List of early warships of the English Navy

List of early warships of the English Navy

This is a list of early warships belonging to the English sovereign and/or the English Government, the precursor to the Royal Navy of England, from 1707 of Great Britain, and subsequently the United Kingdom. These include major and minor warships from prior to 1618 until around 1660, the latter being the year in which the Royal Navy came formally into existence with the Restoration of Charles II (before the Interregnum, English warships had been the personal property of the monarch and were collectively termed "the King's Ships"). Between Charles I's execution in 1649 and the Restoration eleven years later, the Navy became the property of the state (Commonwealth and Protectorate), under which it expanded dramatically in size.

Glossary

* BU = broken up

The dates for ships before 1618 are probably listed using the contemporary English convention of the first day of the year being 25th March.

In the sections listing warships in the English/Royal Navy from 1618 onwards, the dates have been quoted using the modern convention of the year starting on 1st January.

List of English Warships before 1618

:"Where applicable, number of main guns follows name (see Rating system of the Royal Navy). Note that long-lived ships could be rearmed several times. Many earlier ships went through periodic repairs and rebuildings (many now unrecorded) during which their dimensions and their armament changed considerably."

* "Trinity de la Tour" (Trinity of the Tower) - Dismantled c. 1409, materials used for "Trinity Royal"
* "Goodgrace" (c. 1400)
* "Le Carake" (ex-Genoese "Sancta Maria & Sancta Brigida", captured 1409)
* "Christopher of the Tower" 5 (1410/12) - Hulk
* "Trinity Royal" (c. 1412)
* "Holyghost de la Tour" (ex-Spanish "Santa Clara", captured c. 1413)
* "Jesus" (c. 1416)
* "George" (ex-Genoese "?", captured 1416) - To Venice 1424
* "Marie Hampton" (ex-Genoese "?", captured 1416)
* "Marie Sandwich" (ex-Genoese "?", captured 1416)
* "Andrew" (ex-Genoese "Galeas Negre", captured 1417)
* "Christopher" (ex-Genoese "Pynele", captured c. 1417) - Sold 1423
* "Peter" (ex-Genoese "?", captured 1417)
* "Paul" (ex-Genoese "Vivande", captured 1417)
* "Agase" (ex-Genoese "?", captured c. 1417) - Wrecked on mudflats c. 1418
* "Grace Dieu" (1418) - Lightning and fire, 1439
* "Grace Dieu" (c. 1437) - BU c. 1487
* "Peter" - Abandoned 1462
* "Mary de la Tour" (Mary of the Tower) 48
* "George"
* "Edward Howard" (c. 1466, ex-Portuguese "?", captured 1479)
* "Sovereign" 141 (c. 1488) - Rebuilt 1509, last mentioned c. 1520
* "Grace Dieu" 225 (1490) - Renamed "Regent", burnt at the Battle of St Matthieu, 1512
* "Margaret" (1505; Scottish)
* "Gabriel Royal" (captured 1509)
* "Peter Pomegranate" (c. 1510)
* "Mary Rose" 78 (1510) - Sank 1545, port-side remains recovered 1982 and preserved at Portsmouth
* "Michael" 27 (1511; Scottish) - Sold to France 1514
* "Great Bark" 63 (c. 1512)
* "Katherine Forteleza" (captured 1512)
* "Great Nicholas" (captured 1512)
* "John Baptist" (captured 1512)
* "Christ" (captured 1512)
* "Henri Grâce à Dieu" ("Great Harry") 186 (1512) - Accidentally burned 1553
* "Great Barbara" (captured 1513)
* "Great Elizabeth" (captured 1514)
* "Mary Gonson" (c. 1514?)
* "Jesus of Lubeck" (ex-Hanseatic League "Jesus von Lubeck", purchased 1544) - Sunk by Spanish 1568
* "Grand Mistress" (c. 1545) - Prototype of galleon
* "Greyhound" (c. 1545) - Prototype of galleon
* "Anne Gallant" (c. 1545)
* "Antelope" 38 (c. 1546)
* "Bull" 25 (c. 1546)
* "Hart" (c. 1546)
* "Tygar" (c. 1546)
* "Minion"
* "Elizabeth" (c. 1559)
* "Triumph" (c. 1561)
* "Victory" (c. 1562)
* "White Bear" (c. 1564) [A ship called "White Bear was rebuilt in 1599. Whether it was the same one is not stated. p158 "The Ship of the Line Volume I", by Brian Lavery, pub Conways, 1983, ISBN 0-85177-252-8]
* "Foresight" 37 (c. 1570)
* "Dreadnought" 41 (1573) - BU 1645
* "Swiftsure" (c. 1573)
* "Revenge" (c. 1577)
* "Swallow" (c. 1580)
* "Elizabeth Bonaventure" (c. 1581)
* "Ark Raleigh" 44 - Renamed "Ark Royal", renamed "Anne Royal", rebuilt 1608 Date of rebuild taken from p158, Lavery, Brian "The Ship of the Line Volume I", pub Conways, 1983, ISBN 0-85177-252-8]
* "Bonaventure"
* "Philip and Mary" 38 - Renamed "Nonpareil", renamed "Nonsuch", rebuilt 1603
* "Red Lion" or "Golden Lion" 38 - Renamed "Lion", rebuilt 1609
* "Hart" 56
* "Rainbow" 40 (c. 1586) – Rebuilt 1617
* "Tramontana" (c. 1586)
* "Vanguard" 40 (1586) - Rebuilt 1615
* ? (ex-Spanish "San Felipe", captured 1587)
* "Mercury" - Sold 1611
* "Defiance" 46 (1590)
* "Madre de Dios" (ex-Portuguese "Madre de Dios", captured 1592)
* "Adventure" (c. 1594) - BU c. 1645
* "Scourge of Malice" (c. 1595)
*"Warspite" 29 (c. 1596) - Converted to lighter 1635 [this vessel is also listed under "List of Major Warships of the English Navy (1618-1642)"]
* "Due Repulse" 40/48 (c. 1596) – also known as "Repulse', rebuilt 1610
* "St Andrew" (captured 1596)
* "St Matthew" (captured 1596)
* "Hope" 34/38 (c. 1601) - Renamed "Assurance"
* "Destiny" 34 (c. 1616) - Renamed "Convertine"

