article = y
refimprove = August 2008
original research = March 2008
Saudade (singular) or saudades (plural) (pronounced|sawˈdade in Galician, pronounced|sawˈdadɨ in
European Portugueseand IPA| [sawˈdadʒi] or IPA| [sawˈdadi] in Brazilian Portuguese) is a Galician and Portuguese word for a feeling of nostalgic longing for something or someone that one was fond of and which is lost. It often carries a fatalist tone and a repressed knowledge that the object of longing might really never return.
In his book "In Portugal" of 1912, A. F. G Bell writes:
Saudade is different from
nostalgia; in nostalgia (a word that also exists in Portuguese), one has a mixed happy and sad feeling, a memory of happiness but a sadness for its impossible return and sole existence in the past. Saudade is like nostalgia but with the hope that what is being longed for might return, even if that return is unlikely or so distant in the future to be almost of no consequence to the present. One might make a strong analogy with nostalgia as a feeling one has for a loved one who has died and saudade as a feeling one has for a loved one who has disappeared or is simply currently absent. Nostalgia is located in the past and is somewhat conformist while saudade is very present, anguishing, anxious and extends into the future.
For instance, the phrases "Tenho saudades de você" (literally, "I have 'saudade' for you") and "Eu sinto sua falta" ("I feel your absence") would each be translated into English as "I miss you" — both "falta" and "saudade" are translated as "missing." However, these two statements carry very different sentiments in Portuguese. The first sentence is never told to anyone in person, but the second can be. For example, The first would be said to someone who has been away for sometime, it would be said over the phone or written in a letter. The second would be said by someone who has divorced, or whose partner is not usually at home, and would be said personally.
Some saywho that the ultimate form of saudade is one felt towards people and things whose whereabouts are unknown in regards to any of the following things or circumstances:
*Old ways and sayings
*A lost lover
*A far away place where one was raised
*One lover sadly missing another
*Loved ones who have passed away
*Feelings and stimuli one used to have but has tired of
Although it relates to feelings of melancholy and fond memories of things/people/days gone by, it can be a rush of sadness coupled with a paradoxical joy derived from acceptance of fate and the hope of recovering or substituting what is lost by something that will either fill in the void or provide
One of the best descriptions of the word saudade was made by Chico Buarque de Hollanda in his song "Pedaço de mim," when he says. "saudade é arrumar o quarto do filho que já morreu." which roughly translates to "saudade" is to tidy the bedroom of a son who has already died."
The word "saudade" was used in the
Cancioneiro da Ajuda(13th-century), Cancioneiro da Vaticanaand by poets of the time of by King Denis of Portugal. [ Saudade em português e galego. Basto, Cláudio. Revista Lusitana, Vol XVII,Livraria Clássica Editora, Lisboa 1914 ] Some specialists say the word may have originated during the Great Portuguese Discoveries, giving meaning to the sadness felt about those who departed on journeys to unknown seas and disappeared in shipwrecks, died in battle, or simply never returned. Those who stayed behind—mostly women and children—suffered deeply in their absence; the state of mind has subsequently become a "Portuguese way of life": a constant feeling of absence, the sadness of something that's missing, wishful longing for completeness or wholeness and the yearning for the return of that now gone, a desire for presence as opposed to absence—as it is said in Portuguese, a strong desire to "matar as saudades" (lit. "to kill the saudades").
The same feeling is also found in Brazil, the destination of immigrants and
Africanslaves who never saw their homelands again. The feeling was so much ingrained into the Brazilian mind that virtually every immigrant settled there learned this notion and incorporated it (even people from radically different mindsets, like Germansand Japanese, soon understood it). Another permanent source of saudades for the Brazilians is the vastness of the country itself, which in the past caused most people to feel alone almost everywhere.
In the latter half of the 20th century, saudade became associated with the feeling of longing for one's homeland, as hundreds of thousands of Portuguese-speaking people left in search of better futures in
North Americaand Western Europe.
