- Rosalind Franklin
name = Rosalind Franklin
image_size = 125px
caption = Rosalind Franklin
birth_date = 25 July 1920
Notting Hill, London, United Kingdom
nationality = UK citizen
death_date = 16 April 1958 (age 37)
Chelsea, London, United Kingdom
death_cause = Cancer of the Ovary
work_institutions = British Coal Utilisation Research Association
"Laboratoire central des services chimiques de l'État"
King's College London
Birkbeck College, London
Newnham College, Cambridge
known_for = Fine structure of
coaland graphite, DNA structure, viruses
religion = From Jewish family but probably an atheist.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (
25 July, 1920 Notting Hill, London– 16 April, 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicistand X-ray crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine molecular structures of DNA, viruses, coaland graphite. Franklin is best known for her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA which were an important influence on Crick and Watson's 1953 hypothesisregarding the structure of DNA.Watson JD, Crick FHC (1953). "A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid". "Nature" 171: 737–738. [http://www.nature.com/nature/dna50/watsoncrick.pdf Full text PDF] ] When her work was published it represented evidence in support of their hypothesis. [http://www.nature.com/nature/dna50/archive.html Double Helix: 50 Years of DNA. Nature archives. Nature Publishing Group] ] Later she led pioneering work on the tobacco mosaic and polio viruses. She died at the age of 37 of complications arising from cancer of the ovary.
Franklin was born in Notting Hill, London [GRO Register of Births: SEP 1920 1a 250 KENSINGTON - Rosalind E. Franklin, mmn = Waley] into an affluent and influential British-Jewish family. [cite book |last=Maddox |first=Brenda |authorlink=Brenda Maddox |title=Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA |year=2002 |publisher=HarperCollins |isbn=0060184078] Her father was Ellis Arthur Franklin (1894-1964), a London merchant banker and her mother was Muriel Frances Waley (1894-1976); she was the elder daughter and second of the family of five children.
Her uncle was
Herbert Samuel(later ViscountSamuel) who was Home Secretaryin 1916 and the first practicing Jew to serve in the British Cabinet.Maddox p. 7] He was also the first High Commissioner(effectively governor) for the British Mandate of Palestine.
Her aunt Helen Carolin Franklin was married to Norman de Mattos Bentwich, who was
Attorney Generalin the British Mandate of Palestine. [Segev p. ] She was active in trade unionorganisation and women's suffrage, and was later a member of the London County Council.Sayre p. 31] Maddox p. 40]
Franklin was educated at
St Paul's Girls' School[Maddox p. 25] [Sayre p. 41] where she excelled in Latin [Maddox p. 30] and sport. [Maddox, p. 26] Her family were actively involved with a Working Men's College, where Ellis Franklin, her father, taught electricity, magnetism and the history of the Great War in the evenings and later became vice principal. [Maddox, p. 20] [Sayre, p. 35] Later they helped settle Jewish refugees from Europe who had escaped the Nazis.
In the summer of 1938 Franklin went to
Newnham College, Cambridge. She passed her finals in 1941, but was only awarded a degree , as women were not entitled to degrees (BA Cantab.) from Cambridge at the time. In 1945 Rosalind Franklin received her PhD from Cambridge University.
