- Andrey Kolmogorov
Infobox_Scientist

name = Andrey Kolmogorov

birth_date = birth date|1903|4|25

birth_place =Tambov ,Imperial Russia

nationality =Russia n

death_date = death date and age|1987|10|20|1903|4|25

death_place =Moscow ,USSR

field =Mathematician

work_institution =Moscow State University

alma_mater =Moscow State University

doctoral_advisor =Nikolai Luzin

doctoral_students =Vladimir Arnold Roland Dobrushin

Eugene B. DynkinIsrail Gelfand Leonid Levin Per Martin-Löf

Yuri ProkhorovYakov G. Sinai

Albert N. Shiryaev

Anatoli G. Vitushkin

known_for =probability theory ,topology ,intuitionistic logic ,turbulence ,classical mechanics ,mathematical analysis

prizes =USSR State Prize (1941)Balzan prize (1963)Lenin Prize (1965)Wolf prize (1980)Lobachevsky Prize (1987)

footnotes =**Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov**( _ru. Андрей Николаевич Колмогоров) (April 25 ,1903 -October 20 ,1987 ) was aSoviet mathematician , preeminent in the 20^{th}century who advanced various scientific fields (among themprobability theory ,topology ,intuitionistic logic ,turbulence ,classical mechanics andcomputational complexity ).**Biography****Early life**Kolmogorov was born at

Tambov in 1903. His unwed mother died in childbirth and he was raised by his aunts inTunoshna nearYaroslavl at the estate of his grandfather, a wealthy nobleman. His father, anagronomist by trade, was deported fromSaint-Petersburg for participation in the revolutionary movement. He disappeared and was presumed to be killed in theRussian Civil War .Kolmogorov was educated in his aunt's village school, and his earliest literary efforts and mathematical papers were printed in the school newspaper. As an adolescent he designed

perpetual motion machines, concealing their (necessary) defects so cleverly that his secondary-school teachers could not discover them. In 1910, his aunt adopted him and then they moved to Moscow, where he went to a gymnasium, graduating from it in 1920.In 1920, Kolmogorov began to study at the

Moscow State University and the Chemistry Technological Institute. Kolmogorov gained a reputation for his wide-ranging erudition. As an undergraduate, he participated in the seminars of the Russian historian S.V. Bachrushin, and he published his first research paper on the landholding practices in the Novgorod Republic in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. [*David Salsburg, "The Lady Tasting Tea: How Statistics Revolutionized Science in the Twentieth Century," New York, W. H. Freeman, 2001; pp. 137-50.*] At the same time (1921-1922), Kolmogorov derived and proved several results inset theory and in the theory ofFourier series (trigonometrical series).**Maturity**In 1922 Kolmogorov constructed a Fourier series that diverges

almost everywhere , gaining international recognition. Around this time he decided to devote his life tomathematics . In 1925 Kolmogorov graduated fromMoscow State University , and began to study under the supervision ofNikolai Luzin . He made lifelong friends withPavel Alexandrov who involved Kolmogorov in 1936 in an ugly political persecution of their mutual teacher, the so-calledLuzin case orLuzin affair . Kolmogorov (together with A. Khinchin) became interested inprobability theory . Also in 1925, he published his famous work inintuitionistic logic - "On the principle of the excluded middle". In 1929 Kolmogorov earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree,Ph.D. , at theMoscow State University .In 1930, Kolmogorov went on his first long trip abroad, traveling to

Göttingen andMunich , Germany, and then toParis , France. His pioneering work "About the Analytical Methods of Probability Theory" was published (in German) in 1931. Also in 1931, he became a professor at Moscow University. In 1933, Kolmogorov published the book, "Foundations of the Theory of Probability", laying the modern axiomatic foundations of probability theory and establishing his reputation as the world's leading living expert in this field. In 1935, Kolmogorov became the first chairman of probability theory at theMoscow State University . In 1939, he was elected a full member (academician) of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In a 1938 paper, Kolmogorov "established the basic theorems for smoothing and predicting stationarystochastic processes " — a paper that would have major military applications during theCold War to come. [*Salsburg, p. 139.*]In his study of stochastic processes (random processes), especially

