del Giudice,
Di Renzo Editore, 2007
* [http://www.intratext.com/Catalogo/Autori/AUT52.HTM Bruno's works] : text, concordances and frequency list
* [http://www.esotericarchives.com/bruno/home.htm Writings of Giordano Bruno]
* [http://www.punkerslut.com/articles/giordanobruno.html Detailed biography of Giordano Bruno]
* [http://www.esotericarchives.com/bruno/arsmemor.htm Latin text of Bruno's "Ars Memoriae"]
* [http://www.punkerslut.com/articles/giordanobrunocollection.html Collection of short excerpts about Giordano Bruno] , from many authors throughout history
* [http://giordanobruno.signum.sns.it/bibliotecaideale/ Bruno's Latin and Italian works online: Biblioteca Ideale di Giordano Bruno]
* [http://warburg.sas.ac.uk/mnemosyne/Bruno/index.html Complete works of Bruno as well as main biographies and studies available for free download in PDF format from the Warburg Institute and the Centro Internazionale di Studi Bruniani Giovanni Aquilecchia]
NAME= Bruno, Giordano
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Filippo Giordano Bruno
philosopher, priest, cosmologist, and occultist
DATE OF BIRTH=1548
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
February 17, 1600
PLACE OF DEATH=
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