British Coal Utilisation Research Association
She worked for Ronald Norrish between 1941 and 1942. Because of her desire to work during
World War II, she worked at the British Coal Utilisation Research Association in Kingston-upon-Thamesfrom August 1942, studying the porosityof coal. Her work helped spark the idea of high-strength carbonfibres and was the basis of her doctoral degree - "The physical chemistry of solid organic colloids with special reference to coaland related materials" that she earned in 1945. [Maddox, pp.40-82] [Sayre pp. 47-57]
"Laboratoire central des services chimiques de l'État"
After the war ended Franklin accepted an offer to work in
Pariswith Jacques Mering. [Maddox, page 87] She learned x-ray diffractiontechniques during her three years at the "Laboratoire central des services chimiques de l'État". [Maddox, p. 88] She seemed to have been very happy there [Maddox, p. 92] and earned an international reputation based on her published research on the structure of coal. [Franklin (1950)] In 1950 she sought work in England[Maddox, p. 108] and in June 1950 she was appointed to a position at King's College London. [Maddox, p. 111]
King's College London
In January 1951, Franklin started working as a research associate at
King's College Londonin the Medical Research Council's (MRC) Biophysics Unit, directed by John Randall. [Maddox, p. 124] Although originally she was to have worked on x-ray diffractionof proteins in solution, her work was redirected to DNA fibers before she started working at King's. [Maddox, p. 114] [Wilkins, pp. 143-144] Maurice Wilkinsand Raymond Goslinghad been carrying out x-ray diffraction analysis of DNA in the Unit since 1950. [Wilkins, p. 121]
Franklin, working with her student
Raymond Gosling, [Maddox, p. 129] started to apply her expertise in x-ray diffraction techniques to the structure of DNA. They discovered that there were two forms of DNA: at high humidity (when wet) the DNA fiber became long and thin, when it was dried it became short and fat. [Maddox, p. 153] [Wilkins, p. 154] These were termed DNA 'B' and 'A' respectively. The work on DNA was subsequently divided, Franklin taking the A form to study and Wilkins the 'B' form. [Wilkins, p. 158] [Maddox, p. 155] The x-ray diffraction pictures taken by Franklin at this time have been called, by J. D. Bernal, "amongst the most beautiful x-ray photographs of any substance ever taken". [Maddox, p. 153]
By the end of 1951 it was generally accepted in King's that the B form of DNA was a
helix, but Franklin in particular was unconvinced that the A form of DNA was helical in structure. [Wilkins, p. 176] As a practical joke Franklin and Gosling produced a death notice regretting the loss of helical crystalline DNA (A-DNA). [Wilkins, p. 182] During 1952 Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling worked at applying the Patterson functionto the x-ray pictures of DNA they had produced, [Maddox, p. 168] this was a long and labour-intensive approach but would give an insight into the structure of the molecule. [Maddox, p. 169] [Wilkins, pp. 232-233] In February 1953 Francis Crickand James D. Watsonof the Cavendish Laboratoryin Cambridge University had started to build a model of the B form of DNA using similar data to that available to the team at King's, and indeed some of their data were derived directly from research done at King's by Wilkins and Franklin. Model building had been applied successfully in the elucidation of the structure of the alpha helixby Linus Paulingin 1951, [Maddox, p. 147] [Wilkins, p. 158] but Franklin was opposed to building theoretical models, taking the view that building a model was only to be undertaken after the structure was known. [Maddox, p. 161] [Wilkins, p. 176] Watson and Crick had by then informally obtained a copy of a report written for a Medical Research Councilbiophysics committee visit to King's in December 1952, containing many of Franklin's crystalographic calculations. Watson had also seen Franklin's high quality crystallograph the so-called ' Photo 51', shown to him by Maurice Wilkins - who had been given it by Raymond Gosling (with Rosalind Franklin's apparent blessing), and a pre-publication manuscript by Pauling and Corey, giving them critical insights into the DNA structure. [Yockey, pp. 9-10.]
