- Gloster Aircraft Company
Infobox Defunct Company
company_name = Gloster Aircraft Company, Limited
fate = Merged with Armstrong Whitworth (1961) and
Hawker Siddeley Aviation
foundation = 1917 (as Gloucestershire Aircraft Company)
defunct = 1963
industry = Aviation
subsid =The Gloster Aircraft Company, Limited, known locally as GAC, was a British aircraft manufacturer. The company produced a famous lineage of fighters for the
Royal Air Force(RAF); the Grebe, Gladiator, Meteor and Javelin. It also produced the Hawker Hurricaneand Hawker Typhoonfor the parent company Hawker Siddeley. Gloster produced the first British gas turbine-powered aircraft: the E.28/39 and the first British (and only gas-turbine-powered Allied aircraft to see service in World War II) production jet fighter in the Meteor. Gloster's test runway became famous for the first flight of Sir Frank Whittle's turbojetin the E.28/39 aircraft.
The Gloster Aircraft Company was formed in 1917 as the Gloucestershire Aircraft Company. The company acquired the aircraft business previously carried out by H H Martyn with a 50% share, and the Aircraft Manufacturing Company the other 50%. The company rented what was the Sunningend works of H H Martyn in
Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. As orders for aircraft increased, other companies in the Gloucester and Cheltenham district were contracted with work. Where any flying was involved the aircraft were moved to an Air Board aircraft acceptance park at Hucclecoteseven miles (11 km) away by motor transport. Although Huccelcote aerodrome was used by the company it had no hangars until 1921 when it rented part of hangar from the Air Board.
When the British aircraft manufacturer
Nieuport & Generalclosed down in 1920, the services of its chief designer, Henry Follandwere hired by Gloster, who also acquired the rights for the Nieuport Nighthawkfighter and unbuilt aircraft components.
In 1926, the name of the company was abbreviated to the Gloster Aircraft Company because customers outside of the
United Kingdomfound the original name too difficult to pronounce.
With the move to metal construction the Sunningend factory was no longer suitable and in 1928 the company bought the aerodrome at Hucclecote with all the hangars and office accommodation.
1934 - amalgamation
In 1934 the company was taken over by
Hawker Aircraft, though it continued to produce aircraft under its own name. In that same year the company produced the famous Gladiator biplane. The 1935 merger of Hawker Aircraft and the interests of J. D. Siddeley ( Armstrong Siddeleyand Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft) saw Gloster become a part of Hawker Siddeley Aircraft, Ltd.
The Gladiator was a
biplanefighter, used by the RAF and the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm(FAA) as the carrier-capable Sea Gladiator, as well as a number of other air forces, during World War II. The aircrafthad a top speed of around 414 km/h. The Gladiator had an enclosed, single-seat cockpit, cantilever landing gear and a two-blade, fixed-pitch propellerdriven by a Bristol Mercuryair-cooled engine. A total of 756 airframes were built: 480 RAF, 60 FAA, 216 exported to 13 countries. Gladiators were sold to Belgium, China, Egypt, Finland, Free French, Greece, Iraq, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Portugal, South Africa and Sweden.
Although serving valiantly in the first years of the Second World War, the Gloster Gladiator was sorely outclassed by contemporary monoplane fighters such as the Messerschmitt
Bf-109, and destined to be the RAF's last biplane fighter.
1939 - World War II
Having no modern designs of its own in production, Gloster undertook manufacture for the parent company Hawker. In 1939, the company built 1,000
Hawker Hurricanes in the first 12 months of World War IIand delivered its last of 2,750 Hurricanes in 1942. Production was then switched to the Hawker Typhoons for the Royal Air Force, 3,300 being built in total.
1941 - turbojet
8 April 1941, the first test flight of the Gloster E.28/39with a turbo-jet engine, invented by Sir Frank Whittle. took off from the company's airfield at Brockworth. This formed the basis for the Gloster Meteor, the only jet to be used by the Allied Forcesduring World War II.
The Meteor was the first operational Allied jet
fighter aircraftof World War II. First flying with the British Royal Air Force(RAF) in 1943, the Meteor commenced operations in mid-1944, only some weeks later than the world's first operational jet, the German Messerschmitt Me 262.
1945 - world record
In 1945 a Meteor F Mk.4 prototype, stripped of armament, gained a World Airspeed Record of convert|606|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on with Group Captain H. Wilson at the controls. In early 1946, another F Mk.4 prototype was used to set a world air speed record of 616 mph (991 km/h)
true airspeedwith Group Captain "Teddy" Donaldson flying the highly modified Meteor, nicknamed "Yellow Peril." During the record attempt Donaldson became the first man to break the 1,000 km/h barrier, winning the Britannia Trophyand a Bar to his AFC. Meteors remained in service with several air forces for many years and saw action in the Korean Warwith the Royal Australian Air Force(RAAF). Eventually, Gloster Meteors in fighter, trainer and night fighter versions were in operational use by 12 nations.