Markov process es, Komolgorov and the BritonSydney Chapman independently developed the pivotal set of equations in the field, theChapman-Kolmogorov equation s.Later on, Kolmogorov changed his research interests to the area of

turbulence , where his publications beginning in 1941 had a significant influence on the field. Inclassical mechanics , he is best known for theKolmogorov–Arnold–Moser theorem (first presented in 1954 at theInternational Congress of Mathematicians ). In 1957 he solvedHilbert's thirteenth problem (a joint work with his studentV. I. Arnold ). He was a founder ofalgorithmic complexity theory , often referred to as Kolmogorov complexity theory, which he began to develop around this time.Kolmogorov was married to Anna Dmitrievna Egorova in 1942. He pursued a vigorous teaching routine throughout his life, not only at the university level but also with younger children, as he was actively involved in developing a pedagogy for gifted children, in literature, and in music, as well as in mathematics. At the Moscow State University, Kolmogorov occupied different positions, including the heads of several departments:

probability ,statistics , andrandom process es;mathematical logic ; and he also served as the Dean of the Moscow State University Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics.In 1971, Kolmogorov joined an oceanographic expedition aboard the research vessel

**Dmitri Mendeleev**. He wrote a number of articles for the "Great Soviet Encyclopedia ." In his later years he devoted much of his effort to the mathematical and philosophical relationship betweenprobability theory in abstract and applied areas. [*Salsburg, pp. 145-7.*]Kolmogorov passed away in Moscow in 1987. A quotation, "Every mathematician believes he is a head over all others. The reason why they don't say this in public, is because they are intelligent persons" is attributed to him.

**ee also**

*Kolmogorov axioms

*Kolmogorov backward equation

*Kolmogorov forward equation (also known as the Fokker-Planck equation)

* Kolmogorov dimension (upper box dimension )

*Kolmogorov continuity theorem

*Kolmogorov’s criterion

*Kolmogorov extension theorem

*Kolmogorov's inequality

*Landau-Kolmogorov inequality

*Brouwer-Heyting-Kolmogorov interpretation

*Kolmogorov microscales

*Kolmogorov space

*Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

*Kolmogorov's zero-one law

*Kolmogorov's characterization of reversible diffusions

*Borel-Kolmogorov paradox

*Chapman-Kolmogorov equation

*Sydney Chapman

*Chaitin-Kolmogorov randomness

*Hahn-Kolmogorov theorem

*Astronomical seeing described by Kolmogorov's turbulence law**Bibliography**A bibliography of his works appeared in "The Annals of Probability,"

**17**(3): 945--964 (July 1989).*1956. "Foundations of the Theory of Probability" by A. N. Kolmogorov, Second English Edition, translation edited by Nathan Morrison, Chelsea Publishing Company, New York

*1991-93. "Selected works of A.N. Kolmogorov", 3 vols. Tikhomirov, V. M., ed., Volosov, V. M., trans.Dordrecht :Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 9027727961

*1925. "On the principle of the excluded middle" inJean van Heijenoort , 1967. "A Source Book in Mathematical Logic, 1879-1931". Harvard Univ. Press: 414-37.**Notes****References*** Kendall, D. G., "Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov. 25 April 1903 - 20 October 1987," "Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the

Royal Society ," Vol. 37, pages 300 - 319 (November 1991).**External links***

*

* [*http://www.kolmogorov.com/ The Legacy of Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov*] Curriculum Vitae and Biography. Kolmogorov School. Ph.D. students and descendants of A.N. Kolmogorov. A.N. Kolmogorov works, books, papers, articles. Photographs and Portraits of A.N. Kolmogorov.

* [*http://www.probabilityandfinance.com/articles/04.pdf The origins and legacy of Kolmogorov's Grundbegriffe*]

* [*http://homepages.cwi.nl/~paulv/KOLMOGOROV.BIOGRAPHY.html A Short Biography of A.N. Kolmogorov*] , national research institute for Mathematics and Computer Science in the Netherlands

* [*http://www.geometry.net/scientists/kolmogorov_andrey.php Collection of links to Kolmogorov resources*]

* [*http://www.kolmogorov.info/ Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov*] (in Russian)

* [*http://www.pms.ru/ Kolmogorov School*] at Moscow University

* [*http://www.clrc.rhul.ac.uk/events/eventsoverview.htm Annual Kolmogorov Lecture*] at the Computer Learning Research Centre at Royal Holloway, University of London

*MacTutor Biography|class=Extras|id=Luzin|title=The 1936 Luzin affair

* [*http://www.math.ohio-state.edu/AT/LORENTZ/JAT02-0001_final.ps Lorentz G.G., Mathematics and Politics in the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953*]Persondata

NAME= Kolmogorov, Andrey

ALTERNATIVE NAMES=

SHORT DESCRIPTION=Mathematician

DATE OF BIRTH=April 25 ,1903

PLACE OF BIRTH=Tambov ,Imperial Russia

DATE OF DEATH=October 20 ,1987

PLACE OF DEATH=Moscow ,USSR

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