Name = Tinnitus

Caption =
DiseasesDB = 27662
ICD10 = ICD10|H|93|1|h|90
ICD9 = ICD9|388.3
MedlinePlus = 003043
eMedicineSubj = ent
eMedicineTopic = 235
MeshID = D014012

Tinnitus (pronEng|tɪˈnaɪtəs or IPA|/ˈtɪnɪtəs/, [http://www.ata.org American Tinnitus Association | Home | Help For Ringing In The Ears] ] from the Latin word for "ringing" [http://m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=tinnitus Dictionary of tinnitus - Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary] ] ) is the perception of sound within the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound.

Tinnitus can be perceived in one or both ears or in the head. It is usually described as a ringing noise, but in some patients it takes the form of a high pitched whining, buzzing, hissing, humming, or whistling sound, or as ticking, clicking, roaring, "crickets" or "tree frogs" or "locusts", tunes, songs, or beeping. [http://www.rnid.org.uk/information_resources/tinnitus/about_tinnitus/what_is_tinnitus/ RNID.org.uk: Information and resources: Tinnitus: About tinnitus: What is tinnitus] ] It has also been described as a "whooshing" sound, as of wind or waves. [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003043.htm Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia: Ear noises or buzzing] ] . Tinnitus can be intermittent or it can be continuous. In the latter case, this "phantom" sound can create great distress in the sufferer.

Tinnitus is not itself a disease but a symptom resulting from a range of underlying causes. Causes include ear infections, foreign objects or wax in the ear, nose allergies that prevent (or induce) fluid drain and cause wax build-up, and injury from loud noises. Tinnitus is also a side-effect of some oral medications, such as aspirin, and may also result from an abnormally low level of serotonin activity. It is also a classical side effect of Quinidine, a Class IA anti-arrhythmic. In many cases, however, no underlying physical cause can be identified.

The sound perceived may range from a quiet background noise to one that can be heard even over loud external sounds. The term "tinnitus" usually refers to more severe cases. Heller and Bergman (1953) conducted a study of 80 tinnitus-free university students placed in an anechoic chamber and found that 93% reported hearing a buzzing, pulsing or whistling sound. Cohort studies have demonstrated that damage to hearing (among other health effects) from unnatural levels of noise exposure is very widespread in industrialized countries. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16105247 Noise exposure and subjective hearing symptoms among school children in Sweden] ] Because tinnitus is often defined as a subjective phenomenon, it is difficult to measure using objective tests, such as by comparison to noise of known frequency and intensity, as in an audiometric test. The condition is often rated clinically on a simple scale from "slight" to "catastrophic" according to the practical difficulties it imposes, such as interference with sleep, quiet activities, or normal daily activities. [http://www.otohns.net/default.asp?id=1030 Guidelines for the Grading of Tinnitus Severity] ] For research purposes, the more elaborate Tinnitus Handicap Inventory is often used. [http://www.medicdirect.co.uk/self_Exam/default.ihtml?step=5&cid=46] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8630207 Development of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory] ]

Objective tinnitus

In a minority of cases, a clinician can perceive an actual sound ("e.g.", a bruit) emanating from the patient's ears. This is called objective tinnitus. Objective tinnitus can arise from muscle spasms that cause clicks or crackling around the middle ear. [http://www.entnet.org/healthinfo/hearing/tinnitus.cfm ENT Health Information > Hearing > Tinnitus] ] Some people experience a sound that beats in time with the pulse (pulsatile tinnitus). [http://www.rnid.org.uk/information_resources/factsheets/tinnitus/factsheets_leaflets/?ciid=290661 RNID.org.uk: Information and resources: Our factsheets and leaflets: Tinnitus: Factsheets and leaflets] ] Pulsatile tinnitus is usually objective in nature, resulting from altered blood flow or increased blood turbulence near the ear (such as from atherosclerosis or venous hum [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=6865626&dopt=Abstract Diagnosis and cure of venous hum tinnitus] ] ), but it can also arise as a subjective phenomenon from an increased awareness of blood flow in the ear. Rarely, pulsatile tinnitus may be a symptom of potentially life-threatening conditions such as carotid artery aneurysm [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=15956490 Otologic manifestations of petrous carotid aneurysms] ] or carotid artery dissection. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=15096317 Carotid Artery Dissection] ]