Crick and Watson then published their model in "Nature" on
25 April 1953in an article describing the double-helical structure of DNA with a footnote acknowledging Franklin and Wilkin's contribution. [Maddox, p. 212] Articles by Wilkins and Franklin illuminating their x-ray diffraction data published in the same issue of "Nature" supported the Crick and Watson model for the B form of DNA. [Franklin and Gosling (1953)] [Maddox, p. 210] Franklin eventually left King's College London in March 1953 to move to Birkbeck College in a move that had been planned for some time. [Maddox, p. 168]
Franklin retained her scepticism for model building even after seeing the Crick-Watson model, and remained unimpressed, she is reported to have commented "It's very pretty, but how are they going to prove it?" As an experimental scientist Franklin seems to have been interested in producing far greater evidence before publishing a proposed model, as such her response to the Crick-Watson model was in keeping with her approach to science. [Holt, J. (2002)]
Birkbeck College, London
Franklin's work in Birkbeck involved the use of x-ray crystallography to study the structure of the
tobacco mosaic virus(TMV) under J. D. Bernal[Maddox, p. 229] and was funded by the Agricultural Research Council(ARC). [Maddox, p. 235] In 1954 Franklin began a longstanding and successful collaboration with Aaron Klug. [Maddox, p. 249] In 1955 Franklin had a paper published in the journal "Nature", indicating that TMV virusparticles were all of the same length, [Franklin (1955)] this was in direct contradiction to the ideas of the eminent virologist Norman Pirie, though her observation ultimately proved correct. [Maddox, p. 252]
Franklin worked on rod like viruses such as TMV with her PhD student Kenneth Holmes, while Aaron Klug worked on spherical viruses with his student John Finch, Franklin coordinated the work and was in charge. [Maddox, p. 254] Franklin also had a
research assistant, James Watt, subsidised by the National Coal Boardand was now the "Leader of the "ARC Group" at Birkbeck". [Maddox, p. 256] By the end of 1955 her team had completed a model of the TMV and were working on viruses affecting several plants, including potato, turnip, tomato and pea. [Maddox, p. 262] Franklin and Don Caspar produced a paper each in Nature that taken together demonstrated that the RNAin TMV is wound along the inner surface of the hollow virus. [Maddox, p. 269] [Franklin (1956)]
Illness and death
In the summer of 1956, while on a work related trip to the USA Franklin first began to suspect a health problem. [Maddox, p. 284] An operation in September of the same year revealed two tumours in her abdomen. [Maddox, p. 285] After this period of illness Franklin spent some time convalescing at the home of Crick and his wife Odile. [Maddox, p. 288] She continued to work and her group continued to produce results, seven papers in 1956 and a further six in 1957. [Maddox, p. 292] In 1957 the group was also working on the
polio virusand had obtained funding from the Public Health Serviceof the National Institutes of Healthin the USA. [Maddox, p. 296] At the end of 1957 Franklin again fell ill and was admitted to the Royal Marsden Hospital. She returned to work in January 1958 and was given a promotion to "Research Associate in Biophysics". [Maddox, p. 302] She fell ill again on the 30th of March and died on April 16, 1958in Chelsea, London, [GRO Register of Deaths: JUN 1958 5c 257 CHELSEA - Rosalind E. Franklin, aged 37] [Maddox, pp. 305-307] of bronchopneumonia, secondary carcinomatosis and carcinoma of the ovary. Exposure to X-ray radiation is sometimes considered a possible factor in her illness, though she was no more careless than other laboratory staff of the time. Other members of her family have died of cancer, and the incidence of cancer is known to be disproportionately high amongst AshkenaziJews. [Maddox, p.320] Her death certificate read "A Research Scientist, Spinster, Daughter of Ellis Arthur Franklin, a Banker."Fact|date=April 2008
Controversies after death
Various controversies surrounding Rosalind Franklin came to light following her death.
exism at King's College
There have been assertions that Rosalind Franklin was discriminated against because of her gender and that King's, as an institution, was sexist.