List of English Warships (1618-1642)

:"Number of main guns follows name (see Rating system of the Royal Navy)":The major ships are listed in the order shown in pages 158-159 of "The Ship of the Line, Volume I", by Brian Lavery, published by Conways, 1983, ISBN 0-85177-252-8. Lesser warships ("below the line") are taken from "A History of the Administration on the Royal Navy (sic!) 1509-1660", by Michael Oppenheim, published by the Bodley Head, 1896.

Major Ships Existing in 1618

Note that Ships Royal would under Charles II become the First Rank (later First Rate) ships; similarly, Great Ships would become the Second Rank (later Second Rate) ships; Middling Ships would become the Third Rank (later Third Rate) ships; and Small Ships would become the Fourth Rank (later Fourth Rate) ships - later to be further sub-divided (about 1650) into Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Rates.

* Ships Royal all the ships listed (except "Prince Royal") were rebuilds of earlier ships
** 42 (1633) - Renamed "Paragon" 1650, lost 1655
** HMS|James|1634|2 48 (c. 1634) – rearmed as 60 guns by 1660, sold 1682
** HMS|Unicorn|1634|2 46 (1634) - rearmed as 56 guns by 1660, sold 1688
* Third Rank (Middling Ships)
** HMS|Leopard|1635|2 34 (1635) - Captured by Netherlands 1653
** HMS|Swallow|1634|2 34 (c. 1634)

Major Rebuilds, 1618-1642

* 40 (1631) - Rearmed to 56, wrecked, sold 1667
* 40 (1640) – Rebuilt 1658
* 70 (1641) - Rearmed to 80, rebuilt 1663

Lesser Ships

Early frigates

* 10 (1636) - Collision 1641
* 12 (1636) - Blown up in action 1656
* 14/30 (1637) - Sold 1667
* 14/30 (1637) - Wrecked 1668

Captured Ships, 1625-1636

* (ex-French, captured 1625)
* 38 (ex-French, captured 1625)
* (ex-French, captured 1625)
* (ex-French, captured 1626)
* (ex-French, captured 1626)
* (ex-French, captured 1627)
* 42 (ex-Dutch, captured 1627 from French)
* (ex-Dunkirker, captured 1635) - Sunk 1638
* 6 (ex-Dunkirker, captured 1636) - Sold 1657

List of English warships of the English Civil War, the Commonwealth and Protectorate (1642-1660)

The interregnum between the execution of Charles I and the Restoration of royal authority in 1660 saw the full emergence of the ship-of-the-line and its employment during the first Anglo-Dutch War. During this period the English navy technically became first the Commonwealth Navy, later the Protectorate Navy and subsequently the Commonwealth Navy again; the prefix "HMS" is thus not applicable to any English warship during the Interregnum.:"Number of main guns follows name (see Rating system of the Royal Navy)" :The larger ships are listed in pages 159-160 of "The Ship of the Line Volume I", by Brian Lavery, published by Conways, 1983, ISBN 0-85177-252-8, as amended by later research. Lesser warships ("below the line") are taken from "A History of the Administration on the Royal Navy (sic!) 1509-1660", by Michael Oppenheim, published by the Bodley Head, 1896.

