- China Burma India Theater of World War II
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=China Burma India Theater
World War IIand Pacific War
China, Burma, India
China Burma India Theater (CBI) (later IBT, or India-Burma theater) was the name used by the
United States Armyfor its forces operating in conjuction with Allied air and land forces in China, Burma, and India during World War II. Well-known US units in this theater included the Flying Tigers, transport and bomber units flying the Hump, the 1st Air Commando Group, the engineers who built Ledo Road, and the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional), otherwise known as Merrill's Marauders.
Allied Command structure
U.S. and Allied Land forces
US forces in the CBI were grouped together for administrative purposes under the command of General Joseph "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell. However, unlike other combat theaters, for example the
European Theater of Operations, the CBI was never a " theater of operations" and did not have an overall operational command structure. Initially U.S. land units were split between those who came under the operational command of the British India Commandunder General Sir Archibald Wavell, as the Commander-in-Chief in India, and those in China, which (technically at least) were commanded by Generalissimo Chiang Kai Shek[http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/sp1943-44/chapter19.htm#b3 Chapter XIX: The Second Front and the Secondary War The CBI: January-May 1944. The Mounting of the B-29 Offensive] See Maurice Matloff References Page 442] , as the Supreme Allied Commander in China. However, Stilwell often broke the chain of command and communicated directly with the US Joint Chiefs of Staffon operational matters. This continued after the formation of the South East Asia Command(SEAC) and the appointment of Admiral Lord Mountbatten as Supreme Allied Commander.
When joint allied command was agreed upon, it was decided that the senior position should be held by a member of the British military because the British dominated Allied operations on the South-East Asian Theatre by weight of numbers (in much the same way as the US did in the
Pacific Theater of Operations). Admiral Lord Mountbatten was appointed as the Supreme Allied Commander of South-East Asia forces in October 1943.
Gen. Stilwell, who also had operational command of the
Northern Combat Area Command(NCAC), a US-Chinese formation, was to report in theory to Gen. George Giffard— commander of Eleventh Army Group — so that NCAC and the British Fourteenth Army, under the command of General William Slim, could be co-ordinated. However, in practice, Gen. Stillwell never agreed to this arrangement. Stilwell was able to do this because of his multiple positions within complex command structures, including especially his simultaneous positions of Deputy Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia, and Chief of Staff to Chinese leader Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek. As SEAC's deputy leader, Stilwell was Giffard's superior, but as operational commander of NCAC, Giffard was Stilwell's superior. As the two men did not get on, this inevitably lead to conflict and confusion.
Eventually at a SEAC meeting to sort out the chain of command for NCAC, Stilwell astonished everyone by saying "I am prepared to come under General Slim's operational control until I get to
Kamaing". Although far from ideal,this compromise was accepted.
Although Gen. Stilwell was the control and co-ordinating point for all command activity in the theater, his assumption of personal direction of the advance of the Chinese Ledo forces into north Burma in late 1943 meant that he was often out of touch with both his own headquarters and with the over-all situation.
Not until late 1944, after Stilwell was recalled to Washington, was the chain of command clarified. His overall role, and the CBI command, was then split among three people: Lt Gen. Raymond Wheeler became Deputy Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia; Major-General Albert Wedemeyer became Chief of Staff to Chiang, and commander of US Forces, China Theater (USFCT). Lt Gen. Daniel Sultan was promoted, from deputy commander of CBI to commander of US Forces, India-Burma Theater (USFIBT) and commander of the NCAC. The 11th Army Group was redesignated
Allied Land Forces South East Asia(ALFSEA), and NCAC was decisively placed under this formation. However, by the time the last phase of the Burma Campaignbegan in earnest, NCAC had become irrelevant, and it was dissolved in early 1945.
