- Value added
Value added refers to the additional value of a commodity over the cost of commodities used to produce it from the previous stage of production. An example is the price of gasoline at the pump over the price of the oil in it. In
national accountsused in macroeconomics, it refers to the contribution of the factors of production, i.e., land, labor, and capital goods, to raising the value of a product and corresponds to the incomes received by the owners of these factors. The factors of production provide "services" which raise the unit price of a product (X) relative to the cost per unit of intermediate goods used up in the production of X. Value added is shared between the factors of production (capital, labor, also human capital), giving rise to issues of distribution.
To understand the concept of value added, take the example of three simple stages of production:
# 1000 Yen of "miso soup" is produced by a chef using pots, pans, and a stove, converting 500 Yen tofu and other ingredients. The chef and his or her tools are the "factors of production," while the tofu (and the other ingredients, ignored here) are the intermediate goods used up and converted into part of the soup.
# The "tofu" used was converted using 200 Yen of soy beans. The soy beans are the raw material used up and converted into the tofu.
# The "soy beans" were grown and harvested during the year. Assume, for simplicity, that the 200 Yen measures the value added in that sector. These beans are thus assumed to be simply results of the services of the factors of production.
If we simply add up the results of the three stages, we get a total of 1700 Yen. But this counts the tofu twice, first by itself and then as part of the miso soup. The soy beans are counted three times, in all three stages. This is double (or triple) counting.
On the other hand, we can get an accurate estimate of the final product by using the value-added method:
# The value added in the first process is 1000 Yen (the soup) minus 500 Yen (the tofu), equalling 500 Yen.
# the value-added in the second process is 500 Yen (the tofu) minus 200 Yen (the soy beans), equalling 300 Yen.
# the value added in the third process is, by assumption, 200 Yen.
The sum of these three is 1000 Yen, which is the same as the value of the final product, the miso soup.
national accountssuch as the United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA)or the NIPA's, gross value added is obtained by deducting intermediate consumptionfrom gross output. Thus gross value added is equal to net output. Net value added is obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital(or depreciationcharges) from gross value added. Net value added therefore equals gross wages, pre-tax profits net of depreciation, and indirect taxesless subsidies.
Karl Marx's concept of the value productis similar to the national accounting concept of net national product, or net value added. It is equal to the sum of labor-compensation ( variable capital) and surplus-value(pre-tax profit income). The argument is that the labour force produces a new value equivalent to its own wage-cost, plus a surplus-value.
Neoclassical economics regards the incomes constituting added value as the "reward" for services rendered. In his critique of
political economyMarx saw them as results of production under conditions of capitalist exploitation.
A difference between Marxist theory and conventional
national accountsconcerns the interpretation of the distinction between "new" value created, transfers of value and "conserved value", and of the definition of "production".
Marxisttheory regards the "imputed rental value of owner-occupied housing" which is included in GDP as a "fictitious" entry; if the housing is owner-occupied, this housing cannot also yield real income from its market-based rental value at the same time.
In the 1993 manual of the United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA), the concept of "imputed rental value of owner occupied housing" is explained as follows:
"6.89. Heads of household who own the dwellings which the households occupy are formally treated as owners of unincorporated enterprises that produce housing services consumed by those same households. As well-organized markets for rented housing exist in most countries, the output of own-account housing services can be valued using the prices of the same kinds of services sold on the market in line with the general valuation rules adopted for goods or services produced on own account. In other words, the output of the housing services produced by owner-occupiers is valued at the estimated rental that a tenant would pay for the same accommodation, taking into account factors such as location, neighbourhood amenities, etc. as well as the size and quality of the dwelling itself. The same figure is recorded under household final consumption expenditures."
Marxist economists object to this accounting procedure on the ground that the monetary imputation made refers to a flow of income which does not exist, because most home owners do not rent out their homes if they are living in them.
Value added tax
Value added tax(VAT) is a sales tax on value added. It works by being charged on the sale price of goods and services whether purchased by intermediate or final consumers; however intermediate parties can reclaim VAT paid on their inputs, thus ensuring that the net VAT they pay is in effect based on the value added at that particular stage of the process.
* Alan Deardorff " [http://www-personal.umich.edu/~alandear/glossary/ Deardorff's Glossary of International Economics] " (Click V for "Value added.")
*Edgar Z. Palmer, "The meaning and measurement of the national income, and of other social accounting aggregates".
*Paul A. Samuelson and
William D. Nordhaus(2004) "Economics". "Glossary of Terms," Value added.Anwar Shaikh & Ahmet Ertugrul Tonak, "Measuring the Wealth of Nations". CUP.
*M. Yanovsky, "Anatomy of Social Accounting Systems".
Gross value added
Economic value added
Measures of national income and output#The output approach
productive and unproductive labour
United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA)
* [http://www.cipra.org/en/future-in-the-alps/questions/question1 Information and best practices of regional value added in the Alps]
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