1947 - Gloster's heyday
During Gloster's "heyday," in 1947, S/L
Janusz Zurakowskiwas employed as an experimental pilot. In the following years, he became one of the world's most famous experimental and aerobatics pilots. He developed a new aerobatic manoeuvre, the "Zurabatic Cartwheel", which held the audience captivated as he suspended the Gloster Meteor G-7-1 prototype he was flying, in a vertical cartwheel at the 1951 Farnborough Air Show), a manoeuvre the announcer declared to be "Impossible!" Serving for a brief period as the chief test pilot, he tested the many experimental versions of the Gloster Meteor, Javelin and E.1/44 fighters. During the Gloster years, "Zura" as he came to be known, set an international speed record: London-Copenhagen-London, 4-5 April, 1950.
In 1952, the two seat,
delta winged Gloster Javelinwas developed as an all weather fighter that could fly above convert|50000|ft|m at almost the speed of sound. This modern aircraft proved to be too heavy to take off from the short airfield in Brockworth, and was instead fitted out to the bare minimum and given a very small fuel load. It was then flown in a short hop to RAF Moreton Valencethree miles (5 km) to the south, where the aircraft would be completed. It was this shortcoming of the facilities, along with the rationalisation of the British aircraft industry, that would lead to the demise of Gloster.
1960s - demise
In 1961, the company was merged with Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Limited to form Whitworth Gloster Aircraft Limited. Following another re-organisation, the firm became part of the Avro Whitworth Division of Hawker Siddeley Aviation in 1963, and the name Gloster disappeared as Hawker Siddeley rebranded its product line under its own name.
The site at
Brockworthwas sold in 1964. The runway, while still visible from the air, has been partially obstructed by buildings on what is now the Gloucester Trading Estate. Many of the firms based on the estate are housed in former hangars.
*1921 Gloster Mars - single-seat racing biplane later modified as the
*1922 Gloster Mars VI Nighthawk
Gloster Mars X Nightjar
Gloster Gannet- single-seat ultra light biplane
Gloster Grebe- single-seat day fighter biplane
Gloster Gorcock- expermental single seat fighter biplane
Gloster II- single-seat racing biplane
Gloster III- single-seat racing float biplane
Gloster Gamecock- single-seat day and night interceptor biplane
Gloster Guan- experimental single-seat high altitude fighter biplane
Gloster Goral- two-seat general purpose biplane
Gloster Goring- two-seat day bomber/torpedo biplane
Gloster IV- single-seat racing float biplane
Gloster Goldfinch- single-seat high-altitude day and night fighter biplane
*1927 Gloster Gambet - single-seat deck landing fighter biplane
Gloster Gnatsnapper- single-seat deck landing fighter biplane
Gloster VI- single-seat racing monoplane (world absolute speed record holder for a few hours in 1929)
Gloster Gauntlet- single-seat day and night fighter biplane
Gloster AS.31- two-seat photographic survey biplane
Gloster TC.33- four-engined bomber/transport biplane
Gloster TSR.38- three-seat torpedo/spotter/reconnaissance biplane
Gloster Gladiator- single-seat day fighter biplane
Gloster F.5/34single-seat day fighter monoplane prototype
Gloster F.9/37twin engined heavy fighter prototype
Gloster E.28/39first British jet engined aircraft
Gloster Meteorsingle-seat day fighter - only allied jet aircraft to see action during WW II
Gloster E.1/44single-seat jet day fighter prototype
Gloster Javelintwo-seat all-weather jet fighter
Gloster Meteor F8 "Prone Pilot"experimental conversion of Meteor
* James, Derek N. "Gloster Aircraft since 1917." London: Putnam, 1987. ISBN 0-85177-807-0.
* Thomas, Nick. RAF Top Gun: Teddy Donaldson CB, DSO, AFC and Bar Battle of Britain Ace and World Air speed Record Holder, Pen & Sword, 2008. ISBN-10: 1844156850 ISBN-13: 978-1844156856
* Zuk, Bill. "Janusz Zurakowski: Legends in the Sky," St. Catharine's, Ontario: Vanwell, 2004, ISBN 1-55125-083-7.
:* [http://mysite.wanadoo-members.co.uk/brockworthpc/page6.html History of the Gloster Aircraft Company at Brockworth]
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