Zeolites (Greek, "zein", "to boil"; "lithos", "a stone") are hydrated
aluminosilicate minerals and have a micro-porous structure.
The term was originally coined in the 18th century by a Swedish
mineralogistnamed Axel Fredrik Cronstedtwho observed, upon rapidly heating a natural mineral, that the stones began to dance about as the water evaporated. Using the Greek words which mean "stone that boils," he called this material zeolite.
More than 150 zeolite types have been synthesized, and 48 naturally occurring zeolites are known. Zeolites have an "open" structure that can accommodate a wide variety of
cations, such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and others. These positive ions are rather loosely held and can readily be exchanged for others in a contact solution. Some of the more common mineral zeolites are: analcime, chabazite, heulandite, natrolite, phillipsite, and stilbite. An example mineral formula is: Na2Al2Si3O10-2H2O, the formula for natrolite.
Natural zeolites form where
volcanicrocks and ash layers react with alkalinegroundwater. Zeolites also crystallized in post-depositional environments over periods ranging from thousands to millions of years in shallow marine basins. Naturally occurring zeolites are rarely pure and are contaminated to varying degrees by other minerals, metals, quartz or other zeolites. For this reason, naturally occurring zeolites are excluded from many important commercial applications where uniformity and purity are essential.
Zeolites are the aluminosilicate members of the family of microporous solids known as "molecular sieves". The term
molecular sieverefers to a particular property of these materials, i.e. the ability to selectively sort molecules based primarily on a size exclusion process. This is due to a very regular pore structure of molecular dimensions. The maximum size of the molecular or ionic species that can enter the pores of a zeolite is controlled by the diameters of the tunnels. These are conventionally defined by the ring size of the aperture, where, for example, the term "8ring" refers to a closed loop that is built from 8 tetrahedrally coordinated silicon (or aluminium) atoms and 8 oxygen atoms. These rings are not always perfectly flat and symmetrical due to a variety of effects, including strain induced by the bonding between units that are needed to produce the overall structure, or coordination of some of the oxygen atoms of the rings to cations within the structure. Therefore, the pore openings for all rings of one size are not identical.
open pit miningtechniques in Arkansas are used to mine natural zeolites. The overburden is removed to allow access to the ore. The ore may be blasted or stripped for processing by using tractors equipped with ripper blades and front-end loaders. In processing, the ore is crushed, dried, and milled. The milled ore may be air-classified as to particle size and shipped in bags or bulk. The crushed product may be screenedto remove fine material when a granular product is required, and some pelletized products are produced from fine material. Producers also may modify the properties of the zeolite or blend their zeolite products with other materials before sale to enhance their performance.
Currently, the world’s annual production of natural zeolite is about 4 million tons. Of this quantity, 2.6 million tons are shipped to Chinese markets to be used in the
concreteindustry. Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Australia, and Asia are world leaders in supplying the world’s demand for natural zeolite. By comparison, only 57,400 metric tons (source: U.S. Geological Survey, 2004) of zeolite (only 1% of the world’s current production) is produced in North America; only recently has North America realized the potential for current and future markets. There are several types of synthetic zeolites that form by a process of slow crystallization of a silica- aluminagel in the presence of alkalis and organic templates. One of the important processes used to carry out zeolite synthesis is sol-gelprocessing. The product properties depend on reaction mixture composition, pH of the system, operating temperature, pre-reaction 'seeding' time, reaction time as well as the templates used. In sol-gel process, other elements (metals, metal oxides) can be easily incorporated. The silicalite sol formed by the hydrothermalmethod is very stable. Also the ease of scaling up this process makes it a favorite route for zeolite synthesis.
Synthetic zeolites hold some key advantages over their natural analogs. The synthetics can, of course, be manufactured in a uniform, phase-pure state. It is also possible to manufacture desirable zeolite structures which do not appear in nature. Zeolite A is a well-known example. Since the principal raw materials used to manufacture zeolites are silica and alumina, which are among the most abundant mineral components on earth, the potential to supply zeolites is virtually unlimited. Finally, zeolite manufacturing processes engineered by man require significantly less time than the 50 to 50,000 years prescribed by nature. Disadvantages include the inability to create crystals with dimensions of a comparable size to their natural counterparts.