:The frigates listed here are not the type of vessel known as frigates in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Early Frigates (Fourth Rates)

* The 'First' English Frigate
** HMS|Constant Warwick|1645|2 32 (1645) but as a private venture; she was hired by the Navy from 1646, and purchased outright in 1649 - BU 1666 for rebuild p159-160, Lavery, Brian "The Ship of the Line Volume I", pub Conways, 1983, ISBN 0-85177-252-8]

* 1646 Programme Group
** HMS|Assurance|1646|2 32 (1646) - Sold 1698
** HMS|Adventure|1646|2 34 (1646) - BU 1688 for rebuild
** HMS|Nonsuch|1646|2 34 (1646) - Wrecked 1664
* 1647 Programme Group
** HMS|Dragon|1647|2 32 (1647) - BU 1690 for rebuild
** HMS|Elizabeth|1647|2 32 (1647) - Burnt 1667
** HMS|Phoenix|1647|2 32 (1647) - Captured by the Netherlands at the Battle of Elba, 1652, recaptured 1652, wrecked 1664
** HMS|Tiger|1647|2 32 (1647) - BU 1681 for rebuild

Later Frigates (Third and Fourth Rates)

* Great Frigate (Second Rate)
** HMS|Antelope|1651|2 56 (c. 1651) - Wrecked 1652
* "Speaker" group Third Rate Frigates
** HMS|Fairfax|1650|2 52 (c. 1650) - Burnt 1653
** HMS|Speaker|1650|2 50 (c. 1650) - Renamed "Mary" 1660
* 1649 Programme Group, Third rate Frigates
** HMS|Worcester|1651|2 48 (c. 1651) - Renamed "Dunkirk" 1660
* 1652 Programme Group, Third rate Frigates
** HMS|Essex|1653|2 48 (c. 1653) - Captured by the Netherlands at the Four Days Battle, 1666
** HMS|Gloucester|1654|2 50 (1654) - Rearmed to 54, rearmed to 60, wrecked 1682
** HMS|Plymouth|1653|2 52 (c. 1653)
** HMS|Torrington|1654|2 52 (c. 1654) - Renamed "Dreadnought" 1660, rearmed to 62, sank 1690
** HMS|Newbury|1654|2 52 (c. 1654) - Renamed "Revenge" 1660, condemned 1678
** HMS|Bridgewater|1654|2 52 (c. 1654) - Renamed "Anne" 1660, blew up 1673
** HMS|Lyme|1654|2 52 (c. 1654) - Renamed "Montague" 1660
** HMS|Marston Moor|1654|2 52 (c. 1654) - Renamed "York" 1660, wrecked 1703
** HMS|Langport|1654|2 50 (c. 1654) - Renamed "Henrietta" 1660, wrecked 1689
** HMS|Fairfax|1653|2 52 (c. 1653) - Wrecked 1682
** HMS|Tredagh|1654|2 50 (c. 1654) - Renamed "Resolution" 1660, burnt at the St. James' Day Battle, 1666
* Later Third Rate frigates
** HMS|Monck|1659|2 52 (c. 1659)
* 1649 Programme Group, Fourth rate Frigates
** HMS|Portsmouth|1650|2 34 (1650) - Blew up 1689
** HMS|President|1650|2 34 (1650) - Renamed "Bonaventure" 1660
* 1650 Programme Group, Fourth rate Frigates
** HMS|Foresight|1650|2 34 (1650) - Wrecked 1698
** HMS|Assistance|1650|2 34 (1650)
** HMS|Reserve|1650|2 34 (1650)
** HMS|Advice|1650|2 34 (1650)
** HMS|Pelican|1650|2 34 (1650) - Burnt 1656
** HMS|Centurion|1650|2 34 (1650) - Wrecked 1689
* 1651 Programme Group, Fourth rate Frigates
** HMS|Laurel|1651|2 34 (1651) - Rearmed to 46, wrecked 1657
** HMS|Sapphire|1651|2 34 (1651) - Wrecked 1671
** HMS|Bristol|1653|2 38/40 (1653) - Rearmed to 44
* "Ruby" class (part of 1651 Programme)
** HMS|Ruby|1651|2 40 (1651) - Captured by France at the Battle at The Lizard, 1707
** HMS|Diamond|1651|2 40 (1651) - Captured by France 1693
* 1652 Programme Group, Fourth rate Frigates
** HMS|Kentish|1652|2 40 (1652) - Renamed "Kent" 1660, wrecked 1672
** HMS|Sussex|1652|2 38/40 (1652) - Rearmed to 46, blew up 1653
** HMS|Portland|1653|2 40 (1653) - Burnt to avoid capture 1692
** HMS|Hampshire|1653|2 38 (1653) - Rearmed to 46
* 1653 Programme Group, Fourth rate Frigates
** HMS|Gainsborough|1653|2 38/40 (1653) - Renamed "Swallow" 1660, wrecked 1692
** HMS|Preston|1653|2 40 (1653) - Renamed "Antelope" 1660, sold 1693
** HMS|Nantwich|1654|2 38/40 (1654) - Renamed "Bredah" 1660, wrecked 1666
** HMS|Jersey|1654|2 38/40 (1654) - Captured by France 1691
** HMS|Maidstone|1654|2 40/48 (1654) - Renamed "Mary Rose" 1660, - Captured by France 1691
** HMS|Taunton|1654|2 40 (1654) - Renamed "Crown" 1660, rearmed to 48
** HMS|Dover|1654|2 40 (1654) - Rearmed to 48
* Large type (built as 44-gun, later raised in stages to 54 guns)
** HMS|Newcastle|1653|2 44 (1653) - Wrecked 1703
** HMS|Yarmouth|1653|2 44 (1653) - BU 1680
** HMS|Winsby|1654|2 44 (1654) - Renamed "Happy Return" 1660, captured by France 1691
** HMS|Leopard|1659|2 44 (1659) - Scuttled 1699
** HMS|Princess|1661|2 44 (1660) - BU 1680

