- Environmental management
Environmental Management is not, as the phrase could suggest, the management of the "environment" as such, but rather the management of interaction by the modern human societies with, and impact upon the environment. The three main issues that affect managers are those involving politics (networking), programs (projects), and resources (i.e. money, facilities, etc). The need for environmental management can be viewed from a variety of perspectives. A more common philosophy and impetus behind environmental management is the concept of
carrying capacity. Simply put, carrying capacity refers to the maximum number of organisms a particular resource can sustain. The concept of carrying capacity, whilst understood by many cultures over history, has its roots in Malthusian theory. Environmental management is therefore not the conservation of the environment solely for the environment's sake, but rather the conservation of the environment for humankind's sake.Fact|date=January 2008 This element of sustainable exploitation, getting the most out of natural assets, is visible in the EU Water Framework Directive.
Environmental management involves the management of all components of the bio-physical environment, both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic). This is due to the interconnected and network of relationships amongst all living species and their habitats. The environment also involves the relationships of the human environment, such as the social, cultural and economic environment with the bio-physical environment.
As with all management functions, effective management tools, standards and systems are required. An 'environmental management standard or system or protocol attempts to reduce
environmental impactas measured by some objective criteria. The ISO 14001standard is the most widely used standard for environmental risk managementand is closely aligned to the European Eco Management & Audit Scheme (EMAS). As a common auditing standard, the ISO 19011standard explains how to combine this with quality management. The UK has developed a phased standard (BS8555) that can help smaller companies move to ISO 14001 in six manageable steps.
environmental management systems tend to be based on this standard and to extend it in various ways:
The Natural Stepfocuses on basic sustainabilitycriteria and helps focus engineeringon reducing use of materials or energy use that is unsustainable in the long term
Natural Capitalismadvises using accounting reformand a general biomimicryand industrial ecologyapproach to do the same thing
*US Environmental Protection Agency has many further terms and standards that it defines as appropriate to large-scale EMS.Fact|date=July 2007
UNand World Bankhas encouraged adopting a " natural capital" measurement and management framework.Fact|date=July 2007
European Union[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/emas/index_en.htm Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)]
Other strategies exist that rely on making simple distinctions rather than building top-down management "systems" using
performance audits and full cost accounting. For instance, Ecological Intelligent Designdivides products into consumables, service products or durables and unsaleables - toxic products that no one should buy, or in many cases, do not realize they are buying. By eliminating the unsaleables from the comprehensive outcomeof any purchase, better environmental management is achieved without "systems".
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy", ISSN 1618-954X, Springer
* "Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management", ISSN: 1535-3966 (electronic} 1535-3958 (paper),
John Wiley & Sons
* "Environmental Practice", ISSN: 1466-0474 (electronic) 1466-0466 (paper),
Cambridge University Press
* "Environmental Quality Management", ISSN: 1520-6483 (electronic) 1088-1913 (paper),
John Wiley & Sons
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management
* "Journal of Environmental Planning and Management", ISSN: 1360-0559 (electronic) 0964-0568 (paper),
* "Journal of Environmental Management", ISSN: 0301-4797,
business.gov provides businesses with environmental management tips, as well as tips for green business owners [http://business.gov/guides/environment/ here]
Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management
Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety
Department of Environmental Management
Environmental impact assessment
Environmental management scheme
Environmental Quality Management
Environmental Risk Management Authority
Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management(IEEM)
ISO Guide 64
List of environmental studies topics
National Environmental Management Authority
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