- Eufaula, Alabama
official_name = Eufaula, Alabama
mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location in
Barbour County, Alabama
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = Barbour
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Jay Jaxon, Jr.
area_total_km2 = 190.3
area_total_sq_mi = 73.5
area_land_km2 = 153.9
area_land_sq_mi = 59.4
area_water_km2 = 36.4
area_water_sq_mi = 14.1
elevation_ft = 262
elevation_m = 80
population_as_of = 2000
population_total = 13908
population_density_km2 = 73.1
population_density_sq_mi = 189.2
timezone = Central (CST)
utc_offset = -6
latd = 31 |latm = 53 |lats = 21 |latNS = N
longd = 85 |longm = 9 |longs = 13 |longEW = W
timezone_DST = CDT
utc_offset_DST = -5
postal_code = 36027, 36072
area_code = 334
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 01-24568
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0118051
Eufaula is a city in
Barbour County, Alabama, United States. At the 2000 census the population was 13,908.
Eufaula is located at 31°53'21.732" North, 85°9'13.586" West (31.889370, -85.153774).GR|1
According to the
U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.5 square miles (190.3 km²), of which, 59.4 square miles (153.9 km²) of it is land and 14.1 square miles (36.4 km²) of it (19.13%) is water. It sits on a reservoir called Walter F. George Lake, or just Lake Eufaula to locals.
Beginning no later than 1733, the site along the
Chattahoochee Riverthat is now modern-day Eufaula was occupied by three Creek Indiantribes of the Muscogee Nation. The most dominant of the three, and most open to contact with whites, was named "the Eufaulas" (pronounced "you-fall-uhs.") In 1823, families from Georgia, looking for fertile crop land, established a permanent white settlement on the high bluffs of the area and adopted the Creek village's name.
General William Irwin, a hero of the
War of 1812, was granted several thousand acres of land in nearby Henry County. One of the most prosperous men in the area, he served as its first State Senator. With his influence, he promoted the area's development and established the first steamboatwharf along Eufaula's high bluffs. This set the stage for the town's rise to prominence as a center of trade. In his honor, Eufaula was renamed the city of "Irwinton."
Attracted by the area's rich soil, and further encouraged by the opening of the Federal Road, white settlers swarmed the area. Due to the
Treaty of Cusseta, in 1832, the Creeks were forced to abandon their land rights in the area and Barbour County was incorporated. The Creeks were reconsolidated with others tribes in Muscogee Nation in upper Florida, thus leaving their native homeland forever.
U.S. ArmyCaptain Seth Lore and others developed what is now the downtown area, naming the four main north-south avenues "Livingston," "Orange," "Randolph," and "Eufaula" (L-O-R-E.) The Seth Lore and Irwinton Historic Districtof Eufaula now encompasses much of the oldest part of the city. In late 1843, the town was re-named "Eufaula," because the mail was constantly misdirected to Irwinton, Georgia.
The town became a major shipping and trading point for surrounding counties in Georgia and Alabama. Its many impressive
antebellumhomes and businesses attest to the wealth and culture of the period. Eufaula became politically powerful, and the "Eufaula Regency," as early as the late 1840s, supported secessionof Alabamafrom the United States. After the start of the American Civil Warsix companies of infantrymen and cavalrymen (an impressive number considering the population of the area at the time) came from Eufaula and its encompassing county, Barbour County. These men fought for the Confederate States of Americain battles as far away as Virginia. They also developed a reputation as fierce fighters, using tactics learned through many decades of conflicts with the Creeks. John Gill Shorter, who returned to Eufaula after being wounded early in the war, served as Governorof Alabama during the Civil War.
