Conflict resource

Conflict resource

Conflict resources are natural resources extracted in a conflict zone and sold to perpetuate the fighting.[1] There is both anecdotal and statistical evidence that belligerent accessibility to precious commodities can prolong conflicts (a "resource curse").[2][3][4]

Contents

History

The concept of 'conflict resource', or 'conflict commodity' emerged in the late 1990s, initially in relation to 'conflict diamonds' financing rebellions in Angola and Sierra Leone. (The media often called these 'blood diamonds'.)[5] Then 'conflict timber' financed hostilities in Cambodia and Liberia.[6]

Conventions

The concept was first officially discussed by the UN General Assembly for 'conflict diamonds':.[7] The UN Security Council has since referred to conflict resources in several resolutions.

The advocacy group Global Witness has called for an international definition facilitating a more systematic application of UN resolutions, the prevention of complicity in abuses during hostilities by commercial entities exploiting or trading in conflict resources, and the prosecution of war profiteers suspected of supporting or abetting war criminals.[1].

Conflict resources are natural resources whose systematic exploitation and trade in a context of conflict contribute to, benefit from or result in the commission of serious violations of human rights, violations of international humanitarian law or violations amounting to crimes under international law.
—Global Witness, proposed Definition of conflict resources[8]

Since 1996 the Bonn International Center for Conversion has tracked resource governance and conflict intensity by country.[9] Aside from fossil fuels, metals, diamonds, and timber it tracks the governance of other primary goods that might fund conflicts, including: poppy seeds (Afghanistan), rubber (Côte d'Ivoire), cotton (Zambia), and cocoa (Indonesia).

Congo's conflict resources

As of 2010, the conflict resource fueling the world's deadliest war is gold in the Congo.[10] Gold bars are less traceable than diamonds, and gold is abundant in the Kivu conflict region. In any case, no jewellery industry standard exists for verifying gold origination, as it does for diamonds (though jeweler's total outlay on gold is five times that on diamonds).[11] Other conflict minerals being illicitly exported from the Congo include cobalt, tungsten, cassiterite,[12] and coltan (which provides the tantalum for mobile phones, and is also said to be directly sustaining the conflict.)[13][14]

