DiseaseDisorder infobox
Name = Salmonellosis
ICD10 = ICD10|A|02|0|a|00
ICD9 = ICD9|003.0

Salmonellosis is an infection with "Salmonella" bacteria. Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. In most cases, the illness lasts 3 to 7 days—most affected persons recover without treatment. [] However, in some persons the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient becomes dangerously dehydrated and must be taken to a hospital. At the hospital, the patients may receive intravenous fluids to treat their dehydration and medications may be given to provide symptomatic relief, like fever reduction. In severe cases, the "Salmonella" infection may spread from the intestines to the blood stream, and then to other body sites and can cause death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics. The elderly, infants, and those with impaired immune systems are more likely to have a severe illness. Some people afflicted with Salmonellosis later experience reactive arthritis, which can have long-lasting, disabling effects.

The type of salmonella usually associated with infections in humans is called Non-Typhoidal Salmonella. It is usually contracted by ingesting raw or undercooked eggs, or from sources such as:

*Poultry, pork, and cattle, if the meat is prepared incorrectly or somehow becomes infected with the bacteria.
*Infected eggs and milk, as well as egg products, when not prepared, handled, or refrigerated properly.
*Reptiles such as turtles, lizards, and snakes, as they can carry the bacteria on their skin.
*Pet rodents

A rarer form of salmonella called typhoidal salmonella can lead to typhoid fever. It is only carried by humans and is usually contracted through direct contact with the fecal matter of an infected person. It therefore mainly occurs in countries that do not have proper systems for handling human waste.


Both Salmonellosis and the "Salmonella" type of microorganisms derive their names from a modern Latin coining after Daniel E. Salmon 1850–1914, an American Veterinary surgeon. He had help from Theobald Smith, and together they found the bacterium in pigs.


The bacterium induces responses in the animal that it is infecting and this is probably what causes the symptoms rather than any direct toxin. They are usually gastrointestinal including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and bloody diarrhea with mucus. Headache, fatigue and rose spots are also possible. These symptoms can be severe especially in young children and the elderly. Symptoms last generally up to a week, and can appear 6 to 72 hours after bacterium ingestion.

After bacterial infections, reactive arthritis (aka Reiters Syndrome) can develop.cite journal |author= Dworkin MS, Shoemaker PC, Goldoft MJ, Kobayashi JM |title=Reactive arthritis and Reiter's syndrome following an outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enteritidis |journal=Clin Infect Dis |volume=33 |issue=7 |pages=1010–14 |year=2001 |pmid=11528573 |doi= 10.1086/322644] In sickle-cell anemia, osteomyelitis due to "Salmonella" infection is much more common than in the general population.

Recent incidents of salmonellosis

In June 2006, the BBC reported that the Cadbury chocolate manufacturer withdrew a number of products when products contaminated with salmonella caused up to 56 cases of Salmonellosis.cite news | title = Cadbury named over salmonella outbreak | url =,,1826262,00.html | publisher = Guardian Unlimited | date = 2006-07-21 | accessdate = 2007-09-09 ] The problems had been traced to a leaking pipe at a Cadbury plant in Herefordshire in January 2006, though the announcement was not made until June.

The U.S. Government reported that as many as 20% of all chickens were contaminated with salmonella in the late 1990s, and 16.3% were contaminated in 2005. [cite web | first = Marian | last = Burros | title = More Salmonella Is Reported in Chickens | publisher = The New York Times | date = March 8, 2006 | url = | accessdate = 2007-05-13] In the mid to late twentieth century, "Salmonella enterica" serovar Enteritidis was a common contaminant of eggs. This is much less common now with the advent of hygiene measures in egg production and the vaccination of laying hens to prevent salmonella colonization. Many different salmonella serovars also cause severe diseases in animals other than human beings.

In February 2007, the U.S. FDA issued a warning to consumers not to eat certain jars of Peter Pan peanut butter or Great Value peanut butter due to risk of contamination with 'Salmonella Tennessee'. []

In March 2007, around 150 people were diagnosed with salmonella-poisoning after eating tainted food at a governor's reception in Krasnoyarsk, Russia. Over 1,500 people attended the ball on March 1 and fell ill as a consequence of ingesting salmonella-tainted sandwiches.