Besides the implications derived from an emigratory trend from the motherland, saudade is historically speaking the term meant to describe the decline of Portugal's role in world politics and power. During the so called 'Golden Age', synonymous with the Era of discoveries, Portugal had undeniably risen to the status of a world power, its monarchy one of the richest in Europe at the time.
Since then, with the rise of competition from other European nations, the country went both colonially and economically into a prolonged period of decay. This period of decline and resignation from the world's cultural stage marked the rise of saudade, aptly described by a sentence of its national anthem - 'Levantai hoje de novo o esplendor de Portugal' (Let us once again lift up the splendour of Portugal).
audade and music
As with all emotions, saudade has been an inspiration for many songs and compositions. "Sodade" ("saudade" in
Cape Verdean Creole) is the title of the Cape Verde Mornasinger Cesária Évora's most famous song; French singer Étienne Dahoalso produced a song of the same name.
"The Good Son", a 1990 album by
Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, was heavily informed by Cave's mental state at the time, which he has described as saudade. He told journalist Chris Bohn that "when I explained to someone that what I wanted to write about was the memory of things that I thought were lost for me, I was told that the Portuguese word for this feeling was "saudade". It's not nostalgia but something sadder." Portuguese American singer/songwriter Jorge Ferreirarecorded in 1992 the song "Saudade" from his album " Regresso Prometido". A large number of songs of this emigrated artist speaks in majority about the feeling of saudade.
The usage of "saudade" as a theme in Portuguese music goes back to the 16th century, the golden age of Portugal. Saudade, as well as love suffering, is a common theme in many
villancicos and cantigas composed by Portuguese authors; for example: "Lágrimas de Saudade" ("tears of saudade"), which is an anonymous work from the " Cancioneiro de Paris". Fadois a Portuguese music style, generally sung by a single person (the "fadista") along with a Portuguese guitar. The most popular themes of fado are "saudade", nostalgia, jealousy, and short stories of the typical city quarters. Fado, and Saudade are two key and intertwined ideas in Portuguese culture. The word fado comes from Latin "fatum" meaning "fate" or " destiny". Fado is a musical cultural expression and recognition of this unassailable determinism which compels the resigned yearning of saudade, a bittersweet, existentialyearning and hopefulness towards something over which one has no control.
The Paragyuan guitarist
Agustin Barrioswrote several pieces invoking the feeling of saudade including "Choro de Saudade" and "Preludio Saudade".
The term is prominent in Brazilian popular music, including the first
bossa novasong, " Chega de Saudade" ("No more saudade"), written by Tom Jobim. Due to the difficulties of translating the word saudade, the song is often translated to English as "No more Blues".
In 1919, on returning from two years in Brazil, the French composer
Darius Milhaudcomposed a suite, "Saudades Do Brasil", which exemplified the concept of saudade.
Saudade (part ii) is also the title of a second flute solo by the band
Shpongle, the first one being flute fruit.
Amália Rodriguestypified themes of saudade.
Porno Graffittihas a song titled "サウダージ”, "Saudaaji" transliterated ("Saudade").
The alternative rock band Love And Rockets has a wistful song 'Saudade' that evokes it quite well with its sound (and it is also appropriately the last track) on their album
Seventh Dream of Teenage Heaven.
A jazz fusion trio consisting of John Scofield, Jack DeJohnette, and Larry Goldings released an album dedicated to drumming legend Tony Williams, called "Saudades."
Dance music artist Peter Corvaia released a progressive house track entitled "Saudade" on HeadRush Music, a sub-label of
Toes in the Sand Recordings.
New York City post-rock band
Mice Paradereleased an album entitled Obrigado Saudadein 2004.
Chris Rea also recorded a song entitled Saudade as a tribute to
Ayrton Sennathe Brazilian three-times Formula One world champion killed on the track.
Rock band Extreme, featuring Portuguese guitarist
Nuno Bettencourthave an album titled Saudades de Rock. During recording, the mission statement was to bring back musicality to the medium.
