- 12th Flying Training Wing
Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=12th Flying Training Wing
20 November 1940— present
Air Education and Training Command
ColonelJacqueline D. van Ovost
Randolph Air Force Base
* World War II: European Campaign (1942-1944): Asiatic-Pacific Campaign (1944-1945)
* Vietnam Service (1965-1971)
Lloyd W. Newton
The 12th Flying Training Wing (12th FTW) is a wing of the
United States Air Forceand the host unit at Randolph Air Force Basein San Antonio, Texas.
The 12th FTW is under
Air Education and Training Command's Nineteenth Air Force.
The mission of the 12th FTW is to provide instructor pilot training in the Raytheon-Beech T-6A Texan II, Cessna T-37 Tweet, the Northrop T-38 Talon and the Beech T-1A Jayhawk jet trainers.
In addition, the wing conducts joint undergraduate navigator training and electronic warfare training in the Boeing T-43A medium-range turbofan jet and introduction to fighter fundamentals in the Northrop AT-38 Talon. It also conducts introduction to fighter fundamentals training in the AT-38.
The wing trains Air Force pilots to be flight instructors at Air Education and Training Command’s four undergraduate pilot training bases and conducts Department of Defense undergraduate navigator training for all Air Force and some Navy personnel in three training programs. The wing also trains Air Force, Navy and other military personnel from more than 20 allied countries.
The 12th Flying Training Wing is composed of four groups each with specific functions. The Operations Group controls all flying and airfield operations. The Logistics Group performs contracting, supply and support equipment maintenance. The Mission Support Group has a wide range of responsibilities but a few of its functions are Security, Civil Engineering, Communications, Personnel Management, Logistics, Services and Contracting support. While the Medical Group provides medical and dental care
* 12th Operations Group
99th Flying Training Squadron(99 FTS)
558th Flying Training Squadron(558 FTS)
559th Flying Training Squadron(559 FTS)
560th Flying Training Squadron(560 FTS)
562d Flying Training Squadron(562 FTS)
563d Flying Training Squadron(563 FTS)
* 12th Logistics Group (12 LG)
** 12th Contracting Squadron (12 CONS)
** 12th Maintenance Directorate
** 12th Logistics Readiness Division
* 12th Mission Support Group (12 MSG)
** 12th Communications Squadron (12 CS)
** 12th Security Forces Squadron (12 SFS)
** 12th Mission Support Squadron (12 MSS)
** 12th Civil Engineering Division
** 12th Services Division
* 12th Medical Group (12 MDG)
** 12th Aeromedical Squadron (12 AS)
** 12th Medical Operations Squadron (12 MDOS)
** 12th Medical Support Squadron (12 MDSS)
** 12th Dental Squadron (12 DS)In addition, the 12th FTW provides host-base support to more than 30 Department of Defense units including Headquarters
Air Education and Training Command, Air Force Personnel Center, and Air Force Recruiting Service.
* Established as 12th Bombardment Group, Light, on 20 Nov 1940: Activated on 15 Jan 1941: Redesignated: 12th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 30 Dec 1941: Redesignated: 12th Bombardment Group, Medium, on 20 Aug 1944: Inactivated on 22 Jan 1946
* Redesignated 12th Bombardment Group, Light, on 29 Apr 1947: Activated on 19 May 1947: Inactivated on 10 Sep 1948
* Established as 12th Fighter-Escort Wing on 27 Oct 1950: Activated on 1 Nov 1950: Redesignated: 12th Strategic Fighter Wing on 20 Jan 1953: Redesignated: 12 Fighter-Day Wing on 1 Jul 1957: Inactivated on 8 Jan 1958
* Redesignated "'12th Tactical Fighter Wing, and activated, on 17 Apr 1962: Organized on 25 Apr 1962: Inactivated on 17 Nov 1971
* Redesignated 12th Flying Training Wing on 22 Mar 1972: Activated on 1 May 1972.
