- Higher education in Norway
Higher education in Norway is offered by a range of seven universities, eight specialised universities, 25
university colleges as well as a range of private university colleges. The national higher education system is in accordance with the Bologna process, with bachelor's degrees ("first cycle", three years), master's degrees ("second cycle", two years) and doctoral degrees ("third cycle", four years). Acceptance is offered after finishing upper secondary schoolwith general university admissions certification.
Public education is free, with an academic year with two
semesters, from August to December and from January to June. The ultimate responsibility for the education lies with the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research.
Acceptance to higher education requires either fulfilled three years of upper secondary school with general university admissions certification. This is awarded non-vocational students or vocational students who choose to not take their
apprenticeship. Conversely study competence can be achieved by the so-called 23/5 rule where applicants must be 23 years of age and have a total of five years of upper secondary education and work experience as well as have passed courses in Norwegian, English, mathematics, science, social studies. To be accepted as certain lines (for instance engineering) advanced courses in mathematics, physicsand chemistrymust be passed.
Admittance to Bachelor level programs is coordinated through the
Norwegian Universities and Colleges Admission Servicebased on a point scale, with the highest ranking students offered a place. Points are awarded based on average grades from upper secondary school, but additional points are awarded students with secondary two-year course specialization, science specialization, age and fulfilled one year of higher education, military serviceor folk high school. Secondary school grades can be improved to increase points, but 40% of the places are only offered based on original transcripts without age or study points.
In 2003 a national reform, called the Quality reform, was implemented throughout the entire national higher education system. Norway was one of the first countries in Europe to implement the Bologna convention, thus creating a 3+2+3 year system in accordance with the Bologna Process.
A further step was taken i 2005 when the Act Relating to Universities and University Colleges and the Private Higher Education Institutions Act were merged into one common Act, the Act relating to universities and university colleges. [ [http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/kilde/kd/reg/2006/0031/ddd/pdfv/273037-loven_higher_education_act_norway_010405.pdf Act relating to Universities and University Colleges] published 09.02.2006 ] The common act ensures greater equality between the public and private higher education institutions, thus focusing more on the quality in higher education than ownership. The evaluation of Quality Assurance Systems at and accreditation of both public and private institutions are handled by a national agency for quality assurance,
Most students that fulfil the requirements for entrance to higher education in Norway are accepted to three-year Bachelor programs.
Entrance to the two-year Master programs are based upon the academic qualifications (grades) from the bachelor level.
Some programs (including
architecture, business managementat NHH, engineeringat NTNU), Master of Dentistryand Master of Lawsare five-year programs ( one-tierdegrees).
Three types of Master's degrees are offered:
Master of Science(science and business), Master of Philosophy(humanities and social studies) and Master of Technology(engineering).
Some professional oriented programs have been granted an exemption from the Bologna system. Physicians (
cand.med.), veterinarians ( cand.med.vet), psychologist ( cand.pshychol) and theologians ( cand.theol.) are therefore still awarded degrees for six years of study.
Doctor Philosophae degrees are awarded after three years of research-oriented education. Most programs also include one year of compulsory teaching as part of the education, making the total length of the program four years.
ystem of Grading
According to the
ECTS-system the grading are given according to scale of six grades, ranging from an A to F, with A being the best and E the worst passing grade. F is a fail.
A normal study progression awards 60 credits (stp) per year (30 per semester), most institutions either use a 7.5 or a 10 credit block system.
Examinations are usually held every semester, in December and June, although exceptions occur.
Prior to 2002 the higher education in Norway had a significantly different system of education with roots back to the start of higher education in the country. It was based on a 3.5 or 4 year
cand.mag.degree supplemented with a Masters or "hovedfag" lasting 1.5 or 2 years. Total study time was five years within sciences while it was six years within social studies and humanities. Master degrees were named based on the line of study, for instance cand.scient.within science, cand.polit.in political studies or cand.oecon.wihtin economics. Certain professional studies, such as medicine, law, and some engineering and business administration courses had professional studies that offered full-length degrees (without issuing cand.mag. titles). The titles awarded were cand.jur.(law, 6 years), cand.med.(medical doctor, 6 years), cand.psychol.(clinical psychology, 6 years), siviløkonom(business administration, 4 years) or sivilingeniør(engineering, 4.5 years). NHHhad a monopoly educating siviløkonoms while NTH had a monopoly education sivilingeniørs. Doctorate studies were offered on top of the masters.
Grading was performed on a 1.0 to 4.0 system, with 1.0 as the best grade and 4.0 the worst passing grade. A total of 41 different grades could be awarded with the system. Credits (then called "vekttall") were issued based on a nominal study of 20 credits per year (or 10 per semester).
Traditionally there were only four universities in Norway, located in
Oslo(since 1811), Bergen( 1948), Trondheim( 1968) and Tromsø( 1972). Since 2005 any college offering five master programs and four doctoral programs can title themselves a university, leading to the Norwegian College of Agriculture, Stavanger University Collegeand Agder University Collegeconverting to universities.