Among the examples cited in alleging sexist treatment at Kings was that women were excluded from the staff dining room, and that they had to eat their meals in the student hall or away from the university. [Sayre, p.97] [Bryson, B. (2004) p. 490] There was a dining room for the exclusive use of men (as was the case at other
University of Londoncolleges at the time), as well as a mixed gender dining room that overlooked the river Thames, and many male scientists reportedly refused to use the male only dining room owing to the preponderance of theologians. [Maddox, p. 128]
The other accusation regarding gender is that the under-representation of women in John Randall's group where only one participant was a woman was due to unfair exclusion. [Sayre, p.99] In contrast, defenders of the college argue that women were (by the standards of the time) well-represented in the group, representing eight out of thirty-one members of staff, [Maddox, p. 133] or possibly closer to one in three. [Wilkins, p. 256] zDSD
Contribution to the model of DNA
Rosalind Franklin's contributions to the Crick and Watson model include an X-ray photograph of B-DNA (called photograph 51), [Maddox, pp. 177-178] that was briefly shown to James Watson by Maurice Wilkins in January 1953, [Maddox, p. 196] [Crick, (1988) p. 67.] and a report written for an MRC biophysics committee visit to King's in December 1952. The report contained data from the King's group, including some of Rosalind Franklin's work, and was given to Francis Crick by his thesis supervisor
Max Perutz, a member of the visiting committee. [Elkin, L.O. (2003)] [Maddox, pp. 198-199] Maurice Wilkins had been given photograph 51 by Rosalind Franklin's PhD student Raymond Gosling, because she was leaving King's to work at Birkbeck, there was nothing untoward in this, [Maddox, pp. 196] [Wilkins, p. 198] though it has been implied, incorrectly, that Maurice Wilkins had taken the photograph out of Rosalind Franklin's drawer. [Wilkins, p. 257] Likewise Max Perutz saw no harm in showing the MRC report to Crick as it had not been marked as confidential. Much of the important material contained in the report had been presented by Franklin in a talk she had given in November 1951, which Watson had attended. [Maddox, p. 199] [Watson (1969).] The upshot of all this was that when Crick and Watson started to build their model in February 1953 they were working with very similar data to those available at King's. Rosalind Franklin was probably never aware that her work had been used during construction of the model. [Maddox, p. 316] [It should also be noted that Watson and Crick were working on proteins, they were outside the circle of DNA researchers with whom Franklin regularly communicated.]
Recognition of her contribution to the model of DNA
On the completion of their model, Francis Crick and James Watson had invited Maurice Wilkins to be a co-author of their paper describing the structure. [Wilkins, p. 213] [Maddox, p. 205] Wilkins turned down this offer, as he had taken no part in building the model. [Wilkins, p. 214] Maurice Wilkins later expressed regret that greater discussion of co-authorship had not taken place as this might have helped to clarify the contribution the work at King's had made to the discovery. [Wilkins, p. 226] There is no doubt that Franklin's experimental data were used by Crick and Watson to build their model of DNA in 1953 (see above). That she is not cited in their original paper outlining their model may be a question of circumstance, as it would have been very difficult to cite the unpublished work from the MRC report they had seen. [Maddox, p. 207] It should be noted that the X-ray diffraction work of both Wilkins and
William Astburyare cited in the paper, and that the unpublished work of both Franklin and Wilkins are acknowledged in the paper. Franklin and Raymond Gosling's own publication in the same issue of "Nature" was the first publication of this more clarified X-ray image of DNA.Franklin R, Gosling RG (1953) "Molecular Configuration in Sodium Thymonucleate". "Nature" 171"': 740–741. [http://www.nature.com/nature/dna50/franklingosling.pdf Full text PDF] ]
The rules of the Nobel Prize forbid posthumous nominations [Maddox, p. 205] and because Rosalind Franklin had died in 1958 she was not eligible for nomination to the Nobel Prize subsequently awarded to Crick, Watson, and Wilkins in 1962. [Nobel Prize (1962)] The award was for their body of work on
nucleic acidsand not exclusively for the discovery of the structure of DNA.Wilkins, p. 242] By the time of the award Wilkins had been working on the structure of DNA for over 10 years, and had done much to confirm the Crick-Watson model. [Wilkins, p. 240] Crick had been working on the genetic codeat Cambridge and Watson had worked on RNAfor some years.Wilkins, p. 243]
Iota Sigma Pidesignated Franklin a National Honorary Member. [ [http://www.iotasigmapi.info/ISPprofawards/ISPprofawardees.html Iota Sigma Pi professional awards recipients] ]
English Heritageplaced a blue plaqueon the house Rosalind Franklin grew up in.Maddox, p. 322]
King's College Londonname rename the Orchard Residence at their Hampstead Campus on Kidderpore AvenueRosalind Franklin Hall.
Newnham Collegededicated a residence in her name and put a bust of her in its garden.