United States Army Air Forces
Second Air Force
** McChord Field,
Washington(1941 – 1942)
Esler Field, Louisiana(1942)
Ninth Air Force
Tunisia(1942 – 1943)
Twelfth Air Force
Italy(1943 – 1944)
Tenth Air Force
India(1944 – 1946) Fort Lawton, Washington (1946 – 1947) (Inactivation) United States Air Force
Strategic Air Command
Langley Air Force Base, Virginia(1947 – 1948)
(Not manned nor equipped)
Turner Air Force Base, Georgia (1950)
Bergstrom Air Force Base, Texas (1950 – 1958)
Tactical Air Command
MacDill Air Force Base, Florida(1962 – 1965)
Pacific Air Forces
** Cam Ranh Bay Air Base,
South Vietnam(1965 – 1970)
Phu Cat Air Base, South Vietnam(1970 – 1971)
Air Education and Training Command
** Randolph Air Force Base, Texas (1972 – Present)
* Northwest Air District (later, Second Air Force): 15 Jan 1941: 5th Bombardment Wing, 15 Jan - Dec 1941
Fourth Air Force: IV Air Support Command, 3 Sep 1941
Third Air Force: V Air Support Command, 21 Jan 1941: III Bomber Command, 18 Apr 1942
Ninth Air Force, 16 Aug 1942
Twelfth Air Force, 22 Aug 1943: XII Air Support Command, 1 Sep 1943: XII Bomber Command, 2 Jan 1944
Tenth Air Force, c. 21 Mar 1944 - 24 Dec 1945: Unknown 24 Dec 1945 - 22 Jan 1946
Tactical Air Command, 19 May 1947-10 Sep 1948: (Not equipped or manned)
Strategic Air Command: Second Air Force, 1 Nov 1950: Eighth Air Force, 5 Dec 1950:: 42d Air Division, 9 Apr 1951-8 Jan 1958::: Attached to 7th Air Division: 20 Jul-30 Nov 1951::: Attached to 39th Air Division:
18 May-10 Aug 1953 and 10 May-7 Aug 1954
Tactical Air Command, 17 Apr 1962: Ninth Air Force, 25 Apr 1962:: 836th Air Division, 1 Jul 1962
Pacific Air Forces: 2d Air Division, 8 Nov 1965: Seventh Air Force, 1 Apr 1966-17 Nov 1971
Air Training Command, 1 May 1972
Air Education and Training Command: Nineteenth Air Force, 1 Jul 1993-.
* Groups: 12 Fighter-Escort (later, 12 Operations): :: 1 Nov 1950-16 Jun 1952; 15 Dec 1991-.
* Squadrons: 1 Flight Screening (later, Flying Training):
15 Dec 1991-1 Apr 1994: 3 Flying Training: 1 Apr 1994-7 Apr 2000: 21 Test and Evaluation: 15 Sep 1992-31 Mar 1994: 81 Bombardment (later, 559 Fighter-Escort; 559 Flying Training): :: 15 Jan 1941-22 Jan 1946:: 19 May 1947-10 Sep 1948:: 1 Nov 1950-16 Jun 1952:: 15 Dec 1991- Present : 82 Bombardment (later, 560 Fighter-Escort): :: 15 Jan 1941-22 Jan 1946:: 19 May 1947-10 Sep 1948:: 1 Nov 1950-16 Jun 1952: 83 Bombardment (later, 561 Fighter-Escort): :: 15 Jan 1941-22 Jan 1946:: 19 May 1947-10 Sep 1948:: 1 Nov 1950-16 Jun 1952. : 19 Reconnaissance
(later, 94 Bombardment; 94 Reconnaissance; 434 Bombardment): :: Attached 15 Jan-13 Aug 1941:: Assigned 14 Aug 1941-22 Jan 1946: 99 Flying Training: 14 May 1993-. : 434 Bombardment: 15 Jan 1941-22 Jan 1946: 435 Flying Training: 14 May 1998-1 Oct 2001: 557 Flying Training: 1 Jul 1993-1 Oct 2000: 558 Flying Training: 15 Dec 1992-1 Oct 1996; 16 Jan 2002-. : 559 Fighter-Escort: 1 Nov 1950-16 Jun 1952. : 560 Fighter Escort (Now: Flying Training)::: 1 Nov 1950-16 Jun 1952. :: 15 Dec 1991-. : 560 Fighter Escort: 1 Nov 1950-16 Jun 1952.: 562 Flying Training: 14 May 1993-. : 563 Flying Training: 14 May 1993-3 Jun 1996; 30 Apr 1999-. : 3307 Test and Evaluation: 15 Dec 1991-15 Sep 1992.
: 332 Airlift Flight: 15 Apr 1993-1 Apr 1997.