U.S. Army and Allied Air Forces
After consultation among the Allied governments, Air Command South-East Asia was formed in November 1943 to control all allied air forces in the theater, with Air Chief Marshall Sir Richard Peirse as Commander-in-chief. Under Peirse's deputy, USAAF Major General
George E. Stratemeyer, Eastern Air Command (EAC) was organized in 1943 to control Allied air operations in Burma, with headquarters in Calcutta. [Roll of Honour, Britain At War, "The Air Forces In Burma" http://www.roll-of-honour.org.uk/Cemeteries/Rangoon_Memorial/html/air_forces_in_burma.htm] Unlike the strained relations and confusion encountered in coordinating Allied ground force commands, air force operations in the CBI proceeded relatively smoothly. Relations improved even further after new U.S. military aid began arriving, together with capable USAAF officers such as Brigadier General William D. Oldof CGI Troop Carrier Command, and Lt. Col. Philip Cochranof the 1st Air Commando Group. [Masters, John, "The Road Past Mandalay", Bantam Press (1979), pp. 146-148, 308-309] Within Eastern Air Command, Air Marshal Sir John Baldwin commanded the Third Tactical Air Force, originally formed to provide close air support to the Fourteenth Army. Baldwin was later succeeded by Air Marshal Sir Alec Coryton. U.S. Brigadier-General Howard C. Davidson and later Air Commodore F. J. W. Mellersh commanded the Strategic Air Force. In the new command, various units of the Royal Air Force and the U.S. Tenth Army Air Force worked side-by-side. In the autumn of 1943 SEAAC had 48 R.A.F. and 17 U.S.A.A.F. squadrons; by the following May, the figures had risen to 64 and 28, respectively. [Roll of Honour, Britain At War, "The Air Forces In Burma" http://www.roll-of-honour.org.uk/Cemeteries/Rangoon_Memorial/html/air_forces_in_burma.htm]
At Eastern Air Command, Gen. Stratemeyer had a status comparable to that of Stilwell [ [http://www.rafweb.org/Cmd_O3.htm Air of Authority - A History of RAF Organisation: Overseas Commands - Iraq, India and the Far East] ] . Coordinating the efforts of the various allied air components while maintaining relations with diverse command structures proved a daunting task. Part of Stratemeyer's command, the
Tenth Air Force, had been integrated with the RAF Third Tactical Air Forcein India in December 1943 and was tasked with a number of roles in support of a variety of allied forces. Another component, the USAAF Fourteenth Air Forcein China, was actually under the jurisdiction of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek as theater commander. Although the China-Buma-India operations of the USAAF's Air Transport Commandreceived its assignments of tonnage from Stratemeyer as Stilwell's deputy, organizational control of the ATC remained in Washington, D.C.
In the spring of 1944, with the arrival of command
B-29's in the theater, another factor would be added to air force operations. XX Bomber Commandof the Twentieth Air Forcewas tasked with the strategic bombing of Japan under Operation Matterhorn, and reported directly to the JCS in Washington, D.C. However, XX Bomber Command remained totally dependent on Eastern Air Command for supplies, bases, ground staff, and infrastructure support.
After a period of reshuffling, Eastern Air Command's air operations began to show results. In August 1944, Admiral Mountbatten noted in a press conference that EAC fighter missions had practically swept the Japanese air force from Burmese skies. Between the formation of SEAAC in November 1943, and the middle of August 1944, American and British forces operating in Burma destroyed or damaged more than 700 Japanese aircraft with a further 100 aircraft probably destroyed. [Mountbatten, Admiral Lord Louis, "Address to the Press, August 1944" http://www.burmastar.org.uk/aug44mountbatten.htm] This achievement considerably reduced dangers to Air Transport Command cargo planes flying in support of the Hump airlift operation. By May 1944, EAC resupply missions in support of the Allied ground offensive had carried 70,000 tons of supplies and transported a total of 93,000 men, including 25,500 casualties evacuated from the battle areas. These figures did not include tonnage flown in the Hump airlift missions to China. [Mountbatten, Admiral Lord Louis, "Address to the Press, August 1944" http://www.burmastar.org.uk/aug44mountbatten.htm]
USAAF Order Of Battle
Tenth Air Force
1st Air Commando Group(1944-1945)
Burma, India (B-25, P-51, P-47, C-47)
1st Combat Cargo Group(1944-1945)
Burma, India, China (C-47, C-46).
2nd Air Commando Group(1944-1945)
Burma, India (P-51, C-47)
3d Combat Cargo Group(1944-1945)
Burma, India (C-47).
4th Combat Cargo Group(1944-1945)
Burma, India (C-47, C-46).
* 7th Bombardment Group (1942-1945)
India (B-17, B-24).