Nancy Spain, a song by Barney Rush, made famous by an adaptation by
Christy Mooreis a good example of the use of saudade in contemporary Irish music, the chorus of which is:
"No matter where I wander I'm still haunted by your name
The portrait of your beauty stays the same
Standing by the ocean wondering where you've gone
If you'll return again
Where is the ring I gave to Nancy Spain?"
There is an ambient/noise/shoegazing band from Portland, OR named Saudade.
audade and love
Although named by the Portuguese, saudade is a universal feeling related to love. It occurs when two people are in love, but apart from each other. Saudade occurs when we think of a person who we love and we are happy about having that feeling while we are thinking of that person, but he/she is out of reach, making us sad and crushing our hearts. The pain and these mixed feelings are named "saudade". It is also used to refer to the feeling of being far from people one does love, e.g., one's sister, father, grandparents, friends; it can be applied to places or pets one misses, things one used to do in childhood, or other activities performed in the past. What sets saudade apart is that it can be directed to anything that is personal and moving. It can also be felt for
unrequited lovein that the person misses something he or she never really had, but for which might hope, regardless of the possible futility of said hope.
Saudade is also associated with Galicia, where it is also known as "morriña" (or "morrinha"). Yet, morrinha often implies a deeper stage of saudade, a "saudade so strong it can even kill", as the Galician saying goes. In northern Portugal, "morrinha" is a regional word to describe sprinkles, while "morrinhar" means "to sprinkle." (The most common Portuguese equivalents are "chuvisco" and "chuviscar", respectively.) "Morrinha" is also used in this region for referring to sick animals, for example of sheep
dropsy, and occasionally to sick or sad people, often with irony. It is also used in some Brazilian regional dialects for the smell of wet or sick animals.
"Morrinha" was a term often used by emigrant Galicians (especially in the Americas) when talking about the Galician motherland they had left behind. Although "saudade" is also a Galician word, the meaning of "longing for something that might return" is generally associated with "morriña". The word used by Galicians speaking Spanish has spread and became common in all Spain and even accepted by the Academia" [http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltGUIBusUsual?TIPO_HTML=2&TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=morri%C3%B1a morriña] " in the Spanish-language "
Diccionario de la Real Academia".] .
Use in Goa, India
Goa, India, which was a Portuguese colony until 1961, still retains Portuguese influences. A suburb of Margão, Goa's largest city, has a street named "Rua de Saudades." It was aptly named because that very street has the Christian cemetery, the Hindu "smarshant" (cremation ground) and the Muslim "quabrastan" (cemetery). Most people living in the city of Margão who pass by this street would agree that the name of the street could not be any other, as they often think fond memories of a friend, loved one, or relative whose remains went past that road.
The word 'saudade' takes on a slightly different form in Portuguese-speaking Goan families for whom it implies the once-cherished but never-to-return days of glory of Goa as a prized possession of Portugal, a notion since then made redundant by the irrevocable cultural changes that occurred with the end of the Portuguese regime in these parts.
Use in Cape Verde
Cape Verdean Creolethere is the word "sodade" or "sodadi", originated in the Portuguese "saudade" and exactly with the same meaning.
imilar words in other languages
Although "saudade" is untranslatable in any other language, there are other words which seem to have a similar meaning. However, the word "saudade" is special in complexity. While other words have similar meanings, they often only relate to one aspect of "saudade".
Finnish languagehas a word whose meaning corresponds closely with "saudade": "kaiho". Kaiho means a state of involuntary solitude in which the subject feels incompleteness and yearns for something unattainable or extremely difficult and tedious to attain. Ironically, the sentiment of kaiho is central to the Finnish tango, in stark contrast to the Argentine tango, which is predominantly sensuous.
There is a religious context for kaiho in Finland as well; a sect of "herännäiset" or "körttiläiset" more familiarly, has central to their faith a kaiho towards Sion, a unity of faith, and a connection with God, permeating their central book,
Siionin Virret("Hymns of Sion").
However, saudade does not involve tediousness. Rather, the feeling of saudade accentuates itself: the more one thinks about the loved person or object, the more one feels saudade. The feeling can even be creative, as one strives to fill in what is missing with something else or to recover it altogether.