B-18 Bolo(1941 – 1942)
B-23 Dragon(1941 – 1942)
B-25 Mitchell(1942 – 1945)
* C-21 (1993 – 1997)
F-84 Thunderjet(1950 – 1957, 1962 – 1964)
* KB-29 (1955 – 1957)
F-4 Phantom II(1964 – 1971)
* PT-17 (1941 – 1942)
* T-29 (1972 – 1974)
* T-37 (1972 – 2007)
T-38 Talon(1972 – Present)
* T-39 (1972 – 1978, 1990 – 1991)
T-41 Mescalero(1972 – 1973, 1992 – 1994)
* T-43 (1992 – Present)
T-1 Jayhawk(1993 – Present)
* T-3 Firefly (1994 – 1998)
T-6 Texan II(2000 – Present)
World War II
The 12th Bombardment Group (Light) was activated on 15 January 1941 and Prior to the United States’ entry into
World War IIthe group trained with Douglas B-18 Bolo , B-23 Dragon, and Boeing Stearmanaircraft at McChord Field, Washington. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaiithe 12th patrolled west coast of United States.
In February 1942, the group was redesignated the 12th Bombardment Group (Medium) and moved to Esler Field, Louisiana, where it trained with B-25s for duty overseas. The group moved to
North Africain July and August 1942 and supported the Allied drive from Egyptto Tunisiaas part of Ninth Air Force.
From April 1943, it raided enemy-held islands in
Mediterranean Sea, including Pantelleria, Lampedusa, and Sicilyas part of Twelfth Air Force. In August 1943, the group began to attack enemy targets on Italian mainland. From November until early February, the 12th bombed aerodromes, docks, marshalling yards, bridges, and other targets in Italy, Yugoslavia, and Albania.
In February, March, and April 1944, the 12th was reassigned to
Tenth Air Forceand was relocated to the China Burma India Theater (CBI) where it flew most of its missions from Indiaand Burmabetween April 1944 and May 1945, supporting the British Fourteenth Army. When Alliedforces at Imphal, India, were threatened by a Japanese offensive, the group delivered ammunition. It began training with Douglas A-26 Invader aircraft in summer 1945 before the war ended.
On return to United States in 1946, it was immediately inactivated.
Strategic Air Command
The 12th Fighter Escort Wing was activated at
Turner Air Force Base, Georgia, on 1 November 1950 under Captain James Ross and was assigned to the 2nd Air Force. The new 12th FEW was then relocated to Bergstrom AFB, Texason 1 December to replace the 27th Fighter Escort Group that had just departed for service in the Korean War. As the 12th FEW expanded, the new personnel were obtained from the men of the 27th FEW and the 31st FEW who were not involved with their previous units deployments.
Operational squadrons were:
* 559th Fighter Escort Squadron
* 560th Fighter Escort Squadron
* 561st Fighter Escort Squadron
On 12 December the 559th Fighter Escort Squadron received their first three Republic F-84E Thunderjets, and would have received a fourth, but it crashed en route from Turner AFB to its refueling stop at
Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. The 559th was forced to immediately reject these aircraft as mission capable, as they were fitted with the "solid lobe" J35-A-17B engines which were not deemed robust enough for SAC's extended length missions.
In January 1951 the 559th FES and the 560th FES began sending their pilots to the Matagorda Island Gunnery Range, off the southeastern coast of Texas, for gunnery training. The new 561st did not have any aircraft assigned as yet. The 12th FEG, although man-aging to keep 80% of their aircraft in commission, was experiencing a high rate of bearing and turbine failures with the J35 engines in their Thunderjets.
On April 27 the 12th FEW made its first very long cross-country (XC) mission in the F-84, to visit the 31st FEW at Turner. On the return leg the following day one F-84 was lost over Louisiana, but its pilot bailed out okay.
On June 7 the 12th FEW started a mission to Patterson AFB,
Ohiothat would result in one of the worst non-combat incidents in history. Eight F-84s were lost, three pilots were killed, two had major injuries, three were "relatively unharmed".
On July 3 and 4 the 12th FEW transferred forty of F-84ES 84Es to
Alameda Naval Air Station, Californiafor sea shipment to Korea, and they returned to Bergstrom on aircraft on the night of the 4th. Then, on 12 July all remaining aircraft were transferred across the flightllne to the 27th Fighter Escort Wing that was just returning from Korea.
On 9 July a Warning Order arrived to prepare for a transfer to
England. The majority of the 12th FEW's personnel and equip were deployed to RAF Manston, England by 21 July. At Manston, they obtained the aircraft of the 31st Fighter Escort Wing that was now headed back to Turner AFB. In England the wing was assigned to SAC's 7th Air Division, the 12th FEW was tasked them with the defense of Norwayin addition to their other missions. The squadrons began rotating to Wheelus AB Libyain September for gunnery practice.
