Emerald ash borer

Emerald ash borer

Taxobox | name = Emerald ash borer

image_width = 240px
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Arthropoda
classis = Insecta
ordo = Coleoptera
familia = Buprestidae
genus = "Agrilus"
species = "A. planipennis"
binomial = "Agrilus planipennis"
binomial_authority = Fairmaire, 1888
The emerald ash borer ("Agrilus planipennis" or "Agrilus marcopoli") is a shiny green beetle native to Asia. Since its accidental introduction into the United States, it has spread to seven states and adjacent parts of Canada and is considered an invasive species. It has killed at least 25 million ash trees so far and threatens to decimate the ash trees throughout North America. [ [http://www.emeraldashborer.info/ EmeraldAshBorer.info] ]


The average length for an adult emerald ash borer is ¾ in (20 mm) long and frac|1|6 in (4 mm) wide. The larvae are approximately 1 mm in diameter and .6 in (15 mm) long, and are a creamy white color. The eggs turn to a yellow brown color prior to hatching.cite web |url=http://www.entm.purdue.edu/EAB/index.shtml |title=Emerald ash borer in Indiana |publisher=Purdue University |year=2007] Adults lay eggs in crevasses in the bark. Larvae burrow into the bark after hatching and consume the cambium and phloem, effectively girdling the tree and causing death within two years. The average emerging season for the emerald ash borer is early spring to late summer. Females lay around 75 eggs, but up to 300 from early May to mid-July. The borer's life cycle is estimated to be one year in southern Michigan but may be up to two years in colder regions.


The natural range of the emerald ash borer is eastern Russia, northern China, Japan, and Korea. It was suspected to be accidentally imported to North America from China in the 1990s and has since destroyed more than six million ash trees in southeastern Michigan. It was discovered in June 2002 in Canton, Michigan. It has since been found in a few other parts of the United States and Canada. Ohio and Ontario have experienced emerald ash borer migration from Michigan, while Maryland and Virginia received shipments of contaminated trees from a Michigan nursery. The emerald ash borer was confirmed in Indiana in April 2004 and West Virginia in October 2007.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture is attempting to exterminate all of these beetles on the continent, and has taken the unusual measure of destroying every ash tree within a half-mile (800 m) radius of known infested trees. Southeast Michigan is a quarantine zone from which ash trees or even firewood cannot be removed. The quarantine applies only to the counties where the emerald ash borer has been detected. The infected states have prohibited the movement of firewood from one state to another helping to eliminate the spreading and fully enforce the quarantine zone. Large fines have been imposed on a few companies that violated the ban, including one that was removing ash trees from southeast Michigan and is believed to be responsible for spreading the beetle to another county. The USDA has committed at least $40 million dollars for eradication in 2004 and expects to spend over $350 million in the next twelve years.

Michigan officials announced 2005-09-14 that ash borer infestation had crossed the Straits of Mackinac and was now in the Upper Peninsula for the first time. Wisconsin environmental officials considered it a grave threat and began preparations for surveys in northern counties. Currently twelve counties in Indiana are under quarantine. However, states and cities are running out of money to combat the problem and many authorities feel that the borer will spread throughout North America. The EAB can move short distances by flying as well as surviving long distances in transit on Ash tree nursery stock, Ash logs, branches, and firewood. [Emerald Ash Borer Confirmed in Illinois. Illinois Dept. of Agriculture. June 13, 2006. [http://www.agr.state.il.us/newsrels/r0613061.html] ]

In June 2006, it was reported that emerald ash borers had been found at a home near Lily Lake, Illinois. [cite news |url=http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/wireStory?id=2073348 |publisher=Associated Press |title=Bug that kills ash trees found in Illinois |date=2006-06-13 |author=Jim Paul] Illinois officials plan to conduct a survey of the region, and will later hold a hearing to determine if a quarantine is necessary. In July, 2006, further infestations were discovered in Northern Cook County, Illinois, including Wilmette, Evanston, and Winnetka. [cite web |url=http://www.agr.state.il.us/newsrels/r0721061.html |publisher=Illinois Department of Agriculture |date=2006-06-21 |title=Emerald ash borer discovered in Evanston]