Commercial and Domestic
Zeolites are widely used as ion-exchange beds in domestic and commercial
water purification, softening, and other applications. In chemistry, zeolites are used to separate molecules (only molecules of certain sizes and shapes can pass through), as traps for molecules so they can be analyzed.
Zeolites have the potential of providing precise and specific separation of gases including the removal of H2O, CO2 and SO2 from low-grade
natural gasstreams. Other separations include: noble gases, N2, O2, freonand formaldehyde. However at present, the true potential to improve the handling of such gases in this manner remains unknown.
Synthetic zeolites are widely used as
catalysts in the petrochemical industry, for instance in fluid catalytic cracking and hydro-cracking. Zeolites confine molecules in small spaces, which causes changes in their structure and reactivity. The hydrogen form of zeolites (prepared by ion-exchange) are powerful solid-state acids, and can facilitate a host of acid-catalyzed reactions, such as isomerisation, alkylation, and cracking. The specific activation modality of most zeolitic catalysts used in petrochemical applications involves quantum-chemical Lewis acid site reactions. Catalytic cracking uses a furnace and reactor. First crude oil distillation fractions are heated in the furnace and passed to the reactor. In the reactor the crude meets with a catalyst such as zeolite. It goes through this step three times, each time getting cooler. Finally it reaches a step known as separator. The separator collects recycled hydrogen. Then it goes through a fractionator and becomes the final item.
Zeolites have uses in advanced reprocessing methods, where their micro-porous ability to capture some ions while allowing others to pass freely allow many fission products to be efficiently removed from nuclear waste and permanently trapped. Equally important are the mineral properties of zeolites. Their alumino-silicate construction is extremely durable and resistant to radiation even in porous form. Additionally, once they are loaded with trapped fission products, the zeolite-waste combination can be hot pressed into an extremely durable ceramic form, closing the pores and trapping the waste in a solid stone block. This is a waste form factor that greatly reduces its hazard compared to conventional reprocessing systems. [http://www.uic.com.au/nip72.htm]
clinoptilolite(a naturally occurring zeolite) is used as a soil treatment. It provides a source of slowly released potassium. If previously loaded with ammonium, the zeolite can serve a similar function in the slow release of nitrogen. Zeolites can also act as water moderators, in which they will absorb up to 55% of their weight in water and slowly release it under plant demand. This property can prevent root rot and moderate drought cycles.
In Concentrated Animal Growing facilities, the addition of as little as 1% of a very low sodium clinoptiloite was shown to improve feed conversion, reduce airborne ammonia up to 80%, act as a mycotoxin binder and improve bone density. See US Patents4,917,045 and 6,284,232.Can be used in general odor elimination for all animal odors.
Zeolite-based oxygen concentrator systems are widely used to produce medical grade oxygen. The zeolite is used as a molecular sieve to create purified oxygen from air using its ability to trap impurities, in a process involving the absorption of undesired gases and other atmospheric components, leaving highly purified oxygen and up to 5% argon.
QuikClot® brand hemostatic agent, which continues to be used successfully to save lives by stopping severe bleeding [J Trauma. 2008 Apr ;64 (4):1093-9 18404080 QuikClot use in trauma for hemorrhage control: case series of 103 documented uses. Peter Rhee, et al. ] , contains a calcium loaded form of zeolite.
Heating and refrigeration
Zeolites can be used as
solar thermal collectors and for adsorption refrigeration. In these applications, their high heat of adsorptionand ability to hydrateand dehydrate while maintaining structural stability is exploited. This hygroscopicproperty coupled with an inherent exothermic(heat producing) reaction when transitioning from a dehydrated to a hydrated form, make natural zeolites useful in harvesting waste heat and solar heat energy.
The largest single use for zeolite is the global laundry
detergentmarket. This amounted to 1.44 million metric tons per year of anhydrous zeolite A in 1992.
