- Patrick O'Brian
name = Patrick O'Brian
caption = Patrick O'Brian (born Richard Patrick Russ)
12 December 1914
Chalfont St. Peter, Buckinghamshire, England
death_date = death date and age|2000|1|2|1914|12|12|df=y
novelist and translator
Patrick O'Brian, CBE (
12 December 1914– 2 January 2000; born as Richard Patrick Russ) was an English novelist and translator, best known for his " Aubrey–Maturin series" of novels set in the Royal Navyduring the Napoleonic Warsand centered on the friendship of English Naval Captain Jack Aubreyand the Irish–Catalan physician Stephen Maturin. The 20-novel series is known for its well-researched and highly detailed portrayal of early 19th century life, as well as its authentic and evocative language. A partially-finished twenty-first novel in the series was published posthumously containing facing pages of handwriting and typescript.
Childhood, early career and first marriage
O'Brian was born Richard Patrick Russ, in
Chalfont St. Peter, Buckinghamshireand was the son of a physician of German descent and an English mother of Irish descent. The eighth of nine children, he lost his mother at the age of three, and his biographers describe a fairly isolated childhood, with sporadic schooling and long intervals at home with his father and stepmother, during which time his literary career began (see below). In 1934 he underwent a brief period of pilot training with the Royal Air Forcebut this was not successful, and by 1935 he was living in London, where he married his first wife, Elizabeth, in 1936. They had two children; the second, a daughter, suffered from spina bifidaand died in 1942 aged three, by which time Patrick had left the family in their remote country cottage and returned to London, where he worked throughout the war. Commentators including biographer Dean King have claimed that O'Brian was actively involved in intelligence work and perhaps special operations overseas during the war [cite book |title=Patrick O'Brian:A life revealed |last=King |first=Dean |authorlink=Dean King |year=2000 |publisher=Hodder & Stoughton |location=London |isbn= 0-340-792558|pages=pp 89-104 |url= ] , and that these experiences informed those of his character Stephen Maturin, an intelligence agent. However, Nikolai Tolstoy disputes this [cite book |title=Patrick O'Brian: The making of the novelist |last=Tolstoy |first=Nikolai |authorlink=Nikolai Tolstoy |coauthors= |year=2005 |publisher=Arrow |location= |isbn=0-0094-1584-4 |pages=269-274 |url= ] , although he confirms that O'Brian worked as a volunteer ambulance driver during the Blitz, where he met Mary, the separated wife of Russian-born nobleman and lawyer Count Dimitri Tolstoy. They lived together through the latter part of the war, and after both were divorced from their previous spouses they married in July 1945. The following month he changed his name by deed pollto Patrick O'Brian.
econd marriage and later career
Between 1946 and 1949 the O'Brians lived in Cwm Croesor, a remote valley in north
Wales, where they initially rented a cottage from Clough Williams-Ellis. The area enabled O'Brian to pursue his interest in natural history; he fished, went birdwatching, and followed the local hunt. During this time they lived on Mary O'Brian's small income and the limited earnings from O'Brian's writings. The countryside and people provided inspiration for many of his short stories of the period, and also his novel "Testimonies" (1952) which is set in a thinly disguised Cwm Croesor, and which was well received by critics. In 1949 O'Brian and Mary moved to Collioure, a Catalan town in southern France. Over the ensuing four decades he worked on his own writings, his British literary reputation growing slowly, and also became an established translator of French works into English. In the early 1990s the Aubrey-Maturin serieswas successfully relaunched into the American market, attracting critical acclaim and dramatically increasing O'Brian's sales and public profile in the UK and America [King 2000, chapter 22 - 23] . In 1995 he was awarded the inaugural Heywood Hill Literary Prizefor his lifetime's writings, and he received a CBEin 1997. He and Mary remained together in Collioure until her death in 1998, but he continued to work on his naval novels, spending the winter of 1998-1999 at Trinity College, Dublin, which had awarded him an honorary doctoratein 1997.
Media exposure and controversy in his final years
O'Brian protected his privacy fiercely and was reluctant to reveal any details about his private life or past, preferring to include no biographical details on his book jackets and supplying only a minimum of personal information when pressed to do so. For many years reviewers and journalists assumed he was Irish [For example,
Lord Dunsanyreferred to "The Last Pool" as "this charming book by an Irish sportsman" in a 1950 "Observer" review (Tolstoy, 324) and William Waldegrave, reviewing "The Wine-Dark Sea" in 1993, was stil referring to O'Brian's supposed "Irish, French and English childhood" (William Waldegrave, "Patrick O'Brian", reprinted in Patrick O'Brian, "The Reverse of the Medal", HarperCollins reprinted 2003)] , and he took no steps to correct the impression. In 1998 a BBCdocumentary followed by an exposé in the Daily Telegraphcite web|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/htmlContent.jhtml?html=/archive/1999/10/24/nobr24.html|title=The Secret Life of Patrick O'Brian|last=Fenton|first=Ben|date=24 October 1999|work=The Daily Telegraph|accessdate=2008-08-26] made public the facts of his ancestry, original name and first marriage, provoking considerable critical media comment. (In the introduction to his biography of O'Brian, historian Nikolai Tolstoy- Mary O'Brian's son - claims to give a more accurate and balanced account of his late stepfather's character, actions and motives, particularly in respect of his first marriage and family.)