Measuring tinnitus

The basis of quantitative measurement of tinnitus relies on the brain’s tendency to select out only the loudest sounds heard. Based on this tendency, the amplitude of a patient's tinnitus can be measured by playing sample sounds of known amplitude and asking the patient which he or she hears. The tinnitus will always be equal to or less than sample noises heard by the patient. This method works very well to gauge objective tinnitus (see above.) For example: if a patient has a pulsatile paraganglioma in his ear, he will not be able to hear the blood flow through the tumor when the sample noise is 5 decibels louder than the noise produced by the blood. As sound amplitude is gradually decreased, the tinnitus will become audible, and the level at which it does so provides an estimate of the amplitude of the objective tinnitus.

Objective tinnitus, however, is quite uncommon. Often patients with pulsatile tumors will report other coexistent sounds, distinct from the pulsatile noise, that will persist even after their tumor has been removed. This is generally subjective tinnitus, which, unlike the objective form, cannot be tested by comparative methods.

If a subject is focused on a sample noise, they can often detect it to levels below 5 decibels, which would indicate that their tinnitus would be almost impossible to hear. Conversely, if the same test subject is told to focus only on their tinnitus, they will report hearing the sound even when test noises exceed 70 decibels, making the tinnitus louder than a ringing phone. This quantification method suggests that subjective tinnitus relates only to what the patient is attempting to hear. Patients actively complaining about tinnitus could thus be assumed to be people who have become obsessed with the noise. This is only partially true. The problem is involuntary; generally complaining patients simply cannot override or ignore their tinnitus. The noise is often present in both quiet and noisy environments, and can become quite intrusive to their daily lives.

Subjective tinnitus may not always be correlated with ear malfunction or hearing loss. Even people with near-perfect hearing may still complain of it. Tinnitus may also have a connection to memory problems, anxiety, fatigue or a general state of poor health.

Mechanisms of subjective tinnitus

One of the possible mechanisms relies in the otoacoustic emissions. The inner ear contains thousands of minute hairs which vibrate in response to sound waves and cells which convert neural signals back into acoustical vibrations. The sensing cells are connected with the vibratory cells through a neural feedback loop, whose gain is regulated by the brain. This loop is normally adjusted just below onset of self-oscillation, which gives the ear spectacular sensitivity and selectivity. If something changes, it's easy for the delicate adjustment to cross the barrier of oscillation and tinnitus results. This can actually be measured by a very sensitive microphone outside the ear.

Other possible mechanisms of how things can change in the ear is damage to the receptor cells. Although receptor cells can be regenerated from the adjacent supporting Deiters cells after injury in birds, reptiles, and amphibians, in mammals it is believed that they can be produced only during embryogenesis. Although mammalian Deiters cells reproduce and position themselves appropriately for regeneration, they have not been observed to transdifferentiate into receptor cells except in tissue culture experiments. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16525832 Supporting cell proliferation after hair cell injury in mature guinea pig cochlea in vivo] ] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16791196 Mammalian cochlear supporting cells can divide and trans-differentiate into hair cells] ] Therefore, if these hairs become damaged, through prolonged exposure to excessive decibel levels, for instance, then deafness to certain frequencies occurs. In tinnitus, they may falsely relay information at a certain frequency that an externally audible sound is present, when it is not.

The mechanisms of subjective tinnitus are often obscure. While it is not surprising that direct trauma to the inner ear can cause tinnitus, other apparent causes (e.g., temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ) and dental disorders) are difficult to explain. Recent research has proposed that there are two distinct categories of subjective tinnitus: otic tinnitus, caused by disorders of the inner ear or the acoustic nerve, and somatic tinnitus, caused by disorders outside the ear and nerve but still within the head or neck. It is further hypothesized that somatic tinnitus may be due to "central crosstalk" within the brain, as certain head and neck nerves enter the brain near regions known to be involved in hearing.