Birkbeck, University of LondonSchool of Crystallography opened the Rosalind Franklin laboratory. [" [http://img.cryst.bbk.ac.uk/bca/CNews/1997/Sep97/Cover.html#Cover Sir Aaron Klug opens new Laboratory] "]
*1998, National Portrait Gallery added Rosalind Franklin's next to those of Francis Crick, James Watson and Maurice Wilkins. [ [http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?search=ss&sText=Rosalind+Franklin&LinkID=mp58704 NPG pictures] ]
*2000, King's College London opened the Franklin-Wilkins Building in honour of Dr. Franklin's and Professor Wilkins' work at the college. [Maddox, p. 323] King's had earlier, in 1994, also named one of the Halls in Hampstead Campus residences in memory of Rosalind Franklin.
*2001, The U.S.
National Cancer Instituteestablished the Rosalind E. Franklin Award for Women in Science. ["seventh annual Rosalind E. Franklin Award for Women in Cancer Research at the National Cancer Institute's Intramural Scientific Retreat [which] honors the commitment of women in cancer research and is given in tribute to chemist Rosalind Franklin, who played a critical role in the discovery of the DNA double helix." "The JHU Gazette", Johns Hopkins University, March 17 2008 [http://www.jhu.edu/~gazette/2008/17mar08/17cheers.html For the Record: Cheers] ]
Royal Societyestablished the Rosalind Franklin Award, for an outstanding contribution to any area of natural science, engineering or technology. [ [http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/page.asp?id=1782 The Royal SocietyRosalind Franklin Award (2003)] : "' The Royal Societyweb page. Retrieved 21 July 2006.]
*2004, Finch University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School, located in
North Chicago, IL, changed its name to Rosalind Franklin Universityof Medicine and Science. [ [http://www.lifeindiscovery.com/news/index.html Dedication] of [http://www.rosalindfranklin.edu/ Rosalind Franklin University] ]
* A sculpture of DNA in
Clare Collegeincludes the words: "The double helix model was supported by the work of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins"Fact|date=April 2008
* Bryson, B. "A Short History of Nearly Everything." (2004). Black Swan ISBN 0-552-99704-8.
* Crick, F., H., C. and Watson, J., D. " [http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/SC/B/B/Y/W/_/scbbyw.pdf Molecular structure of nucleic acids] " (1953) "Nature" 171 pp. 737-738.
* Crick, F. H. C. "What Mad Pursuit", (1988). Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-09137-7.
* Elkin, L., O. " [http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-56/iss-3/p42.html Rosalind Franklin and the Double Helix]
Physics Today" March 2003, p. 61.
* Franklin, R., E. "Influence of the bonding electrons on the scattering of X-rays by carbon", "Nature" (1950) volume 165 page 71 Entrez Pubmed|15403103.
* Franklin, R and Gosling, R., G. "Molecular Configuration in Sodium Thymonucleate" "Nature" volume 171 pages 740-741. (1953) [http://www.nature.com/nature/dna50/franklingosling.pdf full text] .
* Franklin, R.E. "Structure of tobacco mosaic virus." "Nature" 175:379-381 (1955).
* Franklin, R.E. (1956) "Location of the ribonucleic acid in the tobacco mosaic virusparticle." "Nature" 177:928.
* Holt, J. (2002) " [http://mcb.berkeley.edu/courses/mcb61/Photo_Finish_Rosalind_Franklin.doc Photo Finish: Rosalind Franklin and the great DNA race] " "The New Yorker" October
* Maddox, B. "Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA" (2002). Harper Collins ISBN 0-00-655211-0.
* Wilkins, M., "The Third Man of the Double Helix, an autobiography" (2003) Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-280667-X.
* Nobel Prize (1962). " [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1962/index.html The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962] ", "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material", [http://nobelprize.org Nobelprize.org]
* Sayre, A. 1975. "Rosalind Franklin and DNA". New York: W.W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-32044-8.
* Segev, T. "One Palestine, Complete", (2000) (ISBN 0-349-11286-X) Abacus History.
* Watson, J. Letter to "Science", 164, p. 1539, 27 (1969).
* Yockey, H. P. "Information Theory, Evolution, and the Origin of Life" (2005).
*Brown, Andrew; "J. D. Bernal: The Sage of Science", Oxford University Press, 2005; ISBN 0-199-20565-5
* Chomet, S. (Ed.), "D.N.A. Genesis of a Discovery". Newman-Hemisphere Press (1994): NB a few copies are available from Newman-Hemisphere at 101 Swan Court, London SW3 5RY (phone/fax: 07092 060530).