Synthetic zeolite is also being used as an additive in the production process of warm mix
asphalt concrete. The development of this application started in Europe (Germany) in the 1990s. It helps by decreasing the temperature level during manufacture and laying of asphalt concrete, resulting in lower consumption of fossil fuels, thus releasing less carbon dioxide,aerosols and vapours. Other than that the usage of synthetic zeolite in hot mixed asphalt leads to easier compaction and to a certain degree allows cold weather paving and longer hauls. When added to Portland Cement as a Pozzolan, it can reduce chloride permeability and improve workability. It reduces weight and helps moderate water content while allowing for slower drying which improves break strength. [Dypayan Jana, "CLINOPTILOLITE –A PROMISING POZZOLAN IN CONCRETE", http://www.cmc-concrete.com/CMC%20Seminars/2007%20ICMA%20Zeolite.pdf ]
Thomsonites, one of the rarer zeolite minerals, have been collected as gemstones from a series of lavaflows along Lake Superiorin Minnesotaand to a lesser degree in Michigan, U.S.A.. Thomsonite nodules from these areas have eroded from basaltlava flows and are collected on beaches and by scuba divers in Lake Superior.
These thomsonite nodules have concentric rings in combinations of colors, black, white, orange, pink, red and many shades of green. Some nodules have copper as inclusions and rarely will be found with
copper"eyes". When polished by a lapidarythe thomsonites sometimes display chatoyancy. [http://www.cst.cmich.edu/users/dietr1rv/thomsonite.htm R. V. Dietrich, 2006, Thomsonite]
Zeolites are marketed by pet stores for use as a filter additive in
aquariums. In aquariums, zeolites can be used to absorb ammoniaand other nitrogenous compounds. However, due to the high affinity of some zeolites for calcium, they may be less effective in hard water and may deplete calcium. Zeolite filtration is used in some marine aquaria to keep nutrient concentrations low for the benefit of corals adapted to nutrient-depleted waters.
Where and how the zeolite was formed is an important consideration for
aquariums. Northern hemisphere natural zeolites were formed when molten lava came in contact with sea water, thereby 'loading' the zeolite with Na (sodium) sacrificial ions. These sodium ions will speciate with other ions in solution, thus the takeup of nitrogen in ammonia, with the release of the sodium. In southern hemisphere zeolites, such as found in Australia, which were formed with fresh water, thus the calcium uptake on formation.
Zeolite is an effective ammonia filter, but must be used with some care, especially with delicate tropical corals which are sensitive to water chemistry and temperature.
Space hardware testing
Zeolites can be used as a molecular sieve in cryosorption pumps for rough pumping of
vacuum chambers which can be used to simulate space-like conditions in order to test hardware bound for space.
cat litteris often made of zeolite or diatomite.
Zeolite mineral species
The Zeolite family includes
*Zeolites in Sedimentary Rocks. Ch. in United States Mineral Resources, Professional Paper 820, 1973.
*Natural and Synthetic Zeolites. U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 9140, 1987.
* cite journal | title = La roca magica: Uses of natural zeolites in agriculture and industry
author = Frederick A. Mumpton | journal =
PNAS| volume = 96 | issue = 7 | pages = 3463-3470 | year = 1999 | url = http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/96/7/3463
*“Zeolite-water close cycle solar refrigeration ; numerical optimisation and field-testing”, Jean-Baptiste Monnier; Dupont, M. Proc. Annu. Meet. - Am. Sect. Int. Sol. Energy Soc. ; Vol/Issue: 6 pp 181-185; American Solar Energy Society meeting; 1 June 1983; Minneapolis, MN, USA
List of minerals
* [http://www.iza-structure.org/databases/ Database of Zeolite Structures]
* [http://www.iza-synthesis.org/ The Synthesis Commission of the International Zeolite Association]
* [http://www.bza.org/ British Zeolite Association]
* [http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/zeolites/ U.S. Geological Survey, References on Zeolites]
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