While most discussions of tinnitus tend to stress physical mechanisms, there is strong evidence that the level of an individual's awareness of their tinnitus can be stress-related, and so should be addressed by improving the state of the nervous system generally, using gradual, unobtrusive, long-term treatments.Fact|date=March 2007 [http://www.paralumun.com/healthtinn.htm]


Tinnitus and hearing loss can be permanent conditions, thus, precautionary measures are advisable. If a ringing in the ears is audible after exposure to a loud environment, such as a rock concert or a work place, it means that damage has been done. Prolonged exposure to noise levels as low as 70 dB can result in damage to hearing (see noise health effects). For musicians and DJs, special musicians' earplugs play a huge factor in preventing tinnitus and can lower the volume of the music without distorting the sound and can prevent tinnitus from developing in later years.

It is also important to check medications for potential ototoxicity. Ototoxicity can be cumulative between medications, or can greatly increase the damage done by noise. If ototoxic medications must be administered, close attention by the physician to prescription details, such as dose and dosage interval, can reduce the damage done. [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tandf/soto/2001/00000121/00000005/art00004 IngentaConnect Drug-induced Otoxicity: Current Status] ]

Causes of subjective tinnitus

Tinnitus can have many different causes, but most commonly results from otologic disorders – the same conditions that cause hearing loss. The most common cause is noise-induced hearing loss, resulting from exposure to excessive or loud noises. But tinnitus, along with sudden onset hearing loss, may have no obvious external cause. Ototoxic drugs can cause tinnitus either secondary to hearing loss or without hearing loss, and may increase the damage done by exposure to loud noise, even at doses that are not in themselves ototoxic. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=7035098 Ototoxic drugs and noise] ]

Causes of tinnitus include: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=14727828 Diagnostic approach to tinnitus] ]
*Otologic problems and hearing loss:
** conductive hearing loss
*** external ear infection
*** acoustic shock
*** cerumen (earwax) impaction
*** middle ear effusion
*** Superior canal dehiscence
** sensorineural hearing loss
*** excessive or loud noise
*** presbycusis (age-associated hearing loss)
*** Ménière's disease
*** acoustic neuroma
*** mercury or lead poisoning
*** ototoxic medications
**** analgesics:
***** aspirin
***** nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
**** antibiotics:
***** aminoglycosides e.g. gentamicin
***** chloramphenicol
***** erythromycin
***** tetracycline
***** vancomycin
***** Vibramycin [ [http://emc.medicines.org.uk/emc/assets/c/html/displaydoc.asp?documentid=9025 Vibramycin, Vibramycin 50, Patient Information Leaflet from the eMC ] ]
**** chemotherapy and antiviral drugs:
***** bleomycin
***** interferon
***** pegylated interferon-alpha-2b
***** cisplatin
***** mechlorethamine
***** methotrexate
***** vincristine
**** loop diuretics:
***** bumetanide
***** ethacrynic acid
***** furosemide
**** others:
***** chloroquine
***** quinine
*** Psychedelic drugs:
**** Diisopropyltryptamine (DiPT)
**** 5-Methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine
*neurologic disorders:
**chiari malformation
**multiple sclerosis
**head injury
***skull fracture
***closed head injury
***whiplash injury
***temporomandibular joint disorder

*metabolic disorders:
**thyroid disorder
**vitamin B12 deficiency

*psychiatric disorders:

*other causes:
**Tension Myositis Syndrome
**hypertonia (Muscle Tension)
**thoracic outlet syndrome
**lyme disease
**sleep paralysis
**Glomus Tympanicum


There are many treatments for tinnitus that have been claimed, with varying degrees of statistical reliability:

"Objective tinnitus:"
* Gamma knife radiosurgery "(glomus jugulare)" [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16272947 Treatment of glomus jugulare tumors in patients with advanced age: planned limited surgical resection followed by staged gamma knife radiosurgery: a preliminary report] ]
* Shielding of cochlea by teflon implant [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16331169 Pulsatile tinnitus and the intrameatal vascular loop: why do we not hear our carotids?] ]
* Botulinum toxin "(palatal tremor)" [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16845571 Botulinum toxin is effective and safe for palatal tremor: a report of five cases and a review of the literature] ]
* Propranolol and clonazepam "(arterial anatomic variation)" [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16446904 Pulsatile tinnitus: treatment with clonazepam and propranolol] ]
*Clearing ear canal (in the case of e.g. earwax plug) [ [http://www.hygieneexpert.co.uk/EarCareWaxBuildUp.html hygieneexpert.co.uk] Ear Care and Wax Build Up]