References

  1. ^ p.8, Conflict and Development: Peacebuilding and Post-conflict Resolution; Sixth Report of Session 2005-06, Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: International Development Committee, The Stationery Office, 2006
  2. ^ Philippe Le Billon, "Fuelling War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflicts", Adelphi Paper 373, IISS & Routledge, 2006.
  3. ^ Michael Ross,"How Do Natural Resources Influence Civil War? Evidence from Thirteen Cases", International Organization, 2004.
  4. ^ James Fearon and David Laitin, "Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War" American Political Science Review, 2003.
  5. ^ "'Blood diamonds' crackdown deal". BBC News. 2000-06-28. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/808608.stm. Retrieved 2010-06-05. "Peter Hain: without blood diamonds, the war in Sierra Leone could not be financed... In the face of enormous suffering caused by the diamond-fuelled wars in Sierra Leone, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo, we have a duty to ensure that we are doing as much as we can" 
  6. ^ "Liberian 'conflict' timber faces trade ban". Greenpeace UK. 2003-05-07. http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/media/press-releases/liberian-conflict-timber-faces-trade-ban. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  7. ^ UNGA Resolution 55/56 (2001)
  8. ^ "definition of conflict resources - natural resources in conflict - global witness". www.globalwitness.org. http://www.globalwitness.org/pages/en/definition_of_conflict_resources.html. Retrieved 2010-06-05. [dead link]
  9. ^ Accessible through "the BICC Resource Conflict Monitor". http://www.bicc.de/rcm/index.php. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  10. ^ Granatstein, Solly; Young, Nicole (2009-11-29). "How Gold Pays For Congo's Deadly War". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/11/25/60minutes/main5774127.shtml. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  11. ^ Granatstein, Solly; Young, Nicole (2009-11-29). "60 Minutes: Killing Continues In The Deadliest War Since WWII As Gold And Other Minerals Pay For Weapons". www.cbsnews.com. p. 4. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/11/25/60minutes/main5774127_page4.shtml?tag=contentMain;contentBody. Retrieved 2010-06-05. "the Responsible Jewellery Council says that it is developing a system for the industry that will, one day, trace gold to its source."  The 2010-04-19 Responsible Jewellery Council discussion paper proposes a Chain-of-custody system (to enable jewellery makers and dealers to trace gold back to its original mine as a "Means to avoid ‘conflict’ resources", but warns "The gold market is much larger and more geographically diversified than diamonds. The gold jewellery market is five times larger than diamonds at first cost".
  12. ^ "Mining in the DRC". www.pulitzercenter.org. 2006. http://www.pulitzercenter.org/openitem.cfm?id=338. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  13. ^ Söderberg, Mattias (2006-09-22), Is there blood on your mobile phone?, http://www.danchurchaid.org/sider_paa_hjemmesiden/where_we_work/africa/congo_drc/read_more/is_there_blood_on_your_mobile_phone, retrieved 2009-05-16 
  14. ^ Allen, Karen (2009-09-02). "Human cost of mining in DR Congo". news.bbc.co.uk. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8234583.stm. Retrieved 2010-06-05. "'Sexual attacks peak when there's fighting,' said Shabunda-based human rights activist Papy Bwalinga Kashama. 'The reason the military and militia are fighting is to control the mines,'... it is not hard to find mines in the hands of men with guns" 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Resource curse — The resource curse (Paradox of Plenty) refers to the paradox that countries and regions with an abundance of natural resources, specifically point source non renewable resources like minerals and fuels, tend to have less economic growth and worse …   Wikipedia

  • Conflict management — involves implementing strategies to limit the negative aspects of conflict and to increase the positive aspects of conflict at a level equal to or higher than where the conflict is taking place. Furthermore, the aim of conflict management is to… …   Wikipedia

  • Conflict minerals — are minerals mined in conditions of armed conflict and human rights abuses, notably in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, by the Congolese National Army and various armed rebel groups, including the Democratic Forces… …   Wikipedia

  • Conflict-free diamond — Conflict free diamonds are diamonds of certified origin which are guaranteed not to be obtained through the use of violence, human rights abuses, child labor, or environmental destruction. These diamonds are individually tracked through their… …   Wikipedia

  • Conflict in the Niger Delta — Map of Nigeria numerically showing states typically considered part of the Niger Delta region: 1. Abia, 2. Akwa Ibom, 3. Bayelsa, 4. Cross River, 5. Delta …   Wikipedia

  • Resource Leveling — is a project management process used to examine a project for an unbalanced use of resources (usually people) over time, and for resolving over allocations or conflicts.When performing project planning activities, the manager will attempt to… …   Wikipedia

  • Conflict archaeology — is a sub discipline within archaeology focused on intergroup and intragroup conflict. Closely linked to battlefield archaeology and Military Sites Archaeology, conflict archaeology is developing[1] as an umbrella sub discipline that encompasses… …   Wikipedia

  • Conflict Prevention On Commune Elections — Initialement (1998 2003), COPCEL est l acronyme de « Conflict Prevention on Commune Elections », littéralement « Prévention des conflits dans les élections communales ». Le terme a depuis lors évolué (on parle aussi de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Conflict prevention on commune elections — Initialement (1998 2003), COPCEL est l acronyme de « Conflict Prevention on Commune Elections », littéralement « Prévention des conflits dans les élections communales ». Le terme a depuis lors évolué (on parle aussi de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Resource extraction in the Democratic Republic of Congo — The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo, or DRC) is a nation full of complexity and seeming contradictions. The DRC, previously known as Zaire, is rich in natural resources ($24 trillion of minerals, by one estimate), species diversity,… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”