Patrick O'Brian died in January 2000 during a stay in Dublin, and his body was returned to Collioure, where he is buried next to his wife [cite web|url=http://www.collioure.com.au/obrian1.htm|title=Patrick and Mary O'Brian's grave in Collioure|accessdate=2008-08-26] .
Dean King's life of O'Brian, "Patrick O'Brian: A Life Revealed" was the first biography to document O'Brian's early life under his original name.
Nikolai Tolstoy is O'Brian's stepson through O'Brian's marriage to Mary Tolstoy, who divorced Count Dmitri Tolstoy in order to marry O'Brian in 1945. In November 2004, Nikolai Tolstoy published "Patrick O'Brian: The Making of the Novelist", the first volume in a two-part biography of O'Brian using material from the Russ and Tolstoy families and sources, including O'Brian's personal papers and library, which Tolstoy inherited on O'Brian's death.
O'Brian published two novels, a collection of stories and several uncollected stories under his original name, Richard Patrick Russ. His first book, "Caesar: The Life Story of a Panda-Leopard", was written at the age of 12 (and published three years later in 1930). It was a critical success, with a recommendation in the "
New Statesman" and positive reviews in publications including the " New York Herald Tribune" and the " Saturday Review of Literature" [King 2000, p.50] . Other stories followed, published in boys' magazines and annuals and incorporating themes of natural history and adventure, and a collection of these and other animal stories was published in 1934 under the title "Beasts Royal", with illustrations by the noted artist Charles Tunnicliffe, illustrator of " Tarka the Otter". "Hussein: An entertainment", set in India, was published in 1938, when he was 23. It was notable for being the first book of contemporary fiction ever published by the Oxford University Press[King 2000, p.75] , to whose annuals for boys he had been a regular contributor for some years.
O'Brian published very little during
World War II, and nothing after 1940. His change of surname in 1945 necessarily meant abandoning the literary reputation he had built up as R. P. Russ, and although he returned to writing after the war, when he moved to rural Wales, his non-fiction anthology "A Book of Voyages" (1947) attracted little attention. A collection of short stories, "The Last Pool", was published in 1950 and was more widely and favourably reviewed, although sales were low [King 2000, pp.151-151] .
In the 1950s O'Brian wrote three books aimed at a younger age group, "The Road to Samarcand", "
The Golden Ocean", and " The Unknown Shore". The latter two were based on events of the Anson circumnavigation of 1740–1743. Although written many years before the Aubrey–Maturin series, the literary antecedents of Aubrey and Maturin can be clearly seen in the characters of Jack Byron and Tobias Barrow.
Beginning in 1970, O'Brian began writing what turned into the twenty volume
Aubrey-Maturin seriesof novels. The books are set in the early 19th century and describe the life and careers of Captain Jack Aubrey and his friend, the ship's surgeon Dr Stephen Maturin. The books are distinguished by O'Brian's deliberate use and adaptation of actual historical events, either integrating his protagonists in the action without changing the outcome, or using adapted historical events as templates. In addition to this trait and to the O'Brian's distinctive literary style, his sense of humour is prominent (see Humour and Bawdy Humour in main article, "Aubrey-Maturin series"). Technical sailing terminology is employed throughout the series. The books are considered by critics to be a roman fleuvewhich can be read as one long story; the books follow Aubrey and Maturin's professional and domestic lives continuously.
As well as his historical novels, O'Brian wrote three adult mainstream novels, six story collections, and a history of the Royal Navy aimed at young readers. He also was a respected translator, responsible for more than 30 translations from the French, including
Henri Charrière's "Papillon" into English, Jean Lacouture's biography of Charles de Gaulle, as well as many of Simone de Beauvoir's later works.
O'Brian also wrote detailed biographies of Sir Joseph Banks (an English naturalist who took part in Cook's first voyage) and
Pablo Picasso. His biography of Picasso is a massive and comprehensive study of the artist. Picasso lived for a time in Collioure, the same French village as O'Brian, and the two came to be acquainted there. Peter Weir's 2003 film, "" is loosely based on the novel "The Far Side of the World" from the Aubrey–Maturin seriesfor its plot, but draws on a number of the novels for incidents within the film.