In November all of the 12th FEW's assets were turned the 123rd Fighter Bomber Wing at RAF Manston when the activated Air National Guard Wing arrived in England ane the personnel of the 12th were returned to Bergstrom. Upon their return to Bergstrom the 12th FEW picked up a pair of the now antique F-84Ds, and started to reequip with F-84Gs as they became available from Republic.
In April 1953 a new program, Task Force 132.4, was started. By the end of the month the Task Force had thirty-nine officers and 123 airmen as-signed. In June this Detachment and the 561st FES was detached from the 12th FEW and sent to Brookley AFB, Alabama for modifications to their F-84Gs to prepare them for nuclear armament delivery. The Task Force also sent a detachment to Indian Springs AFB, Nevada for atomic tests where they remained for six weeks and then returned to the unit, to be monitored for radiation contamination.
Between May and August 1953 the 12th FEW, now designated as the 12th Strategic Fighter Wing pulled a rotational stint at
Misawa Air Base, Japan, relieving the 508th SFW, and being relieved in turn by the 506th S. They would return to Misawa for another tour in the air defense role between May and August 1954.
The 12th FEW, redesignated as the 12th Strategic Fighter Wing, would continue with F-84Gs through 1957, with a partial conversion to F-84Fs, while also gaining the 27th Air Refueling Squadron with KB-29Ps in 1955, which continued until 1957. The Wing was inactivated on 8 January 1958.
By 1957 SAC's jet bombers flew so fast and so high that they were virtually immune from fighters. In addition, the World War II concept of groups of bombers attacking an individual target had been replaced by the use of an individual bomber carrying one nuclear weapon to a target, not a formation of them. In addition, the F-84s simply couldn't keep up with them.
The 12th SFW at Bergstrom was deemed no longer necessary, so the wing was transferred to
Tactical Air Commandon 1 July 1957 and redesignated as the 12th Fighter-Day Wing. It was inactivated on 8 January 1958.
Tactical Air Command
MacDill AFB's transfer to Tactical Air Commandin April 1962, the 12th Tactical Fighter Wing was reactivated by TAC at the base on 17 April and assigned to Ninth Air Force. Initially, it's only operational squadron was the 559th Tactical Fighter Squadron.
The mission of the 12th TFW was to be prepeared for tactical worldwide deployments and operations. Until 1964 the wing flew obsolete Republic F-84F Thunderjets reclaimed from the
Air National Guard.
In January 1964 the wing was chosen to be the first Air Force combat wing to convert to the new McDonnell-Douglas F-4C Phantom II. It was expanded as follows:
* 557th Tactical Fighter Squadron
* 558th Tactical Fighter Squadron
* 559th Tactical Fighter Squadron
* 555th Tactical Fighter Squadron
(Activated on 8 January 1964 as part of a wing transition from three squadrons of 25 aircraft each to four squadrons of 18 aircraft each.)
The wing was soon involved in F-4C firepower demonstrations, exercises and, ultimately, the Paris Air Show.The conflict in Southeast Asia was escalating and throughout 1965 the wing supported PACAF Contingency operations by rotating combat squadrons quarterly to Naha AB in the Ryukyu Islands. The 12th began its permanent deployment to the first Air Force expeditionary airfield at
Cam Ranh BayAir Base, South Vietnamon 6 November 1965.
12th TFW Combat squadrons initially scheduled for deployment to Vietnam were the 555th, 557th and 558th TFS. Ultimately, the 559th TFS took the place of the 555th when the squadron was diverted to a second TDY with the 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing at
Naha Air Base, Okinawa, followed by a re-assignment to the 8th TFW at Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand. Still later the 555th was assigned to the 432d TRW at Udon Royal Thai Air Force Base.
Can Ranh Air Base
After the outbreak of the Vietnam War the wing engaged in
aerial combatin Southeast Asiabeginning on 19 November 1965 - 21 October 1971. The 12th Tactical Fighter Wing was assigned as the host unit at Cam Ranh Bay Air Baseon 8 November 1965. The 12 TFW would be the host unit at Cam Ranh Bay AB until the airfield's closure on 30 March, 1971.
