Value added

Value added

Value added refers to the additional value of a commodity over the cost of commodities used to produce it from the previous stage of production. An example is the price of gasoline at the pump over the price of the oil in it. In national accounts used in macroeconomics, it refers to the contribution of the factors of production, i.e., land, labor, and capital goods, to raising the value of a product and corresponds to the incomes received by the owners of these factors. The factors of production provide "services" which raise the unit price of a product (X) relative to the cost per unit of intermediate goods used up in the production of X. Value added is shared between the factors of production (capital, labor, also human capital), giving rise to issues of distribution.

Example calculation

To understand the concept of value added, take the example of three simple stages of production:

# 1000 Yen of "miso soup" is produced by a chef using pots, pans, and a stove, converting 500 Yen tofu and other ingredients. The chef and his or her tools are the "factors of production," while the tofu (and the other ingredients, ignored here) are the intermediate goods used up and converted into part of the soup.
# The "tofu" used was converted using 200 Yen of soy beans. The soy beans are the raw material used up and converted into the tofu.
# The "soy beans" were grown and harvested during the year. Assume, for simplicity, that the 200 Yen measures the value added in that sector. These beans are thus assumed to be simply results of the services of the factors of production.

If we simply add up the results of the three stages, we get a total of 1700 Yen. But this counts the tofu twice, first by itself and then as part of the miso soup. The soy beans are counted three times, in all three stages. This is double (or triple) counting.

On the other hand, we can get an accurate estimate of the final product by using the value-added method:

# The value added in the first process is 1000 Yen (the soup) minus 500 Yen (the tofu), equalling 500 Yen.
# the value-added in the second process is 500 Yen (the tofu) minus 200 Yen (the soy beans), equalling 300 Yen.
# the value added in the third process is, by assumption, 200 Yen.

The sum of these three is 1000 Yen, which is the same as the value of the final product, the miso soup.

National accounts

In national accounts such as the United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA) or the NIPA's, gross value added is obtained by deducting intermediate consumption from gross output. Thus gross value added is equal to net output. Net value added is obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital (or depreciation charges) from gross value added. Net value added therefore equals gross wages, pre-tax profits net of depreciation, and indirect taxes less subsidies.

Marxist interpretation

Karl Marx's concept of the value product is similar to the national accounting concept of net national product, or net value added. It is equal to the sum of labor-compensation (variable capital) and surplus-value (pre-tax profit income). The argument is that the labour force produces a new value equivalent to its own wage-cost, plus a surplus-value.

Neoclassical economics regards the incomes constituting added value as the "reward" for services rendered. In his critique of political economy Marx saw them as results of production under conditions of capitalist exploitation.

A difference between Marxist theory and conventional national accounts concerns the interpretation of the distinction between "new" value created, transfers of value and "conserved value", and of the definition of "production".

For example, Marxist theory regards the "imputed rental value of owner-occupied housing" which is included in GDP as a "fictitious" entry; if the housing is owner-occupied, this housing cannot also yield real income from its market-based rental value at the same time.

In the 1993 manual of the United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA), the concept of "imputed rental value of owner occupied housing" is explained as follows:

"6.89. Heads of household who own the dwellings which the households occupy are formally treated as owners of unincorporated enterprises that produce housing services consumed by those same households. As well-organized markets for rented housing exist in most countries, the output of own-account housing services can be valued using the prices of the same kinds of services sold on the market in line with the general valuation rules adopted for goods or services produced on own account. In other words, the output of the housing services produced by owner-occupiers is valued at the estimated rental that a tenant would pay for the same accommodation, taking into account factors such as location, neighbourhood amenities, etc. as well as the size and quality of the dwelling itself. The same figure is recorded under household final consumption expenditures."

Marxist economists object to this accounting procedure on the ground that the monetary imputation made refers to a flow of income which does not exist, because most home owners do not rent out their homes if they are living in them.

Value added tax

Value added tax (VAT) is a sales tax on value added. It works by being charged on the sale price of goods and services whether purchased by intermediate or final consumers; however intermediate parties can reclaim VAT paid on their inputs, thus ensuring that the net VAT they pay is in effect based on the value added at that particular stage of the process.


* Alan Deardorff " [ Deardorff's Glossary of International Economics] " (Click V for "Value added.")

*Edgar Z. Palmer, "The meaning and measurement of the national income, and of other social accounting aggregates".
*Paul A. Samuelson and William D. Nordhaus (2004) "Economics". "Glossary of Terms," Value added.Anwar Shaikh & Ahmet Ertugrul Tonak, "Measuring the Wealth of Nations". CUP.
*M. Yanovsky, "Anatomy of Social Accounting Systems".

ee also

*Added Value
*Gross Output
*Gross value added
*Intermediate consumption
*Economic value added
*national accounts
* Measures of national income and output‎#The output approach
*productive and unproductive labour
*United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA)
*Value (marketing)
*Value-added theory
*Value-added reseller
*Value theory
*value product

External links

* [ Information and best practices of regional value added in the Alps]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • value added — is the risk adjusted return generated by an investment strategy: the return of the investment strategy minus the return of the benchmark. Bloomberg Financial Dictionary * * * Ⅰ. value added UK US (also value added) noun …   Financial and business terms

  • value-added — ˌvalue ˈadded adjective [only before a noun] MARKETING value added products or services have an increased value because work has been done on them, they have been combined with other products etc. This increase in value to the buyer is what the… …   Financial and business terms

  • value added — added value The value added to goods or services by a step in the chain of original purchase, manufacture or other enhancement, and retail. See value added statement; value chain See also Economic Value Added …   Big dictionary of business and management

  • value-added — added added adj. 1. being in addition [to something else] [Narrower terms: {accessorial ] additional, further(prenominal), more(prenominal) (used with mass nouns: takes on added significance ; asked for additional help ; we have further… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Value Added — The enhancement a company gives its product or service before offering the product to customers. Value added is used to describe instances where a firm takes a product that may be considered a homogeneous product, with few differences (if any)… …   Investment dictionary

  • value-added — /val yooh ad id/, n. 1. something, as an item of equipment, that has been added to a product by a marketer or distributor to warrant a markup in the retail price. adj. 2. of, pertaining to, or supplying value added: software supplied by a value… …   Universalium

  • value-added — /val yooh ad id/, n. 1. something, as an item of equipment, that has been added to a product by a marketer or distributor to warrant a markup in the retail price. adj. 2. of, pertaining to, or supplying value added: software supplied by a value… …   Useful english dictionary

  • value-added — val′ue add′ed n. 1) cvb Also value add. something, as an item of equipment, added to a product by a marketer to warrant a markup in the retail price. 2) cvb of, pertaining to, or supplying value added • Etymology: 1930–35 …   From formal English to slang

  • value-added — adjective Date: 1935 of, relating to, or being a product whose value has been increased especially by special manufacturing, marketing, or processing < value added goods > …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • value added — See census value added …   Dictionary of automotive terms

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”