The public universities of Norway are:
Norwegian University of Life Sciences(Ås)
Norwegian University of Science and Technology(Trondheim)
University of Agder(Kristiansand, Grimstad and Arendal)
University of Bergen
University of Oslo
University of Stavanger
University of Tromsø
Currently there are no private universities in Norway, although
BI Norwegian School of Managementhave tried to advance to a full university.
There are five public and three private specialised universities in Norway, each functioning as a national competence centre for the field they represent. Six are located in Oslo, one is in Bergen and one in Stavanger. The
Norwegian Institute of Technologyand the Norwegian College of Agriculture have converted to full universities.
The public specialised universities in Norway are:
Oslo School of Architecture and Design, or "Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i Oslo" ( [http://www..no official site] )
Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, or "Norges handelshøgskole" ( [http://www.nhh.no official site] )
Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, or "Norges idrettshøgskole" ( [http://www.nih.no official site] )
Norwegian Academy of Music, or "Norges musikkhøgskole" ( [http://www.nmh.no official site] )
Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, or "Norges vetrinærhøgskole" ( [http://www.veths.no official site] )
The private specialised universities are:
BI Norwegian School of Management, or "Handelshøyskolen BI" ( [http://www.bi.no official site] )
MF Norwegian School of Theology, or "Det teologiske Menighetsfakultet" ( [http://www.mf.no official site] )
School of Mission and Theologyin Stavanger, or "Misjonshøgskolen" ( [http://www.mhs.no official site] )
The 25 university colleges in Norway are responsible for regional education of primarily bachelor level education within the fields of
nursing, teaching, business management, engineeringand information technology, though most colleges also offer a number of other educations as well.
The public university colleges in Norway consist of:
Agder University College, or "Høgskolen i Agder" ( [http://www.hia.no official site] )
Akershus University College, or "Høgskolen i Akershus" ( [http://www..no official site] )
Bergen National Academy of the Arts, or "Kunsthøgskolen i Bergen" ( [http://www.khib.no official site] )
Bergen University College, or "Høgskolen i Bergen" ( [http://www.hib.no official site] )
Bodø University College, or "Høgskolen i Bodø" ( [http://www.hibo.no official site] )
Buskerud University College, or "Høgskolen i Buskerud" ( [http://www.hibu.no official site] )
Finnmark University College, or "Høgskolen i Finnmark" ( [http://www.hifm.no official site] )
Gjøvik University College, or "Høgskolen i Gjøvik" ( [http://www.hig.no official site] )
Harstad University College, or "Høgskolen i Harstad" ( [http://www..no official site] )
Hedmark University College, or "Høgskolen i Hedmark" ( [http://www.hihm.no official site] )
Lillehammer University College, or "Høgskolen i Lillehammer" ( [http://www.hil.no official site] )
Molde University College, or "Høgskolen i Molde" ( [http://www.himolde.no official site] )
Narvik University College, or "Høgskolen i Narvik" ( [http://www.hin.no official site] )
Nesna University College, or "Høgskolen i Nesna" ( [http://www.hinesna.no official site] )
Nord-Trøndelag University College, or "Høgskolen i Nord-Trøndelag" ( [http://www.hint.no official site] )
Norwegian Police University College, or "Politihøgskolen" ( [http://www.phs.no official site] )
Oslo National Academy of the Arts, or "Kunsthøgskolen i Oslo" ( [http://www.khio.no official site] )
Oslo University College, or "Høgskolen i Oslo" ( [http://www.hio.no official site] )
Sámi University College, or "Samisk høgskole " ( [http://www.samiskhs.no official site] )
Sogn og Fjordane University College, or "Høgskolen i Sogn of Fjordane" ( [http://www.hisj.no official site] )
Stord/Haugesund University College, or "Høgskolen i Stord/Haugesund" ( [http://www.hsh.no official site] )
Sør-Trøndelag University College, or "Høgskolen i Sør-Trøndelag" ( [http://www.hist.no official site] )
Telemark University College, or "Høgskolen i Telemark" ( [http://www.hit.no official site] )
Tromsø University College, or "Høgskolen i Tromsø" ( [http://www.hitos.no official site] )
Vestfold University College, or "Høgskolen i Vestfold" ( [http://www.hive.no official site] )
Volda University College, or "Høgskolen i Volda" ( [http://www.hivolda.no official site] )
Østfold University College, or "Høgskolen i Østfold" ( [http://www.hiof.no official site] )
Ålesund University College, or "Høgskolen i " ( [http://www.hials.no official site] )
The accredited private university colleges in Norway are:
Diakonhjemmet University College, or "Diakonhjemmet Høgskole" ( [http://www.diakonhjemmeths.no/web/ official site] )
The Norwegian School of Information Technology, or "Norges Informasjonsteknologiske Høyskole" ( [http://www.nith.no/ official site] )
NLA School of Religion, Education and Intercultural Studies, or "Norsk Lærerakademi Bachelor- og masterstudier" ( [http://www.nla.no/hogskolen official site] )
There are a number of private higher education institutions in Norway, although the public institution cover more than ninety per cent of the student population in the country, meaning that less than ten per cent of students attend private institutions. [ [http://nokut.no/sw456.asp Higher Education in Norway] ]
The private institutions offer primarily programs and courses within popular fields of study where the number of public places is limited or offering accelerated courses.