* 12th Bombardment Group (1944-1945)
* 33d Fighter Group (1944-1945)
India (P-38, P-47)
* 80th Fighter Group (1943-1945)
India, Burma (P-38, P-40, P-47)
Transferred in 1944 to Fourteenth Air Force:
* 311th Fighter Group (1943-1944)
India, Burma (A-36, P-51)
* 341st Bombardment Group (1943-1944)
India, Burma (B-25)
443d Troop Carrier Group(1944-1945)
426th Night Fighter Squadron(1944)
427th Night Fighter Squadron(1944)
Fourteenth Air Force
* 68th Composite Wing
** 23d Fighter Group (1942-1945) (P-40, P-51)
American Volunteer Group(AVG) "Flying Tigers".
* 69th Composite Wing
** 51st Fighter Group: 1942-1945 (P-40, P-38, P-51).
** 341st Bombardment Group 1944-1945 (B-25).
* 312th Fighter Wing
** 33rd Fighter Group: 1944 (P-38, P-47).
** 81st Fighter Group: 1944-1945 (P-40, P-47).
** 311th Fighter Group: 1944-1945 (A-36, P-51).
* Chinese-American Composite Wing (Provisional) (1943-1945)
** 3rd Fighter Group (Provisional) (P-40, P-51)
** 5th Fighter Group (Provisional) (P-40, P-51)
** 1st Bombardment Group (Medium, Provisional) (B-25)
* Other assigned units:
** 402d Fighter Group:
May - Jul 1943. Assigned but never equipped.
** 476th Fighter Group:
May - Jul 1943. Assigned but never equipped.
** 308th Bombardment Group:(B-24)
Mar 1943 - Feb 1945
* From Tenth Air Force in 1944-1945:
** 341st Bombardment Group: (B-25)
Jan 1944 - Nov 1945
443d Troop Carrier Group: (C-47/C-54)
Aug - Nov 1945
426th Night Fighter Squadron: P-61)
1944 - 1945
427th Night Fighter Squadron: (P-61)
1944 - 1945
Twentieth Air Force
(Attached To CBI 1944-1945)
XX Bomber Command(1944-45)
1st Photo Squadron (Detachment C)
** 58th Bombardment Wing
(Chakulia, Kharagpur, Hijli AB, India) (B-29)
*** 40th Bombardment Group
444th Bombardment Group
462d Bombardment Group
468th Bombardment Group
Twentieth Air Force XX Bomber Command (XX BC) combat elements moved in the summer of 1944 from the United States to
Indiawhere they engaged in very-long-range Boeing B-29 Superfortress bombardment operations against Japan, Formosa, China, Indochinaand Burma. While in India, XX BC was supported logistically by Tenth Air Force. B-29 groups moved to West Field, Tinian, early 1945.
1942Stilwell was promoted to lieutenant general and tasked with establishing the CBI.
February 25 1942Stilwell arrived in India by which time Singaporeand Burmahad both been invaded by the Japanese Army.
March 10 1942Stilwell is named Chief of Staff of Allied armies in the Chinese theatre of operations.
March 19 1942Stilwell’s command in China is extended to include the Chinese 5th and 6th Armies operating in Burma after Chiang Kai-Shek gave his permission.
March 20 1942Chinese troops under Stilwell engage Japanese forces along the Sittang River in Burma.
April 9 1942Claire Chennault inducted into U.S. Army as a colonel, bringing the AVG Flying Tigerssquadrons under Stilwell's authority.
May 2 1942The commander of Allied forces in Burma, General Harold Alexander, ordered a general retreat to India. Instead of flying out, Stilwell remained with his troops and began a long retreat to India.
May 24 1942Stilwell arrived in Delhi. Most of his Chinese troops had deserted and gone back to China.
* New Delhi and Ramgarh became the main training centre for Chinese troops in India. Chiang Kai-Shek gave Stilwell command of what was left of the 22nd and 38th Divisions of the Chinese Army.
December 1 1942British General Sir Archibald Wavell, as Allied Supreme Commander South East Asia, agreed with Stilwell to make the Ledo Roadan American operation.
1943US President Franklin D. Roosevelt approved the creation of a US jungle commandounit, similar to the Chindits, to be commanded by Major General Frank Merrill.
December 21Stilwell assumed direct control of operations to capture Myitkyina, having built up forces for an offensive in Northern Burma.
February 24 1944 Merrill's Marauders, attacked the Japanese 18th Division in Burma. This action enabled Stilwell to gain control of the Hakawing Valley.
May 17 1944British general Slim in command of the Burma Campaignhanded control of the Chindits to Stilwell.