"Subjective tinnitus:"
* Drugs and nutrients
** Ginkgo Biloba
** Lidocaine, injection into the inner ear found to suppress the tinnitus for 20 minutes, according to a Swedish study. [ [http://www.lakemedelsvarlden.nu/article.asp?articleID=4893&articleCategoryID=2&issueID=113 Swedish website about tinnitus] ]
** Benzodiazepines (lorazepam, clonazepam)
** Avoidance of caffeine, nicotine, salt [Rogers, June: "Only When I Eat: Hope at Last". Ki Publishing Co-operative. UK ISBN 0951 0769 06] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=3374234 Vascular decompression of the cochlear nerve in tinnitus sufferers] ] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=9092280 Meniere's disease: differential diagnosis and treatment] ]
**The consumption of alcohol has been found to both increase and decrease the severity of tinnitus. Therefore, alcohol's effect on the severity of tinnitus is dependent on the causes of the individual's affliction and cannot be considered a treament. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=8838550 Patients' reports of the effect of alcohol on tinnitus] ]
** Zinc supplementation "(where serum zinc deficiency is present)" [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=12544035 The role of zinc in the treatment of tinnitus] ] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=12393036 The role of zinc in management of tinnitus] ] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=1872515 Zinc in the management of tinnitus. Placebo-controlled trial] ]
** Acamprosate [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16612523 Tinnitus treatment with acamprosate: double-blind study] ]
** Etidronate "or" sodium fluoride "(otosclerosis)" [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=9210803 Etidronate for the neurotologic symptoms of otosclerosis: preliminary study] [sic] ]
** Lignocaine "or" anticonvulsants "(usually in patients responsive to white noise masking)" [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=6799263 Drugs in the treatment of tinnitus] ]
** Carbamazepine [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16514262 Typewriter tinnitus: a carbamazepine-responsive syndrome related to auditory nerve vascular compression] ]
** Melatonin "(especially for those with sleep disturbance)" [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16455366 The effects of melatonin on tinnitus and sleep] ]
** Sertraline [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16415703 The effects of sertraline on severe tinnitus suffering—a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study] ]
** Vitamin combinations "(Lipoflavonoid)" [Williams HL, Maher FT, Corbin KB, et al: Eriodictyol glycoside in the treatment of Meniere’s disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 72:1082, 1963.]
* Electrical stimulation
** Transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16845596 Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus: a new coil positioning method and first results] ] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16930367 Transient tinnitus suppression induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation] ]
** Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16556347 Treatment of tinnitus with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation improves patients' quality of life] ]
** Direct stimulation of auditory cortex by implanted electrodes [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16514263 Primary and secondary auditory cortex stimulation for intractable tinnitus] ]
** Berthold Langguth, German neurologist would apply an electric or magnetic current for stimulation over the head of the patient to reduce ringing sound. Dirk De Ridder, Belgian neurosurgeon implanted electrodes to the brain of sufferers to normalise overactive neurons. Cambridge scientists also found that lidocaine, an anaesthetic reduces the sound in 2/3 of patients for 5 minutes, but it needs another drug to suppress its dangerous effects. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7175306.stm news.bbc.co.uk, New hope for tinnitus sufferers] ]
* Surgery
** Repair of perilymph fistula [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=11137360 Perilymph fistula—45 case analysis] ]
* External sound
** The Neuromonics Tinnitus Treatment, introduced first in Australia now in the US. FDA Cleared treatment for tinnitus.Fact|date=April 2008
** Low-pitched sound treatment has shown some positive, encouraging results. [http://today.uci.edu/news/release_detail.asp?key=1570 (UC, Irvine press release)]
** Tinnitus masking [http://www.stanford.edu/~dattorro/Tin/tin.html Tinnitus masker - sonic designs by Jon Dattorro...] ] (white noise, or better 'shaped' or filtered noise [http://www.esseraudio.com/fng.htm Filtered Noise Generator] ]
** Tinnitus retraining therapy [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16274808 Long-term clinical trial of tinnitus retraining therapy] ] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16640064 Outcomes of clinical trial: tinnitus masking versus tinnitus retraining therapy] ]
** Auditive stimulation therapy (music therapy) [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16639917 Auditive stimulation therapy as an intervention in subacute and chronic tinnitus: a prospective observational study] ]
** Compensation for lost frequencies by use of a hearing aid. [ [http://www.ohsu.edu/ohrc/tinnitusclinic/compTreatments.html OHSU Tinnitus Clinic: Comprehensive Treatment Programs including Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT)] ]
** Ultrasonic bone-conduction external acoustic stimulation [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16639909 Ultra-high-frequency ultrasonic external acoustic stimulation for tinnitus relief: a method for patient selection] ] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16419683 Tinnitus improvement with ultra-high-frequency vibration therapy] ]
** Avoidance of outside noise "(exogenous tinnitus)" [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16639912 Subdividing tinnitus into bruits and endogenous, exogenous, and other forms] ]
* Psychological
** Cognitive behavioral therapy [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16379495 Treatment of tinnitus in the elderly: a controlled trial of cognitive behavior therapy] ]
* Light-based
** Photobiomodulation (a.k.a. Low Level Laser Therapy); efficacy is debated [ [http://www.tinnitusformula.com/infocenter/articles/treatments/LLLT.aspx Low Level Laser Therapy for Tinnitus - Tinnitus Information Center ] ]