Mary's love and support were critical to O'Brian throughout his career. She worked with him in the British Library in the 1940s as he collected source material for his anthology "A Book of Voyages", which became the first book to bear his new name--the book was among his favorites, because of this close collaboration. He claimed that he wrote "like a Christian, with ink and quill"; Mary was his first reader and typed his manuscripts "pretty" for the publisher. Her death in March of 1998 was a tremendous blow to O'Brian and in the last two years of his life, particularly once the purported details of his early life were revealed to the world, he was a "lonely, tortured, and at the last possibly paranoid figure."cite book|last=Tolstoy|first=Nikolai|title=Patrick O'Brian: The making of the novelist|publisher=Random House|location=London|date=2004|isbn=0-0994-1584-4]
O'Brian wrote all of his books and stories by hand, shunning both typewriter and word processor. The handwritten manuscripts for 18 of the Aubrey-Maturin novels have been acquired by the
Lilly Libraryat Indiana University. Only two--"The Letter of Marque" and "Blue at the Mizzen" remain in private hands. The O'Brian manuscript collection at the Lilly Library also includes the manuscripts for "Picasso" and "Joseph Banks" and detailed notes for six of the Aubrey/Maturin novels. Nikolai Tolstoyalso possesses an extensive collection of O'Brian manuscript material, including the second half of "Hussein", several short stories, much of the reportedly "lost" book on Bestiaries, letters, diaries, journals, notes, poems, book reviews, and several unpublished short stories (Tolstoy, various pages).
Since his death, there have been two biographies published, though the first was well advanced when he died. The second is the first volume of a planned two-volume biography by O'Brian's stepson.
*cite book | author=
Dean H. King| title=Patrick O'Brian - A life revealed | publisher=Hodder & Stoughton Ltd | year=2001 | id=ISBN 0-340-79256-6
*cite book | author=
Dean H. King| title=In Search of Patrick O'Brian | publisher=Holt (Henry) & Co ,U.S. | year=2001 | id=ISBN 0-8050-5977-6 (US edition of the above book)
*cite book | author=
Nikolai Tolstoy| title=Patrick O'Brian: The Making of the Novelist | publisher=Century | year=2004 | id=ISBN 0-7126-7025-4
*cite book | author=
Nikolai Tolstoy| title=Patrick O'Brian: The Making of the Novelist 1914-1949 | publisher=W W Norton & Co Ltd | year=2005 | id=ISBN 0-393-06130-2 (US edition of the above book)
Also of importance when studying O'Brian:
*cite book | author=
A. E. Cunningham(Editor) | title=Patrick O'Brian: Critical appreciations and a bibliography | publisher=British Library | year=1994 | id=ISBN 0-7123-1071-1
The Aubrey–Maturin series
#"Master and Commander" (1969)
#"Post Captain" (1972)
#"HMS Surprise" (1973)
#"The Mauritius Command" (1977)
#"Desolation Island" (1978)
#"The Fortune of War" (1979)
#"The Surgeon's Mate" (1980)
#"The Ionian Mission" (1981)
#"Treason's Harbour" (1983)
#"The Far Side of the World" (1984)
#"The Reverse of the Medal" (1986)
#"The Letter of Marque" (1988)
#"The Thirteen-Gun Salute" (1989)
#"The Nutmeg of Consolation" (1991)
#"Clarissa Oakes" (1992)
("The Truelove" in the USA)
#"The Wine-Dark Sea" (1993)
#"The Commodore" (1994)
#"The Yellow Admiral" (1996)
#"The Hundred Days" (1998)
#"Blue at the Mizzen" (1999)
#"The Final Unfinished Voyage of Jack Aubrey" (2004)
("21" in the USA)
*"Caesar" (1930, his first book, which led him to be often labelled by critics as the 'boy-
*"Testimonies" (1952) ("Three Bear Witness" in the U.K.)
*"The Catalans" (1953) ("The Frozen Flame" in the U.K.)
*"The Road to Samarcand" (1954)
The Golden Ocean" (1956)
The Unknown Shore" (1959)
*"Richard Temple" (1962)
hort story collections
*"Beasts Royal" (1934)
*"The Last Pool and Other Stories" (1950)
*"The Walker and Other Stories" (1955)
*"Lying in the Sun and Other Stories" (1956)
*"The Chian Wine and Other Stories" (1974)
*"Collected Short Stories" (1994; "The Rendezvous and Other Stories" in the U.S.)
*"Men-of-War: Life in Nelson's Navy" (1974). ISBN 0-393-03858-0
Picasso" (1976; originally titled "Pablo Ruiz Picasso"). ISBN 0-00-717357-1
*"" (1987) The Harvill Press, London. Paperback reprint, 1989. ISBN 1-86046-406-8
English translations of other authors' works
Papillon" by Henri Charrière. London, Hart-Davis (1970)
Henri Charrière. New York, William Morrow (1973)
*Lord Cochrane "the sea wolf" (1775-1860)
*A Gunroom guide to [http://www.io.com/gibbonsb/pob/ Patrick O'Brian Web Resources] - comprehensive annotated link list
* [http://www2.wwnorton.com/pob/pobhome.htm Patrick O'Brian Home Page] - introduction to the author and his books, by his US publisher.
* [http://wiki.hmssurprise.org/index.php/Main_Page WikiPOBia] - wiki to annotate the written works of Patrick O'Brian.
* [http://www.cannonade.net Patrick O'Brian Mapping Project] - A Google Maps mashup project to map all 21 books in the
* [http://www.hmssurprise.org/News/Daisya_obriani.html Daisya obriani] - Lesser Weevil named for O'Brian
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