Saudade somewhat relates to the Italian "malinconia", in which one feels an interior satisfaction because it is impossible to find something, but one never stops thinking that one is searching for it. It is an incompleteness that one unconsciously wants to never completely resolve.
Torlak dialectof Serbian has the expression that corresponds more closely to the Japanese and Greek examples below, but can be compared to "saudade" in a broader sense of longing for the past. It is "жал за младос(т)" / "žal za mlados(t)" i.e. "yearning for the bygone"; since the dialect has not been standardised as a written language it has various forms. The term and the concept has been popularised in standard Serbian through short prose and plays by Vranjeborn fin-de-siècle writer Borisav Stanković.
"keurium" (그리움) is probably closest to saudade. It reflects a yearning for anything that has left a deep impression in the heart - a memory, a place, a person, etc.
Saudade expresses a concept similar to the Japanese word "natsukashii." Although commonly translated as "dear, beloved, or sweet," in modern conversational Japanese "natsukashii" can be used to express a longing for the past. It connotes both happiness for the fondness of that memory and goodness of that time, as well as sadness that it is no longer. It is an adjective for which there is no quite fitting English translation. It can also mean "sentimental," and is a wistful emotion. The character used to write natsukashii can also be read as futokoro 懐 [ふところ] and means "bosom," referring to the depth and intensity of this emotion that can even be experienced as a physical feeling or pang in one's chest~ a broken heart, or a heart feeling moved.
Saudade somewhat relates to the Spanish "extrañar", in which one feels a missing part of oneself, which can never be completely filled by the thing you can't have or get back. The word may also be translated by the Spanish expression "echar de menos", which would be roughly an equivalent to the Portuguese one "ter saudades", missing something or someone.
"Dor" - Romanian
In the Romanian language there is the word "dor" that bears a close meaning to "saudade". It can also stand for "love" or "desire" having a derivation in the noun "dorinţă" and the verb "dori" both of them being translated usually by "wish" and "to wish". However, although the word "dor" has a complex meaning, it still does not encompass the full meaning of "saudade". Curiously, the Portuguese word "dor" means "pain".
The Greek word that comes close to translating saudade is νοσταλγία ("nostalgia"). Nostalgia also appears in the Portuguese language as in the many of other languages with a Indo-European origin, bearing the same meaning of the Greek word "νοσταλγία".
There is yet another word that, like 'saudade', has no immediate translation in English: λαχτάρα ("lakhtara"). This word encompasses sadness, longing and hope, as 'saudade' does.
The Arabic synonym for Saudade is وجد (Wajd), a state of transparent sadness caused by the memory of a loved one who is not near, it's widely used in ancient Arabic poetry to describe the state of the lover's heart as he or she remembers the long gone love. It's a mixed emotion of sadness for the loss, and happiness for having had loved that person.
In Turkish, the feeling of saudade is somewhat similar to hüzünFact|date=December 2007.
"Saudade" is said to be the only exact equivalent of the Welsh "hiraeth" and the Cornish "hireth" [Williams, Robert. Lexicon Cornu-britannicum. pg.217]
Esperantoborrows the word directly, changing the spelling to accommodate Esperanto phonetics, as "sauxdado"
Mono no aware
*pt icon LOURENÇO, Eduardo. (1999) "Mitologia da saudade (Seguido de Portugal como destino)."
São Paulo: [http://www.companhiadasletras.com.br/ Companhia das Letras] . ISBN 85-7164-922-7
* [http://www.saudades.org/sharing.htm A Saudades page for Portuguese-Sephardic history and culture]
* [http://www.proz.com/translation-articles/articles/1399/1/Aesthetics-of-Saudade Aesthetics of Saudade - Essay comprising the major theories and explaining the doubts surrounding the translation of saudade]
* [http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/folha/bbc/ult272u32676.shtml "BBC Brasil": "Saudade" is the 7th most difficult word to translate] (in Portuguese), London: BBC, June 23, 2004.
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