Side (IPAEng|ˈsiːdǝ) is one of the best-known classical sites in
Turkey, and was an ancient harbour whose name meant pomegranate. Side is a resort town on the southern coast of Turkey, near the villages of Manavgatand Selimiye, 75 km from Antalya) in the province of Antalya. [cite web
title=The Ancient Library
accessdate=2006-11-19 ] It is located on the eastern part of the Pamphylian coast, which lies about 20 km east of the mouth of the
Cyme(Cumæans) in Aeolis, an ancient region of northwestern Asia Minor, founded the city in the seventh century BC. Possessing a good harbor for small-craft boats, Side's natural geography made it the most important place in Pamphylia– the region in the south of Asia Minor between Lyciaand Cilicia, from the Mediterraneanto Mount Taurus. This location made Side one of the most important trade centers in its time. Today, as in yesteryear, the ancient city of Side is situated on a small north-south peninsulaabout 1 km long and 400 m across.
Straboand Arrianos both record that Side was settled from Cyme (Aeolis), city in Aeolia, a region of western Anatolia. Most probably, this colonization occurred in the seventh century B.C.. According to Arrianos, when settlers from Kyme came to Side, they could not understand the dialect. After a short while, the influence of this indigenous tongue was so great that the newcomers forgot their native Greek and started using the language of Side. Excavations have revealed several inscriptions written in this language. The inscriptions, dating from the third and second centuries B.C., remain undeciphered, but testify that the local language was still in use several centuries after colonization. Another object found in Side excavations, a basalt column base from the seventh century B.C. and attributable to the Neo-Hittites, provides other evidence of the site's early history. The word "side" is Anatolian in origin and means pomegranate.
Next to no information exists concerning Side under
Lydiaand Persian Empiresovereignty. Nevertheless, the fact that Side minted its own coins during the 547 BCwhile under Persian dominion, shows that it still possessed a great measure of independence.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Greatoccupied Side without a struggle in 333 BC. Alexander left only a single garrison behind to occupy the city. This occupation, in turn, introduced the people of Side to Hellenisticculture of the Greek Civilization, which flourished from the fourth century to the first century BC. After Alexander's death, Side fell under the control of one of Alexander's generals, Ptolemy I Soter, who declared himself king of Egyptin 305 BC. The Ptolemaic dynastycontrolled Side until it was captured by the Seleucid Empirein the second century BC. Yet, despite these occupations, in the following years of the second century BC, Side managed to preserve some autonomy, grew prosperous, and became an important cultural center.
190 BCa fleet from the Greek island city-stateof Rhodes, supported by Rome and Pergamum, defeated the Seleucid King Antiochus the Great's fleet, which was under the command of the fugitive Carthaginian general, Hannibal. The defeat of Hannibal and Antiochus the Great meant that Side freed itself from the overlordship of the Seleucid Empire. The embarrassing Treaty of Apamea(188 BC) forced Antiochus the Great to abandon all European territories and to cede all of Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains to Pergamum. However, the dominion of Pergamum only reached "de facto" as far as Perga, leaving Eastern Pamphyliasemi-free. This led Attalus II Philadelphusto construct a new harbour in the city Attalia(the present Antalya), even though Side already had an important harbour. Between 188 and 36 BC Side minted their own money, tetradrachms showing Nike and a laurel wreath (the sign of victory).
first century BC, Side reached a peak when the Cilician pirates established their chief naval base and a slave-trade center.
The consul Servilius Vatia defeated these brigands in 78 BC and later the Roman general
Pompeyin 67 BC, bringing Side under the control of the Roman Empire. Side's second peak period started around 2C BC when it established and maintained a good working relationship with the Roman Empire.cite web
title=Side - History of the City
accessdate=2006-11-19 ] Emperor
Augustusreformed the state administration and placed Pamphylia and Side in the Roman province of Galatiain 25 BC, after the short reign by the king Amyntas of Galatiabetween 36 and 25 BC. Side began another prosperous period as a commercial center in Asia Minorthrough its trade in olive oil. Its population grew to 60,000 inhabitants. This period would last well into the third century AD. Side established itself as a slave-trading center in the Mediterranean. Its large commercial fleet engaged in acts of piracy. Wealthy merchants paid for such tributes as public works, monuments, and competitions as well as the games and gladiator fights. The significance of this period for Side is evident in its ruins today. Most of the present-day ruins found in Side date from this period of prosperity.