Although there are no specific cures for tinnitus, anything that brings the person out of the "fight or flight" stress response helps symptoms recede over a period of time. Calming body-based therapies, counseling and psychotherapy help restore well-being, which in turn allows tinnitus to settle. Chronic tinnitus can be quite stressful psychologically, as it distracts the affected individual from mental tasks and interferes with sleep, particularly when there is no external sound. Additional steps in reducing the impact of tinnitus on adverse health consequences include: a review of medications that may have tinnitus as a side effect; a physical exam to reveal possible underlying health conditions that may aggravate tinnitus; receiving adequate rest each day; and seeking a physician's advice concerning a sleep aid to allow for a better sleep pattern.

Notable individuals with tinnitus

Notable sufferers of tinnitus include:

* Richard Attenborough [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2007/12/23/sv_richardattenborough.xml&page=3 Telegraph.co.uk "Richard Attenborough: the trouper"] ]
* Ludwig van Beethoven [ [http://molinterv.aspetjournals.org/cgi/content/full/1/1/8 Beethoven: A Life of Sound and Silence - Huxtable 1 (1): 8 - Molecular Interventions] ]
* Igor Balis [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/teams/w/west_bromwich_albion/2798145.stm BBC Sports] ]
* Peter Brown [ [http://www.disco-disco.com/tributes/peter.shtml Disco-disco.com] ]
* Louis-Ferdinand Celine [ [http://vanguardnewsnetwork.com/v1/2004b/72104celine.htm Van Guard News Network Article] ]
* John Densmore [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/2534949.stm - BBC News The Doors postpone reuinion] ]
* Al Di Meola [ [http://www.nationalpost.com/related/links/story.html?id=616207 90's a symphony and 100 is loud] ]
* Till Fellner [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/arts/music/28merm.html?_r=1&scp=3&sq=&st=nyt&oref=slogin - Music Section - New York Times] ]
* Paul Gilbert [ [http://www.metalsludge.tv/home/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=347&Itemid=52 Metalsludge.com: 20 Questions with Paul Gilbert. 27 April 2004] ]
* Gary Glitter [ [http://news.scotsman.com/uk/Gary-Glitter-told-he-must.4409557.jp - Scotsman - "Gary Glitter boards flight to Hong Kong"] ]
* Francisco de Goyacite book |title=The New Book of Lists |last=Wallechinsky |first=David |coauthors=Amy Wallace |year=2005 |publisher=Canongate |location=US |isbn=1841957194 |pages=161 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=tdY_N5gpOy4C ]
* Charlie Haden [http://www.ums.org/assets/pdf/studyguide/haden-sg.pdf]
* Ayumi Hamasaki [cite web | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7174893.stm | publisher=BBC | date=2008-01-07 | accessdate=2008-01-08 | title=Japanese pop star deaf in one ear]
* Adolf Hitler [ [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0386944/bio "Biography for Adolf Hitler"] ]
* Joan of Arc
* Garrison Keillor [ [http://prairiehome.publicradio.org/features/deskofgk/2007/06/26.shtml A Prairie Home Companion. "The Old Scout: The Unknown Person at the Airport" June 19, 2007] ]
* Myles Kennedy [ [http://www.spokane7.com/blogs/soundwave/archive.asp?postID=6318 Spokane7.com] ]
