George Gilbert Scott

George Gilbert Scott

Sir George Gilbert Scott (13 July 1811 – 27 March, 1878) was an English architect of the Victorian Age, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches, cathedrals and workhouses.

Born in Gawcott, Buckinghamshire, Scott was the son of a clergyman and grandson of the biblical commentator Thomas Scott. He studied architecture as a pupil of James Edmeston and, from 1832 to 1834, worked as an assistant to Henry Roberts. He also worked as an assistant for his friend Sampson Kempthorne. []

In about 1835, Scott took on William Bonython Moffatt as his assistant and later (1838-1845) as partner. Over the next 10 years Scott and Moffatt designed over 40 workhouses. A notable example was the Akroydon model housing scheme.

Meanwhile, he was inspired by Augustus Pugin to join the Gothic revival of the Victorian era, his first notable work in this style being the Martyrs' Memorial on St Giles in Oxford (1841). Later, Scott went beyond copying mediaeval English gothic for his "Victorian Gothic" or "Gothic Revival" buildings, and began to introduce features from other styles and European countries as evidenced in his glorious Midland red-brick construction, the 'Midland Grand Hotel' at London's St Pancras Station, from which approach Scott believed a new style might emerge.

Between 1864 and 1876, the Albert Memorial, designed by Scott, was constructed in Hyde Park. It was a commission on behalf of Queen Victoria in memory of her beloved husband, Prince Albert.

Scott was awarded the RIBA's Royal Gold Medal in 1859. Knighted in 1872, he died in 1878 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

His sons George Gilbert Scott Junior and John Oldrid Scott, and grandson Giles Gilbert Scott, were also prominent architects. He was also related to the architect Elisabeth Scott. Scott's grandfather was Thomas Scott (commentator).

His book

* "Recollections" (London, 1879)


His projects include:
*workhouses in Brackley, Kettering, Northampton, Oundle and Towcester (all in Northamptonshire), Billericay and Dunmow (Essex), Windsor (Berkshire), Boston (Lincolnshire), Amersham and Buckingham (Buckinghamshire), Williton (Somerset), Guildford (Surrey), Penzance and Redruth (Cornwall).
*two lodge houses at Great Barr Hall, near Birmingham (pre-1863)
*Holy Trinity Church, Hartshill, Stoke on Trent (1842)
*School and Masters House,Hartshill, Stoke on Trent (1848)
*Astbury School and Masters House Congleton (1848)
*Workers Houses, Hartshill, Stoke on Trent (1842-48)
*St. John the Baptist Church, Beeston (1842)
*St Mark's Church, Worsley, Greater Manchester (1844-6)
*All Saints church, Ryde, Isle of Wight (1872)
*All Souls church, Haley Hill, Halifax (1859)
*Brighton College, Sussex (1848-1866)
*Clifton Hampden Bridge, Oxfordshire (1867)
*St Denys Church,Southampton (1868)
*Hafodunos, Llangernyw, North Wales (1861-1866)
*Leeds General Infirmary
*Lanhydrock House, near Bodmin, Cornwall (1857), formal gardens assisted by Richard Coad
*St George's Minster, Doncaster (1858)
*Hall Cross School's library in Doncaster
*St James' Church, Cradley, Herefordshire Chancel (1868) "The Buildings of England: Herefordshire", Nikolaus Pevsner, 1963 p106 ISBN 0-14-071025-6]
*St John's Church, Eastnor, Herefordshire Church (1852) and Monument (1855). "The Buildings of England: Herefordshire", Nikolaus Pevsner, 1963 p122-123 ISBN 0-14-071025-6]
*The Cathedral of St John the Baptist in St John's, Newfoundland (1847)
*St Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh (Episcopal)
*St Mary, Edvin Loach, Herefordshire (?1860). "The Buildings of England: Herefordshire", Nikolaus Pevsner, 1963 p126 ISBN 0-14-071025-6]
*St Mary, Hanwell, London W7 (1841). ['Hanwell: [ Churches] ', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 3: Shepperton, Staines, Stanwell, Sunbury, Teddington, Heston and Isleworth, Twickenham, Cowley, Cranford, West Drayton, Greenford, Hanwell, Harefield and Harlington (1962), pp. 230-33. Date accessed: 21 July 2007.]
*St Mary's Church, Mirfield
*St Mary The Virgin, Speldhurst Kent 1879
*St Mary, Tedstone Delamere, Herefordshire Chancel (1856-7). "The Buildings of England: Herefordshire", Nikolaus Pevsner, 1963 p299 ISBN 0-14-071025-6]
*St Mary, Timsbury, Somerset [cite web | title=Church of St. Mary the Virgin | work=Images of England | url= | accessdate=2007-09-29]
*St Matthew's Church. Yiewsley, Hillingdon, 1859
*St Matthias Church, Richmond, 1858
*St Michael, Stourport-on-Severn, Worcestershire designed (1875) started (1881) by son John Oldrid Scott, never finished and partly demolished. "The Buildings of England: Worcestershire", Nikolaus Pevsner, 1968 p271 ]
*McManus Galleries - Formerly the Albert Institute, Dundee
*St Nikolai, Hamburg
*St Pancras Station, London (1865)
*St Nicholas's, Newport, Lincoln, Lincolnshire.
*St Peter, Bushley, Worcestershire. Roof (1856). "The Buildings of England: Worcestershire", Nikolaus Pevsner, 1968 p113 ]
*St Peter and St Paul, Priory Church Leominster, Herefordshire Quatrefoil piers (1872-9). "The Buildings of England: Herefordshire", Nikolaus Pevsner, 1963 p226 ISBN 0-14-071025-6]
*St Peter and St Paul, Buckingham Parish Church Buckingham, Buckinghamshire. Additions to the original 1777 church including chancel, buttresses, porch, roof and nave alterations (1862-1878). Work continued over the years by his second son John Oldrid Scott and grandson Charles Marriott Oldrid Scott. "The Book of Buckingham", John Clarke, 1984, p145 ISBN 0-86-023072-4]
*St Peter's Church, Elworth, Cheshire.
*St John The Baptist Church, Busbridge, Godalming, Surrey
*Sandbach School, Sandbach, Cheshire.
*Workers' housing at Akroydon, Halifax (1859)
*Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, London (1861-1868)
*the Albert Memorial, London (1862); in the podium frieze, one of the images of architects, sculpted by John Birnie Philip shows Scott himself.
*the main building of the new campus of the University of Glasgow (1870), often called the "Gilbert Scott Building" in his honour.
* [ Towcester Union Workhouse] (1836)
*The Cathedral Church of St Mary the Virgin, Glasgow (1873)
*Christ Church, Bradford-on-Avon (additions) (1875)
*The Clarkson Memorial in Wisbech. Scott first put forward designs in 1875, but work did not start until 1880. The eventual design was a slightly altered version of Scott's original design.
*St Paul's Church, Fulney, Spalding, Lincolnshire (completed building 1880) [see Ayscoughfee Hall museum, Spalding]
*All Souls, Blackman Lane, Leeds (1879) - his last work, large lancet-style church
*St Stephen's Church, Higham Green, Suffolk (1861)
*St. Thomas of Canterbury Church, Chester (1872)
*St. Thomas's Church, Huddersfield (1859)
*Walton Hall, Warwickshire (1858)
*Christ Church Cathedral, Christchurch, New Zealand
*The Hereford Screen, (1862), choir screen from Hereford Catheral, now restored and in the Victoria and Albert Museum