Following the defeat and fall of Montgomery, the state capital, to Union troops, Eufaulians could only wait for the worst. On
April 29, 1865, a messenger galloped in with news that General Benjamin H. Grierson, Commanding General of over 4,000 Union cavalrymen, was approaching from Clayton, Alabama, to the west. Under a flag of truce, Eufaula's mayor, Doctor C. J. Pope, and other prominent citizens met General Grierson beyond College Hill with news that General Robert E. Leehad already surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grantat the Appomattox Courthouseand that the Civil War was over. The Union troops marched peacefully across the river to camp in Georgetown, Georgiaas Doctor Pope rushed back with barely enough time to disband the local militias to avoid conflict. Dr. and Mrs. Pope entertained the general and his staff at dinner. Thanks to the efforts of Dr. Pope, Eufaula remained intact, her citizens unharmed.
After the Civil War, the town's fortunes suffered from the restrictive
Reconstruction Actand the loss of plantation-produced cotton. However, by the early 1900s, Eufaula was booming again with cotton mills and railways. In 1963, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineerscreated Lake Walter F. George(unofficially named Lake Eufaula) behind the lock and dam of Fort Gaines, Georgia, once again assuring Eufaula's importance as an inland port.
In 1964, the
Eufaula National Wildlife Refugewas established along Lake Walter F. Georgeto serve and protect many endangered and threatened species such as the American Bald Eagle, the American Alligator, the wood storkand the peregrine falcon. The refuge is a major touristattraction for visitors from around the country.
Historic buildings include the
Eufaula First United Methodist Churchand the First Baptist Church of Eufaula. There are 667 contributing propertiesin the Seth Lore and Irwinton Historic District. cite web |work=National Register of Historic Places |title=National Register Information System |url=http://www.nr.nps.gov/ |accessdate=2007-01-23 |publisher=National Park Service] [cite web |url=http://www.eufaulaalabama.com/visitor/attractions.htm |work=City of Eufala, Alabama |title=Visitor Information - Attractions |accessdate=2008-06-20]
As of the
censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 13,908 people, 5,447 households, and 3,878 families residing in the city. The population densitywas 234.1 people per square mile (90.4/km²). There were 6,110 housing units at an average density of 102.8/sq mi (39.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 57.28% White, 40.42% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, and 0.65% from two or more races. 1.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 5,447 households out of which 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 20.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.8% were non-families. 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.02.
In the city, the population's age was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 86.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,910, and the median income for a family was $37,640. Males had a median income of $30,617 versus $20,477 for females. The
per capita incomefor the city was $16,146. About 19.3% of families and 23.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.2% of those under age 18 and 27.2% of those age 65 or over.
* Eufaula is a "Certified Audubon Sustainable Community"; certified by
Lake Eufaulais known as the "Bass Fishing Capital of the World." [cite web |work=Outdoor Alabama |url=http://www.outdooralabama.com/fishing/freshwater/where/reservoirs/eufaula/ |title=Fish and Fishing in Lake Eufaula]
* Its sister city,
Eufaula, Oklahoma, also has a lake called Lake Eufaula.
Children of the city
Martha Reeves(born July 18, 1941) was the lead singer of the American Motowngroup Martha & the Vandellas
George Wallace Jr.(born October 17, 1951) is a former Alabama Public Service Commissioner, State Treasurer and the son of Governors George and Lurleen Wallace.
Lula Mae Hardaway(born January 11, 1930) mother of Stevie Wonder
Katherine Jackson(born Katherine Esther Scruse on May 4, 1930) the mother of music superstars Michael Jacksonand Janet Jacksonwas born in the same county as Eufaula.
Thomas Hinman Moorer, USN (Ret.), (born February 9, 1912) was the Chief of Naval Operations and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
* E. J. Junior III, an all-SEC linebacker for the
University of Alabamaintercollegiate football team under coach Paul W. "Bear" Bryant
* [http://www.eufaulaalabama.com City Webpage]
* [http://www.eufaulapolice.org Eufaula Police Webpage]
* [http://www.eufaulapilgrimage.com Eufaula Pilgrimage]
* [http://www.ecs.k12.al.us Eufaula City Schools]
* [http://www.zwire.com/site/news.cfm?brd=2235 Eufaula Tribune]
* [http://www.wiregrasslive.com WiregrassLive.com - Citizen-driven news and messages]
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