Side began to steady decline from the
fourth centuryon. Even defensive walls could not stop successive invasions from highlanders from the Taurus Mountains. During the fifth and sixth centuries, Side experienced a revival and became the seat of the Bishopric of Eastern Pamphylia. Arab fleets, nevertheless, raided and burned Side during the seventh century, contributing to its steady decline. The combination of earthquakes, Christian zealots and Arab raids, left the site completely abandoned by the 10th century. Its citizens had emigrated to nearby Antalya.
twelfth century, Side temporarily established itself once more as a large city. An inscription found on the site of the former ancient city shows a considerable Jewishpopulation in early Byzantine times. However, Side was abandoned again after being sacked. Its population moved to Antalyaand Side became known as "Eski Adalia" or Old Antalya and was buried.
, taken from the Kitab-i Bahriye, Piri produced in several editions, supplementing in 1520, but integrating it into subsequent editions.
The great ruins are among the most notable in Asia Minor. They cover a large promontory where a wall and a moat separate it from the mainland. During medieval times, the wall and moat were repaired and the promontory houses a wealth of structures.
There are colossal ruins of a theater complex, the largest of Pamphylia, built much like a Roman
amphitheaterthat relies on arches to support the sheer verticals. The Roman style was adopted because Side lacked a convenient hillside that could be hollowed out as in the usual Greek fashion more typical of Asia Minor. The theater is less well preserved than the Aspendostheater, but it is almost as large, seating 15,000 - 20,000 people. With time and the shifting of the earth, the "scena" wall has collapsed over the stage and the "proscenium" is in a cataract of loose blocks. It was converted into an open-air sanctury with two chapels during Byzantinetimes (5-6th c.)
The well preserved city walls provide an entrance to the site through the Hellenistic main gate ("Megale Pyle") of the ancient city, although this gate from the second century BC is badly damaged. Next comes the colonnaded street although the marble columns once there do not exist anymore. All that remains is a few broken stubs near the old Roman baths. The street leads to the a public bath, restored as a museum displaying Roman period statues and sarcophagi. Next is the square
agorawith in the middle the remains of the round Tycheand Fortunatemple (2nd c. BC), a periptery with twelve columns. In later times it was used as a trading center where pirates sold slaves. The current remains of the theatre, which was used for gladiator fights and later as a church, and the monumental gate date back to the 2nd century. The early Roman Temple of Dionysusis near the theater. The fountain gracing the entrance is restored. At the left side are the remains of a Byzantine Basilica. A public bath has been restored
The remaining ruins of Side include three temples, an aqueduct, and a
nymphaeum. Side's nymphaeum – a grotto with a natural water supply dedicated to the nymphs – was an artificial grotto or fountain building of elaborate design.
Turkish archaeologists have been excavating Side since 1947 and intermittently continue to do so. [cite web
title=Aspendos - Perge - Side
1895Greek Muslim refugees from Cretemoved to the ruined town and called it Selimiye. Today Side has become a popular vacation destination and experiences a new revival.
It was a favorite spot for watching the solar eclipse of March 29, 2006.
Due to previously being the seat of the Bishopric of Eastern Pamphylia it is still a
titular seeof the Roman Catholic church.
Philip of Side
Saint Probus of Side
Coinage of Side
* [http://www.side-manavgat.com/ Side and Manavgat] - About Side and Manavgat
* [http://e-turkey.net/v/antalya_side/ Side photos with explanations]
* [http://www.pointsfromturkey.com/side.html Side Pictures]
* [http://www.ancientlibrary.com/gazetteer/0319.html Hazlitt, Classical Gazetteer, "Side"]
* [http://www.amerasianworld.com/antalya.php Pictures of Side Greek Ruins]
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