Most of the private institutions are foundations, either autonomous (like the
Norwegian School of Managementand Campus Kristiania) or part of various religious societies, like the School of Missions and Theologyor Queen Maud's College of Early Childhood Education.
Students attending private institutions may have to pay school fees equivalent to the entire cost of operating the education, though the
Norwegian State Educational Loan Fundwill grant loans to cover the tuition fees.
tudent welfare and economics
There are no
tuition fees for attending public higher education in Norway, as all the costs are covered by the Ministry of Education and Research.
Students are also given the opportunity to apply for financial support (a part loan/part grant) from the
Norwegian State Educational Loan Fund. The main requirement for support from Fund is that you are a Norwegian citizen. However, foreign citizens may also be entitled to financial support. [ [http://lanekassen.no/templates/PageWide____12491.aspx Who is eligible?] ]
Eligible applicants may be granted financial support (a part loan/part grant) of about NOK 80,000. It is initially given as a a full loan, but upon completion of modules in the education around 40 percent of the amount is transferred to a
scholarship/ grantif the modules are passed. There is no interest paid while taking the education.
While studying, all students belong to a
student welfare organisationthat takes care of such services as housing, on-campus dining, book stores, kindergartens, advisory services and some health care. Part of this is finances through a student fee, typically at NOK 300-500 per semester. There are a total of 25 such organisations, each covering a geographic area and often consisting of more than one institution. The sole exception is Oslo where there are two.
The four main universities in Bergen, Oslo, Trondheim and Tromsø all offer a wide selection of courses within most fields, while certain minor fields have been left to the specialised universities (including among others veterinary studies and sports). Many educations are left to the regional colleges.
Architectureis only offered at two public institutions, NTNU in Trondheim and the Oslo School of Architecture and Design. In addition the private college Bergen School of Architectureoffers architect education. NTNU accepts students based on grades while the Oslo School accepts students based on a portfolio. Landscape architectureand area planningis offered at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences at Ås.
Most business administrators are educated at the regional colleges throughout the country, with Bachelor programs offered in Alta, Tromsø, Bodø, Steinkjer, Trondheim, Molde, Ålesund, Sogndal, Bergen, Haugesund, Stavanger, Kristiansand, Kongsberg, Oslo, Ås, Halden, Lillehammer, Gjøvik and Hamar. In addition NHH in Bergen is the specialised college offering the highest level of education within the field. Business administration is also offered at some private colleges, most notably the
Norwegian School of Management(BI) in Oslo.
Eight institutions offer a
Master of Science in Business Administration, also granting the right to use the protected title siviløkonom. These are Bodø Graduate School of Business, Trondheim Business School, Molde University College, the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, the University of Stavanger, the University of Agder, the Norwegian School of Management and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. Until the 1980s this level of education was only offered at NHH.
In general three year Bachelor degrees in engineering are offered throughout the country at the regional colleges, most dominantly within the fields of construction, chemistry, electronics and informatics, though many others also exist. Five year
Master of Technologydegrees are offered as well, primarily at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim, though also at some other institutions to a lesser degree. Candidates with three years of education can apply to attend the last two years at NTNU to complete a Master's study. All Master engineers can use the protected title sivilingeniør. NTNU offers 14 different programs in engineering.
Juridical education is offered at the universities in Oslo, Bergen and Tromsø. Education lasts five years, and gives the right to work as a lawyer in Norway.
Medicine is offered at the four major universities in Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim and Tromsø, who have close cooperation with the university hospitals in the cities. Medical education takes six years and still grants the old
cand.med.degree. After school candidates are required 1.5 years of practice before being granted certification. After six additional years of work experience they are awarded specialist certification.
There are two ways to become a qualified teacher in Norway. For primary and lower secondary levels a four year general teacher education is offered at most regional colleges in the country. This education qualifies the teachers to teach all subjects offered in the lower levels of education in Norway, though it allows students to specialize in subjects. Preschool teaching is offered at some of the regional colleges too.
For upper secondary school taking a degree at a university within the appropriate subject is the preferred course of line. After taking a degree, either at Bachelor or Master level, a one year course in
pedagogyis required before teacher certification is granted. To teach a particular subject at the upper secondary level, 60 credits in the appropriate field is required, making most teachers qualified to teach two or three subjects, though these are not absolute requirements.
Virtually all education within the sciences are offered at the four major universities, in Bergen, Oslo, Trondheim and Tromsø, though some regional colleges have one-years or maybe even Bachelor programs in certain fields.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.