* Crick, Francis (1988) "What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery" (Basic Books reprint edition, 1990) ISBN 0-465-09138-5
*Dickerson, Richard E.; "Present at the Flood: How Structural Molecular Biology Came About"," Sinauer, 2005; ISBN 0-878-93168-6;
*Hager, Thomas; "Force of Nature: The Life of Linus Pauling", Simon & Schuster 1995; ISBN 0-684-80909-5
* Glynn, Jennifer Franklin. "Rosalind Franklin, 1920 - 1958" in "Cambridge Women: Twelve Portraits" (CUP 1996) pp 267 - 282 eds. Edward Shils and Carmen Blacker, ISBN 0521482879
* Klug, A. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography article on R.E. Franklin, OUP, Matthew H.C.G. Ed., first published Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2007, 1840 words; ISBN: 019861411X; was selected "Life of The Day" on 16th April 2008 (50th anniversary of her death).
* Klug, A. A lecture about Rosalind Franklin's contribution to the elucidation of the structure of DNA. in "DNA Changing Science and Society: The Darwin Lectures for 2003" Krude, Torsten (Ed.) CUP (2003)
* Olby, Robert, (1972) 'Rosalind Elsie Franklin' biography in "Dictionary of Scientific Biography", ed. Charles C. Gillespie (New York: Charles Scribner's sons) ISBN: ISBN 0684101211
* Olby, Robert, "The Path to The Double Helix: Discovery of DNA", (1974). MacMillan ISBN 0-486-68117-3
* [http://chem-faculty.ucsd.edu/joseph/CHEM13/DNA1.pdf "Quiet debut for the double helix"] by Professor Robert Olby, "Nature" 421 (
January 23, 2003): 402-405.
* Tait, Sylvia & James "A Quartet of Unlikely Discoveries" (Athena Press 2004) ISBN 184401343X
*cite book | author=Watson, James D. | title=The double helix: A personal account of the discovery of the structure of DNA | publisher=Norton | year=1980 | id=ISBN 0-393-01245-X
* Wilkins, Maurice, "The Third Man of The Double Helix", OUP 2003; ISBN 978-0-19-280667-3.
* Rosalind Franklin in [http://cwp.library.ucla.edu/Phase2/Franklin,_Rosalind@841234567.html CWP at UCLA]
*Himetop – The History of medicine topographical database in http://himetop.wikidot.com/rosalind-franklin
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2895681.stm My aunt, the DNA pioneer]
* [http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-56/iss-3/p42.html "Rosalind Franklin and the double helix" in "Physics Today" magazine]
* [http://cwp.library.ucla.edu/articles/franklin/piper.html Light on a Dark Lady] , republished article from "Trends in Biochemical Science"
* [http://www.oxforddnb.com Oxford Dictionary of National Biography for article by Sir Aaron Klug]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/photo51/ "Nova": "Secret of Photo 51"]
Collections and publications
* [http://www.rosalindfranklinsociety.org The Rosalind Franklin Society] .
* [http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/KR/ The Rosalind Franklin Papers] at the National Library of Medicine
* [http://www.asm.org/Membership/index.asp?bid=16414 Anne Sayre Collection] of Rosalind Franklin Materials
* [http://janus.lib.cam.ac.uk/db/node.xsp?id=EAD%2FGBR%2F0014%2FFRKN The Rosalind Franklin Papers] at
Churchill Archives Centrein Cambridge.
* [http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~scsharip/REF_paper.pdf "Rosalind Franklin’s work on coal, carbon, and graphite", by Peter J F Harris] in PDF format
* [http://www.caer.uky.edu/energeia/PDF/vol6-6.pdf Energia Vol.6 No.6 (1995) (University of Kentucky centre forApplied Energy Research). Contains Rosalind Franklin Article] in PDF format
NAME = Franklin, Rosalind
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Franklin, Rosalind Elsie
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DATE OF BIRTH =
PLACE OF BIRTH =
Notting Hill, London
DATE OF DEATH =
PLACE OF DEATH =
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