In December 2007, about 150 people were sickened by salmonella-tainted chocolate cake produced by a major bakery chain in Singapore. []

As of July 8, 2008, from April 10, 2008, the rare Saintpaul serotype of "Salmonella enterica" caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States, the District of Columbia, and Canada. As of July 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration suspects that the contaminated food product is a common ingredient in fresh salsa, such as raw tomato, fresh jalapeño pepper, fresh serrano pepper, and fresh cilantro. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. New Mexico and Texas have been proportionally the hardest hit by far, with 49.7 and 16.1 reported cases per million, respectively. The greatest number of reported cases have occurred in Texas (384 reported cases), New Mexico (98), Illinois (100), and Arizona (49). [cite news | title = Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul, United States, by state | url = For some states, such as California, the CDC has recently revised the tally of identified illnesses downward.] There have been at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak, it has caused at least one death, and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. [ [ August 8, 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC ] ] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported." If applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38.6:1), one would arrive at an estimated 40,273 illnesses from this outbreak. [cite news | title = FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States | author = Voetsch, et al. | work = Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2004; 38:S3 | date = 2004-04-15 | url =]

As of 18 July 2008, the FDA removed raw tomatoes and cilantro as potential carriers, however fresh jalapeño peppers and fresh serrano peppers still remain.. [cite news | title = FDA lifts warning on tomatoes | author = Elizabeth Landau | date = 2008-07-18 | url =]

Four-Inch Law

The "Four-Inch Law" refers to a regulation passed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1975 outlawing the sale of turtles with a carapace length of less than four inches. Exceptions are present for scientific and educational use, export, and private sale. [cite web | title = Human Health Hazards Associated with Turtles | publisher = U.S. Food and Drug Administration | url = | accessdate = 2007-06-29]

The law was enacted, according to the FDA, "because of the public health impact of turtle-associated salmonellosis". There had been reported cases of young children placing small turtles in their mouths, which led to the size-based restriction.

ee also

*1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack
*Typhoid fever
*List of foodborne illness outbreaks


External links

* CDC website, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Disease Listing: [ Salmonellosis]
* CFIA Website: [ Salmonellae]
* Protective salmonella antibodies found in Malawi children, Sub-Saharan Africa gateway, Science and Development Network, []

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • salmonellosis — ☆ salmonellosis [sal΄mənel ō′sis ] n. [< SALMONELLA + OSIS] a disease caused by various strains of salmonella and characterized by fever and intestinal disorders …   English World dictionary

  • salmonellosis — /sal meuh nl oh sis/, n. Pathol. food poisoning caused by consumption of food contaminated with bacteria of the genus Salmonella, characterized by the sudden onset of abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. [1910 15; SALMONELL(A) + OSIS] * …   Universalium

  • Salmonellosis —    A common form of food poisoning that sometimes is fatal comes from meat or vegetables contaminated by a bacterial genus, Salmonella, of which there are many species. The infection, known as salmonellosis, is characterized by nausea, vomiting,… …   Dictionary of eponyms

  • salmonellosis — salmonella ► NOUN (pl. salmonellae) 1) a bacterium that occurs mainly in the gut and can cause food poisoning. 2) food poisoning caused by this. DERIVATIVES salmonellosis noun. ORIGIN named after the American veterinary surgeon Daniel E. Salmon… …   English terms dictionary

  • salmonellosis — noun (plural salmonelloses) Etymology: New Latin Date: circa 1913 infection with or disease caused by salmonellae …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • salmonellosis — infection with Salmonella …   Dictionary of ichthyology

  • salmonellosis — (sal mo nel o sis) An infection with certain species of the genus Salmonella, usually caused by ingestion of food containing salmonellae or their products. Also known as Salmonella gastroenteritis or Salmonella food poisoning …   Dictionary of microbiology

  • salmonellosis — noun Any of several diseases caused by infection with Salmonella bacteria See Also: enteric fever, enteritis, typhoid fever …   Wiktionary

  • salmonellosis — Infection with bacteria of the genus Salmonella. Patients with sickle cell anemia and compromised immune systems are particularly susceptible. [Salmonella + G. osis, condition] * * * sal·mo·nel·lo·sis .sal mə .ne lō səs n …   Medical dictionary

  • salmonellosis — n. (Medicine) food poisoning caused by ingestion of the salmonella bacteria (characterized by fever, severe diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain) …   English contemporary dictionary

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