Operational squadrons of the wing at Cam Ranh were:
* 43d Tactical Fighter:
8 November 1965- 4 January 1966(F-4C)
(TDY From 15 TFW, MacDill AFB FL)
* 391st Tactical Fighter:
26 January 1966- 22 July 1968(F-4C Tail Code: XD/XT)
(TDY from 366 TFW,
Phan Rang Air Base, aircraft transferred to 558 TFS July 1968 (F-4C Tail Code: XD/XT)
(Former 391 TFS aircraft reassigned to 475 TFW, Taegu AB, South Korea, July 1968 as Det 1., 558th Tactical Fighter Squadron)
* 557th Tactical Fighter:
1 December 1965- 31 March 1970(F-4C Tail Code: XC)
* 558th Tactical Fighter:
8 November 1965- 31 March 1970(F-4C Tail Code: XT)
* 559th Tactical Fighter:
1 January 1966- 31 March 1970(F-4C Tail Code: XN)
(Absorbed aircraft left behind by departing 43 TFS)
At Cam Ranh Bay the wing carried out close air support, interdiction, and combat air patrol activities over both
Vietnams and Laos. Following the capture of the USS Pueblo, the aircraft of the 391 TFS were assigned to the 558 TFS and sent TDY as a detachment to augment the 475 TFW in South Korea.
30 March 1970, as part of the Vietnamization process and phase out of the F-4C, fighter operations at Cam Ranh Bay AB were halted and the 12th TFW was deactivated. The 557, 558 and 559 TFS were deactivated in place and the F-4C's transferred to the Air National Guard.
31 March 1970the 37 TFW at Phu Cat Air Basewas re-designated the 12 TFW in a name-only transfer.
Phu Cat Air Base
As a result of the US withdrawals from Vietnam the 37th TFW at Phu Cat AB was inactivated on
31 March 1970. The wing assets remained and were re-designated as the 12th Tactical Fighter Wing when the 12th TFW was moved without personnel or equipment to replace the 37th Tactical Fighter Wing and its units.
Its attached squadrons were:
* 389th Tactical Fighter: 31 Mar 1970 - 15 Oct 1971 (F-4D Tail Code: HB)
* 480th Tactical Fighter: 31 Mar 1970 - 17 Nov 1971 (F-4D Tail Code: HK)
8 October 1971, the 389th TFS flew its last scheduled combat sortie in Southeast Asia. On 15 October, the 389th TFS was deactivated in place and a name only transfer without equipment and personnel was made of the squadron to Mountain Home AFB, Idaho.
20 October 1971, the 48Oth TFS flew its last combat mission, which was also the last combat sortie for 12th TFW. The final mission was against portions of the Ho Chi Minh trail network in the tri-border area of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodiaand consisted of four F-4Ds with 12 MK-82 LD bombs each.
With the departure of the aircraft, the 12th TFW was deactivated in place on
30 November 1971.
Air Education and Training Command
The 12th replaced, and absorbed resources of, the 3510th Flying Training Wing at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas, in May 1972. The wing became responsible for operation and maintenance of Randolph Air Force Base and operation of the
USAF Instrument Flight Center. The Center was responsible also for development, testing, and evaluation of flight instruments and flight instrument systems. From 2 May 1973 - 12 November 1976 the wing provided T-37, T-38, and T-39 pilot requalification training for more than 150 USAF ex- prisoners of war. The wing trained instructor pilots for Air Training Command's undergraduate pilot training program wings and for foreign countries under the Joint Security Assistance Program.
Beginning in 1985, the 12th supported the Accelerated Copilot Enrichment program at various operating locations. The unit designed and fabricated
F-16 Falconaircraft simulation training systems for USAF bases and several NATOnations during 1983 - 1988; after 1986, it undertook similar efforts for the B-1 Lancerbomber program.
Personnel from the 12th deployed from 1991 – 1992 to
Southwest Asiain support of Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm.
From 1991, the wing engaged in flight screening and undergraduate pilot training. Due to impending closure of
Mather Air Force Base, California, in 1992 wing assumed undergraduate navigatortraining.
Ninth Air Force
Twelfth Air Force
United States Pacific Air Forces
Air Education and Training Command
* 5th Air Division
* McLaren, David (1998) Republic F-84 Thunderjet, Thunderstreak & Thunderflash: A Photo Chronicle. New York: Schiffer Military/Aviation History, 1998. ISBN 0-7643-0444-5.
* Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0892010924.
* Martin, Patrick (1994). Tail Code: The Complete History of USAF Tactical Aircraft Tail Code Markings. Schiffer Military Aviation History. ISBN 0887405134.
* Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings Lineage and Honors Histories 1947-1977. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0912799129.
* Rogers, Brian (2005). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. Hinkley, England: Midland Publications. ISBN 1-85780-197-0.
* [http://www.randolph.af.mil/ Randolph AFB Home Page]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.