In June 2007, it was reported that emerald ash borers have been found in Cranberry Township, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. [cite news |url=http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/news/cityregion/s_514585.html |publisher=Pittsburgh Tribune-Review |title=Destructive Asian insect found in Cranberry |date=2007-06-27 |author=Allison M. Heinrichs] On June 27, 2008, The Pittsburgh Post Gazette reported that the state Department of Agriculture says the emerald ash borer has been found in Mercer County. The invasive beetle was discovered in Butler and Allegheny counties last summer. Officials are surveying this year to gauge whether the insect has spread. Mercer joins Allegheny, Beaver, Butler and Lawrence counties in a quarantine prohibiting the movement of ash nursery stocks, green lumber and firewood.

In October 2007, an emerald ash borer larva was discovered in a West Virginia Department of Agriculture "detection tree" located in Fayette County. This detection tree was located in a recreational site, with camping, mountain biking, and white water rafting. It is believed that the pest arrived in firewood that was illegally transported by tourists visiting the New River Gorge area, a popular site for white water rafting (USDA-APHIS-PPQ). [cite news |url=http://sundaygazettemail.com/section/News/2007101928 |publisher=Charleston Gazette-Mail (Sunday Edition) |title=Emerald ash borers invade Mountain State |date=2007-10-21 |author=Rick Steelhammer]

As of December 2007, a federal quarantine has been imposed on the following areas in the U. S. for Emerald Ash Borer: the lower peninsula of Michigan; Mackinac County, Michigan; the entire states of Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana; Prince Georges County, Maryland; and Fayette County, West Virginia. (USDA-APHIS)

Emerald Ash Borer has also been found in Canada. As of November 2007, there are four regulated areas in Southwestern Ontario for EAB. Elgin, Lambton, and Middlesex counties are regulated separately. Essex County and the Municipality of Chatham-Kent, which were separately regulated in 2004, were combined into one regulated area in June 2006. (CFIA/USDA-APHIS-PPQ)

By June 2008, Emerald Ash Borers were discovered in the city of Chicago, [cite news | url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/features/lifestyle/green/chi-emerald-ash-borer-web-jun20,0,3794472.story | title=Emerald Ash Borer hits Chicago | date = 2008-06-19 | author = Robert Mitchum and Melissa Patterson] and in the far south-west corner of Naperville. [cite news|url=http://www.dailyherald.com/story/?id=206123 |publisher=Chicago Daily Herald|title=Invasive emerald ash borer beetle found in Naperville | date=2008-06-11 |author=Jake Griffin]

It was confirmed by Canadian Agriculture officials to be present in Monteregie, Quebec. This region lies directly North of New England, therefore drastically increasing the likelihood of being found in New England. [cite web|url = http://lcn.canoe.ca//infos/regional/archives/2008/06/20080627-080044.html|publisher = Canoe.ca|title = L'agrile du frêne s'attaque aux arbres de la région|date = 2008-06-27]

On Tuesday, July 29th, 2008, it was announced that the Missouri department of agriculture has detected the emerald ash borer in the state. On Monday, August 4th, Wisconsin confirmed that the first appearance in the state was detected in the village of Newburg, Wisconsin, in Ozaukee County. [cite web|url = http://www.startribune.com/nation/26263649.html|publisher = Minneapolis Star-Tribune|title = Wisconsin confirms the arrival of ash borer, putting trees at risk|date = 2008-08-04]

Authorities across the US are now trying to determine the exact extent of EAB by placing purple traps nationwide.

Economic impact

Evidence of the emerald ash borer sometimes takes up to a year to recognize. Some signs that the emerald ash borer has infested a tree are D–shaped holes in the bark of the trunk or branches and shoots growing from the base of the tree.

The beetle kills trees because the feeding larvae damage both the phloem (responsible for nutrient transport throughout the tree) and xylem (responsible for take-up of water and nutrients) tissues of the tree. The beetle effectively strangles the tree. A tell-tale sign of infestation is new shoots sprouting from the bottom of the tree. As long as the beetle does not eat the bark at the very base of the tree, the small shoots at the bottom can still get nutrients. Surprisingly, even after the larger tree is cut down, some of these shoots may keep on growing.