May 17 1944Chinese troops, with the help of Merrill's Mauraders, captured Myitkina airfield.
August 3 1944Myitkina fell to the Allies. The Mauraders had advanced 750 miles and fought in five major engagements and 32 skirmishes with the Japanese Army. They lost 700 men, only 1,300 Marauders reached their objective and of these, 679 had to be hospitalized. This included General Merrill who had suffered a second-heart attack before going down with malaria.
* Some time before
August 27 1944, Mountbatten supreme allied commander (SEAC) ordered General Stilwell to evacuate all the wounded Chindits.
1944the Japanese in Operation Ichi-Gooverran US air bases in eastern China. Chiang Kai-Shek blamed Stilwell for the Japanese success, and pressed the US high command to recall him.
1944Roosevelt recalled Stilwell, whose role was split (as was the CBI):
** Lieutenant General Raymond Wheeler became Deputy Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia.
** Major General Albert Wedemeyer became Chief of Staff to "Chiang Kai-shek" and commander of the U.S. Forces, China Theater (USFCT).
** Lieutenant General Daniel Sultan was promoted from deputy commander to became commander of US Forces India-Burma Theater (USFIBT) and commander of the
Northern Combat Area Command
January 12 1945, the first convoy over the Ledo Roadof 113 vehicles led by General Pick from Ledo reached Kunming, China on February 4 1945. Over the next seven months 35,000 tons of supplies in 5,000 vehicles were carried along it.
* The Dixie Mission
* U.S. campaigns in WWII - China Burma India Theater
OSS Detachment 101
*Maurice Matloff " [http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/sp1943-44/index.htm Strategic planning for coalition warfare 1943-1944] " Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 53-61477, First Printed 1959-CMH Pub 1-4.
*Field Marshal Sir William Slim, "Defeat Into Victory" is a first hand account by the British commander.
*Jon Latimer, "Burma: The Forgotten War", London: John Murray, 2004.
* Endicott, Judy G. (1999) Active Air Force wings as of 1 October 1995; USAF active flying, space, and missile squadrons as of 1 October 1995. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. CD-ROM.
* Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0892010924.
* Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings Lineage and Honors Histories 1947-1977. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0912799129.
Julian Thompson"The Imperial War Museum Book of War Behind Enemy Lines". London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1998.
* [http://cbi-theater.home.comcast.net CHINA-BURMA-INDIA - Remembering the Forgotten Theater of World War II]
* [http://www.cbi-history.com CBI Order of Battle] Unit Lineages and History
* [http://www.archives.gov/research_room/federal_records_guide/print_friendly.html?page=ww2_theaters_of_war_rg332_content.html&title=NARA%20%7C%20Research%20Room%20%7C%20Guide%20to%20Records%20of%20U.S.%20theaters%20of%20War%2C%20World%20War%20II#332.3 Records of U.S. Theaters of War, World War II:332.3.2 Records of Headquarters U.S. Army Forces, China-Burma-India (HQ USAF CBI)]
* [http://www.army.mil/CMH-PG/books/wwii/11-9/CBI.htm US Center of Military History (USCMH):The China-Burma-India Theater]
* [http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/brochures/burma42/burma42.htm US Center of Military History (USCMH): Burma 1942]
* [http://www.army.mil/cmh/brochures/centburma/centburma.htm USCMH Central Burma 29 January - 15 July 1945] Center
* [http://www.army.mil/CMH-pg/brochures/indiaburma/indiaburma.htm USCMH India-Burma 2 April 1942-28 January 1945]
* [http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwii/CrisisFleeting/frameindex.html Office of the US Surgeon General: Office of Medical History(USOMH): Index: Original Reports on Military Medicine in India and Burma]
* [http://warren421.home.comcast.net/links.html list of links to CBI pages]
* [http://www.nimitz-museum.org/cbiprimer.htm Forgotten Warriors: China-Burma-India]
* [http://history.acusd.edu/gen/WW2Timeline/detachment101.html OSS Detachment 101 in Burma] , [http://oss-101.com/history.html OSS-101 ]
* [http://www.warbirdforum.com/annals.htm Annals of the Flying Tigers]
* [http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Chindits encyclopedia Chindits]
* [http://www.historyanimated.com/BurmaPage.html Animated History of The Burma Campaign]
* [http://www.nightfighter.info/ Night Fighter by J R Smith]
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