Scott was involved in major restorations of medieval church architecture.
*St. Mary's Church, Temple Balsall 1849
*St Mary's Church, Nottingham (1850s)
*Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Newark-on-Trent (1850s)
*St John the Baptist Church, Aconbury, Herefordshire Restoration (1863) "The Buildings of England: Herefordshire", Nikolaus Pevsner, 1963 p63 ISBN 0-14-071025-6]
*St John the Baptist Church, Bromsgrove, Worcestershire Restoration of Norman and 13th century church (1858) "The Buildings of England: Worcestershire", Nikolaus Pevsner, 1968 p109 ]
*St John the Baptist Church, Upton Bishop, Herefordshire Restoration (1862) "The Buildings of England: Herefordshire", Nikolaus Pevsner, 1963 p304 ISBN 0-14-071025-6]
*St Leonard, Yarpole, Herefordshire Restoration of chancel(1864) "The Buildings of England: Herefordshire", Nikolaus Pevsner, 1963 p327 ISBN 0-14-071025-6]
*St Mary's Island church on the Orchardleigh Estate (1878) [cite web | title=Church of St. Mary, causeway bridge, and gates | work=Images of England | url= | accessdate=2007-11-20]
*St Peter's Church, Prestbury (1879-1881)
*St Andrews Parish Church, Spratton,Northamptonshire
*Church of St Mary the Less, Cambridge
* Priory Church of St. Mary, Bridlington

Cathedrals include
*Hereford east side (1856-63) "The Buildings of England: Herefordshire", Nikolaus Pevsner, 1963 p146 ISBN 0-14-071025-6]
*St Albans

Plus Bath Abbey, Pershore Abbey, Great Malvern Priory, St Margaret's, Westminster, St Mary's of Charity in Faversham, which was restored (and transformed, with an unusual spire and unexpected interior) by Scott in 1874, and Dundee Parish Church (St Mary's), and designed the chapels of Exeter College, Oxford, St John's College, Cambridge and King's College London. He also designed St Paul’s Cathedral, Dundee.
Lichfield Cathedral's ornate West Front was extensively renovated by Scott from 1855 - 1878. He restored the Cathedral to the form he believed it took in the Middle Ages, working with original materials where possible and creating imitations when the originals were not available. It is recognised as some of his finest work.



External links

* cite web |publisher= Victoria and Albert Museum
title= Sir George Gilbert Scott
accessdate= 2007-08-18

* cite web |publisher= The Workhouse
title=George Gilbert Scott's workhouse designs
work=The Workhouse
accessdate= 2008-09-09

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