The insect is unusually difficult to kill. More than 7.5 billion ash trees are currently at risk. Nearly 114 million board feet (33,000 ) of ash saw timber with a value of US$25.1 billion is grown in the eastern United States each year. Over thirty five million ash trees have died or are dying in the United States at this time. The full time it takes for a tree to die due to the EAB is generally two or three years.

A pilot study is being undertaken in Michigan to determine if three different parasitic wasps can deter the emerald ash borer. These tiny stingless wasps can sense beetles underneath the bark and then lay their eggs in the larvae or egg, thus killing them. It is not known at this time whether their release will have any unintended ecological impacts.The wasps have been released according to a Michigan newspaper. The releases began in July 2007, a few weeks later than they had hoped. [cite news |url=http://www.freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070624/NEWS05/706240667/1001/NEWS |publisher=Detroit Free Press |title=Debate buzzes on wasp plan |date=2007-06-28 |author=Tina Lam] (modification: USDA-APHIS-PPQ)

Effective steps to help reduce infestations

*Purchase firewood AT/near a campsite
*Do not bring firewood back to destination after a camping trip
*Evaluate firewood. Make sure it has no bark at all
*Decrease the use of wood burning fires [http://www.dnr.wi.gov/org/land/Forestry/FH/Ash/eab-cando.htm]
*Treat already infested trees or prevent future infestation [http://www.emeraldashborer.info/files/E2955.pdf]


External links

* [http://www.emeraldashborer.info/ Multistate EAB website]
*cite web |url=http://na.fs.fed.us/fhp/eab/ |title=Emerald ash borer |publisher=United States Department of Agriculture
* [http://www.semircd.org/ash Southeast Michigan Resource Conservation & Development Council] - Ash Utilization Options Project - developing value-added products from ash trees affected by the emerald ash borer
* [http://www.in.gov/dnr/entomolo/pestinfo/ashborer.htm/ Emerald ash borer Indiana Information]
* [http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/pestrava/agrpla/agrplae.shtml Canadian Food Inspection Agency]
* [http://ontariosforests.mnr.gov.on.ca/foresthealthoverview.cfm Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources]
* [http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/forestry/health/eab.htm| Ohio Department of Natural Resources page on EAB]
* [http://www.ohioagriculture.gov/eab/|Ohio Department of Agriculture infestation] PDF map

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ash Borer — Taxobox name = Ash Borer image width = 240px image caption = unverifiedimage regnum = Animalia phylum = Arthropoda classis = Insecta ordo = Lepidoptera familia = Sesiidae genus = Podosesia species = P. syringae binomial = Podosesia syringae… …   Wikipedia

  • Ash tree — Taxobox image width = 240px image caption = European Ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ) regnum = Plantae divisio = Magnoliophyta classis = Magnoliopsida ordo = Lamiales familia = Oleaceae genus = Fraxinus genus authority = L. [cite web url=http://www.ars …   Wikipedia

  • Bronze birch borer — Taxobox name = Bronze birch borer image width = 220px regnum = Animalia phylum = Arthropoda classis = Insecta ordo = Coleoptera familia = Buprestidae genus = Agrilus species = A. anxius binomial = Agrilus anxius binomial authority = Gory, 1841The …   Wikipedia

  • Oobius agrili — Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta …   Wikipedia

  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica — Taxobox name = Fraxinus pennsylvanica image width = 240px image caption = Leaves and fruit regnum = Plantae divisio = Magnoliophyta classis = Magnoliopsida ordo = Lamiales familia = Oleaceae genus = Fraxinus species = F. pennsylvanica binomial =… …   Wikipedia

  • Fraxinus mandschurica — Manchurian Ash leaf and bark Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae …   Wikipedia

  • Cerceris fumipennis — Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum …   Wikipedia

  • Fraxinus — Frêne  Pour l’article homophone, voir Fresnes …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Frene — Frêne  Pour l’article homophone, voir Fresnes …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Frêne —  Pour l’article homophone, voir Fresnes. Frêne …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”