- Pacific Solution
The Pacific Solution was the name given to the
Australian governmentpolicy ( 2001- 2007) of transporting asylum seekersto detention camps on small island nations in the Pacific Ocean, rather than allowing them to land on the Australian mainland. The Pacific Solution consisted of three central strategies. Firstly, thousands of islands were controversially excised from Australia’s migration zone or Australian territory. Secondly, the Australian Defence Forcecommenced Operation Relexto interdict vessels containing asylum seekers. Finally, these asylum seekers were removed to third countries in order to determine their refugee status. There were a number of pieces of legislation supporting this policy. The policy was developed by the Howard government in response to the 2001 Tampa affairand was implemented by then Australian Immigration Minister Philip Ruddock.
Asylum seekers were intercepted at sea while sailing from
Indonesiaand moved using Australian naval vessels. Detention camps were set up on Christmas Island, Manus Islandin Papua New Guinea, and on the tiny island nation of Nauru. Some were also accepted for processing by New Zealand. Most of the asylum seekers came from Afghanistan(largely of the Hazara ethnic group), Iraq, Iran, China, and Vietnam. The last asylum seekers to be detained on Nauru before the end of the policy had come from Sri Lankaand Myanmar[ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6453187.stm « Sri Lankans to be sent to Nauru »] , BBC, 15 March 2007] .
The policy was abandoned by the
Australian Labor Partygovernment of Kevin Ruddfollowing its election in 2007.
The case for the Pacific Solution
The Pacific Solution was defended as a deterrent to attempts by those supporters described as
illegalsto seek asylum in Australia without the authorisation of the Australian government. In support of the policy, Prime Minister Howard stated :We will decide who comes to this country and the circumstances in which they come. [http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2001/s422692.htm]
Criticism of the Pacific Solution
The policy received criticism from a number of areas, with
Amnesty International, refugee rights groups and other non-governmental organisations claiming that Australia was failing to meet its international obligations. The ad-hoc nature in which the policy evolved was also criticised, as it resulted in people being moved to Manus Island and Nauru before facilities were ready.
As of May 29, 2005, a total of 1,229 asylum seekers had been processed on Nauru. Most of those detained were eventually found to be legitimate refugees, sometimes after more than three years in detention. By October 2005 all but two remaining asylum seekers,
Mohammed Sagarand Muhammad Faisal, had been transferred to mainland Australia with the majority of these entering the community with temporary protection visas. While Faisal and Sagar were eventually resettled to Australia and Sweden respectively, additional groups of Burmese and Sri Lankan Tamilrefugees were brought to the island in 2006 and 2007.
The cost of the Pacific Solution was over $15.5 million
AUDin 2003/2004, taken from the AusAID budget of $69.9 million. [http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:vFIC7a77iakJ:www.dfat.gov.au/dept/budget/2003_2004_paes/2003_04_paes.doc+%22Memorandum+of+Understanding+to+address+unauthorised+arrivals%22&hl=en&gl=au&ct=clnk&cd=1]
A 2007 report, "A Price Too High: Australia's Approach to Asylum Seekers", found that:
*The Pacific Solution cost the Australian taxpayer in excess of $1 billion over five years.
*It cost more than $500,000 per person to process them on
Manus Island, Christmas Islandor Nauru.
*It costs seven times more to process asylum seekers on Pacific islands than if it was done on the Australian mainland.
*The Pacific Solution failed to reduce the number of people arriving.cite web | url=http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/pacific-solution-cost-1b/2007/08/24/1187462523594.html | title=Pacific solution cost $1b | publisher="
The Sydney Morning Herald" | date=2007-08-25 | accessdate=2007-10-29]
The end of the Pacific Solution
During the campaign for the 2007 parliamentary election, Australian Labor Party candidate Kevin Rudd promised to put an end to the 'Pacific Solution' if he were elected. Upon assuming office in December, Rudd confirmed that the detention centres on Manus Island and on Nauru would be closed. The seven asylum seekers from Myanmar and 75 of the 83 from Sri Lanka were granted the right to settle in Australia [ [http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/pacific-solution-ends-but-tough-stance-to-remain/2007/12/07/1196813021259.html « Pacific solution ends but tough stance to remain »] , Craig Skehan, "
Sydney Morning Herald", 8 December 2007] [ [http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,22896712-5013871,00.html « Burmese detainees granted asylum »] , Cath Hart, " The Australian", 10 December 2007] . An additional 6 Sri Lankans had been found to be genuine refugees but had initially been charged with sexual assault on a Nauruan woman; those charges were dropped in January 2008, making it possible for the six men to be resettled in Australia (pending standard health and character checks). Of the two remaining Sri Lankans, one is appealing the rejection of his refugee application, while the other is currently (as of January 2008) hospitalised in Australia [ [http://www.mvariety.com/?module=displaystory&story_id=5232&format=html "Rape charges vs refugees in Nauru dropped"] , "Marianas Variety", 16 January 2008] . The first 21 Sri Lankan refugees arrived in Australia for resettlement in January 2008 [ [http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/news/stories/s2139544.htm "Sri Lankan refugees arrive in Australia from Nauru"] , Radio Australia, 16 January 2008] . The final 21 arrived in Australia on February 8, leaving the detention camp empty and marking the end of the "Pacific Solution" [ [http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,23180722-662,00.html "Howard's 'cynical' Pacific Solution over"] , "Herald Sun", 18 February 2008] .
Nauru has reacted with concern at the prospect of potentially losing much-needed aid from Australia [ [http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/nauru-fears-gap-when-camps-close/2007/12/10/1197135374481.html « Nauru fears gap when camps close »] , "
The Age", 11 December 2007] . Opposition immigration spokesman Chris Ellisonsaid the closure could suggest to people-smugglers that Australia was weakening on border protection. [cite web |url=http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,23183785-5013404,00.html |title=Pacific Solution sinks quietly | The Australian |format= |work= |accessdate=] ]
* [http://www.oxfam.org.au/campaigns/refugees/pacificsolution/ Oxfam Community Aid Abroad - Adrift In The Pacific]
* [http://www.nauruwire.org Nauru Wire]
* [http://www.refugeeaction.org/inside/pacific_solution.htm Refugee Action Australia: Information on the Pacific Solution]
* [http://www.thislife.org/Radio_Episode.aspx?episode=253 Radio program "This American Life" featured a 30-minute story on Nauru, including the Pacific Solution.]
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