Sauwastika

Sauwastika

The term "sauwastika" or "sauvastika" is a term sometimes used to distinguish the "left-facing" from the "right-facing" form of the swastika symbol. [Probably first by D'Alviella (1894); more recently, "sauvastika" is used to classify the geometrical form of symbols in Liungman, "Symbols: Encyclopedia of Western Signs and Ideograms",HME Publishing (2004) ISBN 9197270504]

The "left-facing" variant is current in Buddhism and Bön, while Hinduism uses both variants, with the "right-facing" one more common.

Etymology

Sanskrit "sauvastika" is a vriddhi derivation of "svastika", attested as an adjective meaning "benedictive, salutatory". [according to Wilson (1819), cited by Monier-Williams.] The term has been conflated with "suavastika", a term used by Burnouf (1852), and again by Schliemann in "Ilios" (1880), based on a letter from Max Müller, who is in turn quoting Burnouf. The term is not Sanskrit, and may be due to a mistake of Burnouf's, since it is not known from any earlier source. [Wilson (1896) finds that "The 'Suavastika' which Max Müller names and believes was applied to the Swastika sign, with the ends bent to the left [...] seems not to be reported with that meaning by any other author except Burnouf."; On Oriental Carpets. Article III.—The Svastika, The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs (1903) also uses the term with reference to Müller.]

The term "sauwastika" is first used in the sense of "backwards swastika" by D'Alviella (1894):

Claims of a distinction in Indian religions

Eugene Burnouf, the first Western expert on Buddhism, stated in his book "Lotus de la bonne loi" (1852) that the "Suavastika" was a Buddhist variant of the "Svastika".

When Heinrich Schliemann discovered swastika motifs in Troy, he wrote to the Indologist Max Müller, who, quoting Burnouf, confirmed this distinction, adding that "the "Svastika" was originally a symbol of the sun, perhaps of the vernal sun as opposed to the autumnal sun, the "Suavastika", and, therefore, a natural symbol of light, life, health, and wealth." The letter was published in Schliemann's book "Ilios" (1880):

The term "suavastika" thus cannot be confirmed as authentic and is probably due to Burnouf (1852). Notions that sauwastikas are considered "evil" or inauspicious versions of the auspicious swastika in Indian religions have even less substance, since even Burnouf counts the svastika and the suavastika equally among the "sixty-five auspicious signs".

D'Alviella (1894) voices doubts about the distinction:

Although the more common form is the right-facing swastika, the symbol is used in both orientations for the sake of balance in Hinduism. Buddhists almost always use the left-facing swastika.

Claims concerning the Nazi swastika

Some contemporary writers assert that the swastika as used in Nazi Germany is in fact the "evil sauwastika". [e.g. [http://www.intelinet.org/swastika/swasti01.htm Servando González] (1998); González "proves" that the left-facing swastika is the sunwise one with reference to an 1930s box of Standard fireworks from Sivakasi, India.] Since the swastika on the Flag of Nazi Germany was "right-facing" when displayed one-sided (e.g. hanging on buildings), this requires a redefinition of "sauwastika" as the variant current in Hinduism, and the "swastika proper" as the "left-facing" one current in Buddhism, contrary to Burnouf. The notion that Hitler deliberately inverted the "good left-facing" Buddhist swastika is, however, wholly unsupported by any historical evidence.

Notes

References

* D'Alviella, "The Migration of Symbols " (1894)
* Eugene Burnouf, "Lotus de la bonne loi" (1852)
* Heinrich Schliemann, "Ilios" (1880)
* Thomas Wilson, "The Swastika: The Earliest Known Symbol, and Its Migrations; with Observations on the Migration of Certain Industries in Prehistoric Times". Smithsonian Institution. (1896)

ee also

* Lauburu
* Bön
* Sun cross
* Triskelion
* Valknut

External links

* [http://www.northvegr.org/lore/swastika/index.php The Swastika]
* [http://www.maitreya.org/swastika/ Swaztika] "(sic)" "(a scan of the original publication)"


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