First and Second Rates (three-decked ships)

A programme comprising four Second Rates of 60 guns each was adopted in 1654. However, of these four ships the "Naseby" was completed as a First Rate, while the "Richard" was reclassed as a First Rate in 1660.
* First Rate
** "Naseby" 80 (1655) - Renamed "Royal Charles" 1660, captured by the Netherlands, 1667, BU.
* Second Rates
** HMS|Richard|1658|2 70 (c. 1658) - Renamed "Royal James" 1660, burnt 1667.
** HMS|Dunbar|1656|2 64 (c. 1656) - Renamed "Henry" 1660, rearmed to 82, burnt by accident in 1682.
** HMS|London|1654|2 64 (c. 1654) - Blown up by accident in 1665.

Major Rebuilds

* 100 (1660) - Rebuilt 1685
* 60 (1654) – Captured by the Dutch 1667
* 48 (c. 1658) – re-armed at 60 by 1677. Sold 1698

"Captures of the First Anglo-Dutch War"

The following list covers only the major vessels, all taken from the Dutch and added to the Commonwealth Navy as Fourth Rates; several dozen further small vessels were also captured from the Dutch during this war, and added to the Protectorate Navy, usually as Fifth Rate or Sixth Rate vessels.
* 36 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) - captured by Dutch privateers 1654.
* (ex-Dutch "Ooievaar", captured 1652) - Sold 1663.
* 44 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) - BU 1672.
* 36 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) - Expended as fireship 1673.
* 32 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) - burnt by fireship 1653.
* 36 (ex-Dutch "Beer", captured 1652) - given to Ordnance Board 1666.
*/"Estridge" (ex-Dutch "Vogelstruys", captured 1653) - hulked 1653, and sunk as a breakwater 1679.
* 36 (ex-Dutch "Elias", captured 1653) - Wrecked 1664.
* 38 (ex-Dutch "Sint Mattheus", captured 1653) - Burnt by the Dutch 1667.
* 38 (ex-Dutch "Liefde", captured 1653) - recaptured by Netherlands 1665
* 44 (ex-Dutch East Iniaman "Roos", captured 1654) - Sold 1660

Captures from the Royalists

* 30 (ex-Royalist "Charles", captured 1649, ex-merchantman "Guinea Frigate") - Sold 1667
* 40 (ex-Royalist "Convertine", originally Portuguese) - Captured by the Netherlands 1666
* 30 (ex-Royalist "Crowned Lion", captured 1650) - Sold 1658.
* 32 (ex-Royalist "Saint Michael", captured 1651, ex-merchantman "Archangel San Miguel") - Sold 1667
* 42 (ex-Royalist "Revenge of Whitehall", captured 1652, ex-merchantman "Marmaduke") - sunk as a blockship 1667.

Other Ships

* 24
* 28
* 28
* 30 (ex-merchantman) - Sold 1667

"For ships-of-the-line of the Royal Navy, successor to the Protectorate Navy after 1660, see List of ships of the line of the Royal Navy"

Footnotes

References


*"The Ship of the Line Volume I", by Brian Lavery, pub Conways, 1983, ISBN 0-85177-252-8
*Colledge
*"History of the Administration of the Royal Navy and of Merchant Shipping in Relation to the Navy from 1509 to 1660 with an introduction treating of the Preceding Period", by Michael Oppenheim, 1896. Republished 1988 by Temple Smith, ISBN 0 566 05572 4

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