name = Gluon
num_types = 8
symbol = g
mass = 0 (theoretical value; experimentally at most a few
MeV/c2 [cite journal|doi=10.1016/0370-2693(94)01677-5|title=Limits on the mass of the gluon*1|year=1995|author=Yndurain, F|journal=Physics Letters B|volume=345|pages=524] )
electric_charge = 0 [http://pdg.lbl.gov/2007/tables/gxxx.pdf W.-M. Yao et al., J. Phys. G 33, 1 (2006)] Retrieved December, 2007]
color_charge = octet (8 types)
spin = 1
glue" and the suffix "-on") are elementary particles that cause quarksto interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei.
In technical terms, they are vector gauge bosons that mediate strong
color chargeinteractions of quarks in quantum chromodynamics(QCD). Unlike the neutral photonof quantum electrodynamics(QED), gluons themselves participate in strong interactions. The gluon has the ability to do this as it carries the color charge and so interacts with itself, making QCD significantly harder to analyze than QED.
The gluon is a vector boson; like the
photon, it has a spin of 1. While massive spin-1 particles have three polarization states, massless gauge bosons like the gluon have only two polarization states because gauge invariancerequires the polarization to be transverse.In quantum field theory, unbroken gauge invariance requires that gauge bosons have zero mass (experiment limits the gluon's mass to less than a few MeV).The gluon has negative intrinsic parity and zero isospin. It is its own antiparticle.Fact|date=October 2008
Numerology of gluons
Unlike the single
photonof QED or the three W and Z bosonsof the weak interaction, there are eight independent types of gluon in QCD.
This may be difficult to understand intuitively.
Quarks carry three types of color charge; antiquarks carry three types of anticolor. Gluons may be thought of as carrying both color and anticolor, but to correctly understand how they are combined, it is necessary to consider the mathematics of color charge in more detail.
Color charge and superposition
quantum mechanics, the states of particles may be added according to the principle of superposition; that is, they may be in a "combined state" with a "probability", if some particular quantity is measured, of giving several different outcomes. A relevant illustration in the case at hand would be a gluon with a color state described by:
This is read as "red-antiblue plus blue-antired." (The factor of the square root of two is required for normalization, a detail which is not crucial to understand in this discussion.) If one were somehow able to make a direct measurement of the color of a gluon in this state, there would be a 50% chance of it having red-antiblue color charge and a 50% chance of blue-antired color charge.
Color singlet states
It is often said that the stable strongly-interacting particles observed in nature are "colorless," but more precisely they are in a "color singlet" state, which is mathematically analogous to a "spin" singlet state. ["Griffiths", 280-281 (footnote)] Such states allow interaction with other color singlets, but not with other color states; because long-range gluon interactions do not exist, this illustrates that gluons in the singlet state do not exist either. ["Griffiths", 281 (first complete footnote)]
The color singlet state is ["Griffiths", 280] :
In words, if one could measure the color of the state, there would be equal probabilities of it being red-antired, blue-antiblue, or green-antigreen.
Eight gluon colors
There are eight remaining independent color states, which correspond to the "eight types" or "eight colors" of gluons. Because states can be mixed together as discussed above, there are many ways of presenting these states, which are known as the "color octet." One commonly used list is ["Griffiths", 280] :
These are equivalent to the
Gell-Mann matrices; the translation between the two is that red-antired is the upper-left matrix entry, red-antiblue is the left middle entry, blue-antigreen is the bottom middle entry, and so on. The critical feature of these particular eight states is that they are linearly independent, and also independent of the singlet state; there is no way to add any combination of states to produce any other. (It is also impossible to add them to make , , or [ [http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/ParticleAndNuclear/gluons.html Why are there eight gluons and not nine?] ] ; if it were, then the forbidden singlet state could also be made.) There are many other possible choices, but all are mathematically equivalent, at least equally complex, and give the same physical results.
Group theory details
Technically, QCD is a
gauge theorywith SU(3)gauge symmetry. Quarks are introduced as spinor fields in "Nf" flavours, each in the fundamental representation(triplet, denoted 3) of the colour gauge group, SU(3). The gluons are vector fields in the adjoint representation(octets, denoted 8) of colour SU(3). For a general gauge group, the number of force-carriers (like photons or gluons) is always equal to the dimension of the adjoint representation. For the simple case of SU("N"), the dimension of this representation is "N"2−1.
In terms of group theory, the assertion that there are no color singlet gluons is simply the statement that
quantum chromodynamicshas an SU(3)rather than a U(3) symmetry. There is no known "a priori" reason for one group to be preferred over the other, but as discussed above, the experimental evidence supports SU(3). ["Griffiths", 281 (second complete footnote)]
Since gluons themselves carry color charge (again, unlike the
photonwhich is electrically neutral), they participate in strong interactions. These gluon-gluon interactions constrain color fields to string-like objects called "flux tubes", which exert constant force when stretched. Due to this force, quarks are confined within composite particles called hadrons. This effectively limits the range of the strong interaction to 10-15 meters, roughly the size of an atomic nucleus. (Beyond a certain distance, the energy of the flux tube binding two quarks increases linearly. At a large enough distance, it becomes energetically more favorable to pull a quark-antiquark pair out of the vacuum rather than increase the length of the flux tube.)
Gluons also share this property of being confined within hadrons. One consequence is that gluons are not directly involved in the
nuclear forces between hadrons. The force mediators for these are other hadrons called mesons.
Although in the
normal phase of QCDsingle gluons may not travel freely, it is predicted that there exist hadrons which are formed entirely of gluons — called glueballs. There are also conjectures about other exotic hadrons in which real gluons (as opposed to virtual ones found in ordinary hadrons) would be primary constituents. Beyond the normal phase of QCD (at extreme temperatures and pressures), quark gluon plasmaforms. In such a plasma there are no hadrons; quarks and gluons become free particles.
The first direct experimental evidence of gluons was found in 1979 when three-jet events were observed at the electron-positron collider called
PETRAat DESYin Hamburg.
Experimentally, confinement is verified by the failure of
free quark searches. Neither free quarks nor free gluons have ever been observed. Although there have been hints of exotic hadrons, no glueball has been observed either. Quark-gluon plasma has been found recently at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider(RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratories(BNL).Fact|date=October 2008
* Three-jet events
Deep inelastic scattering
References and external links
*Kaufmann(ed), Scientific American: Particles & Fields (special edition), 1980
* [http://pdg.lbl.gov/2004/tables/contents_tables.html Summary tables in the "Review of particle physics"]
* [http://www.desy.de/pr-info/desyhome/html/presse/glossary.html#G DESY glossary]
* [http://www.symmetrymag.org/cms/?pid=1000160 Logbook of gluon discovery]
* [http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/ParticleAndNuclear/gluons.html Why are there eight gluons and not nine?]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.