* Steve Kilbey [http://www.shadowcabinet.net/454/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=510&Itemid=26 The Church, Interview 27 July 2006] ]
* David Letterman [ [http://www.itog.com/item_info.pl?id=87292 David Letterman - Is That One Good?] ]
* Martin Luthercite journal |author=Feldmann H |title= [Martin Luther's seizure disorder] |language=German |journal=Sudhoffs Archiv |volume=73 |issue=1 |pages=26–44 |year=1989 |pmid=2529669 |doi=]
* Steve Martin [http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-wellbeing/health-news/hearing-things-610601.html The Independent. Health & Wellbeing. 11 December 2002. "Hearing Things."] ]
* Joseph Mawle [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2008/03/14/bvpassion114.xml&page=2 - Telegraph.co.uk - Joseph Mawle: Playing Jesus] ]
* Michelangelo [ [http://www.audiology.org/aboutaudiology/consumered/guides/tinnitus.htm AAA: Tinnitus: Noises No One Else Can Hear] ]
* Roger Miller (rock musician) [ [http://www.citypages.com/2002-11-20/music/mission-impossible/ City Pages "Mission Impossible"] ]
* Moby [ [http://www.tuneouttinnitus.org.uk/home/whatistinnitus/celebs/ Tinnitus: home: What is tinnitus?: Celebrities] ]
* Leonard Nimoy [ [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000559/bio Internet Movie Database. "Biography for Leonard Nimoy"] ]
* Tim Powles
* Tony Randall [ [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0709704/bio Internet Movie Database profile] ]
* Jimmy Savile
* Robert Schumann
* William Shatnercite web|url= http://www.ata.org/home/shatner.html |title=I've Been There|publisher=American Tinnitus Association|author=Wray, Rachel; Dan May|accessdate=2007-02-05]
* Alan Shepard
* Bedrich Smetana [ [http://academic.csuohio.edu/clevelandhistory/culturalgardens/Gardens/Czech/smetana.htm Cleveland State University - Czech Garden] ]
* Vivian Stanshall [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2001/10/20/bogin20.xml - Telegraph.co.uk - How he went to the dogs] ]
* Jack Straw [ [http://www.prlog.org/10022899-atr-conducts-tinnitus-research-trial.pdf Action for Tinnitus Research] ]
* Barbara Streisand
* Peter Stringfellow [ [http://www.tinnitus.org.uk/index.php?q=node/90 British Tinnitus Association] ]
* Pete Townshend
* Neil Young
* Vincent van Gogh [ [http://www.readersdigest.ca/mag/2000/07/tinnitus.html Reader's Digest. Healthier Living. "Tinnitus: Terror in Your Ear". Francine Fiore and Anne Paillard] ]

See also

* Absolute threshold of hearing
* Audiologist
* Auditory system
* Ear
* Hearing impairment
* Hyperacusis
* Noise health effects
* Ringxiety


* "Tinnitus a Multidisciplinary Approach" Gehard Anderson, David Baguley, Laurence McKenna, Don McFerran.(ISBN 1861564031)Wiley Chichester, 2005
* "Tinnitologia" Ramiro M. Vergara. (ISBN 9789584419309), Lulu.com, 2008


External links

* 2007 [http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20070625&slug=tinnitus25 Article] in the Seattle Times

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  • Tinnītus — (lat.), das Klingen, Tönen. T. aurium, Ohrtönen …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

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  • tinnitus — [ti nīt′es, tin′i təs] n. [L < pp. of tinnire, to tinkle, of echoic orig.] any ringing or buzzing in the ear not resulting from an external stimulus …   English World dictionary

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