- Typography of Apple Inc.
Typography of Apple Inc. refers to
Apple Inc.’s use of typefaces in marketing, operating systems, and industrial design. Apple has used three corporate fonts throughout its history: Motter Tektura, Apple Garamond and Adobe Myriad.
Corporate fonts and brand identity
For at least 18 years, Apple's corporate font was a custom variant of the ITC
Garamondtypeface, called Apple Garamond. It was used alongside the Apple logo, for product names on computers, in countless ads, printed materials and on the company website. Since 2001, Apple has gradually shifted towards using Myriad in its marketing.
Prior to the first Macintosh, Apple used a typeface called
Motter Tekturaalongside the Apple logo. Motter Tektura was designed in Austria by Othmar Motter of Vorarlberger Graphik in 1975 and distributed by Letraset. At the time, the typeface was considered new and modern. One modification to the typeface was that the dot over the "i" was removed. The lowercase "s" was also modified for the label on the Disk II5.25-inch floppy disk drive.
According to the logo designer, Ryan Smith, the typeface was selected for its playful qualities and techno look, in line with Apple's mission statement of making high technology accessible to anyone. Janoff designed the logo in 1976 while working with
Palo Alto marketer Regis McKenna. The apple's "bite" was originally designed to fit snugly with the Motter Tektura "a."
In the early 1980s, the logo was simplified by removing "computer ınc." from the logo. Motter Tektura was also used for the
Apple IIlogo. This typeface has sometimes been mislabeled as Cupertino, a similar bitmap font, probably created to mimic Motter Tektura.
Upon the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984, Apple adopted a new corporate font called Apple Garamond. It was a narrow variation of the classic
Garamondtypeface. Specifically, ITC Garamond (created by Tony Stan in 1977) was condensed to 80% of its normal width. Presumably, Apple felt that the existing ITC Garamond Condensed, at 64%, was too narrow. Bitstream condensed the font and subtly adjusted the stroke widths and performed the hinting required to create a PostScript font which was then delivered to Apple as "apgaram."
In cases when the Apple logo was accompanied by text, it was always set in Apple Garamond. Aside from the company name, most of Apple's advertising and marketing slogans such as "Think different." used the font as well.
This typeface was virtually synonymous with Apple for almost two decades and formed a large part of Apple's excellent
brand recognition. It was not only used in conjunction with the logo, but also in manuals, ads and to label products with model names. Even today the association continues; falsified images of rumored new Apple products and spoof advertisements often use it despite the fact that it is no longer current.
Apple has kept the true Apple Garamond font to themselves, but briefly sold ITC Garamond Narrow—Apple Garamond without the custom hinting—as part of the "Apple Font Pack" in the 1990s. A version of the font was also included, hidden away under a different name, in some versions of Mac OS X prior to 10.3, since it was used by the Setup Assistant installation program. See
List of fonts in Mac OS Xfor more information on how the font can be extracted.
typographerswho consider ITC Garamond in general, and Apple Garamond in particular, to be poorly designed typefaces. ITC Garamond is frequently called a "pastiche" or a "Garamond in name only" that has little to do with the 16th century typefaces that supposedly inspired it. Another common view is that the algorithmic scaling distorted the typeface. Apple changed the name of their licensed version of the typeface when they had the format of the fonts converted to TrueType for their internal use.
In 2002, Apple gradually started using a variant of the Adobe Myriad font family in its marketing and packaging. As new revisions of its products were released, the text changed from the serif Apple Garamond to the sans-serif Myriad Apple. The family's bolds are used for headlines, and other weights are also used accordingly. The Myriad font family was designed by
Robert Slimbachand Carol Twomblyfor Adobe. Adobe's most recent version of Myriad is Myriad Pro, which has some additional enhancements and character set extensions, but is not significantly changed in design. Myriad Apple, a modification produced by Galápagos Design Group, incorporates minor spacing and weight differences from the standard varieties, and includes Apple-specific characters such as the company logo. In 2006, Myriad Apple was superseded by Myriad Set, which contains extra ligatures and other minor changes. While Myriad Set is for most titles and eye-catching slogans, some text is set in Helvetica Neue.
Although originally promoted as Myriad, the 5th generation
iPodand iPod nanofeature a bitmap font known as Podium Sanswhich is missing Myriad's trademark features such as the splayed 'M' and distinctive 'y'. The most recent iPods (and the iPhone) use Helveticaas their UI font.
Other fonts used in Apple's marketing
Prior to adopting the bitten Apple as its logo, Apple used a complex logo featuring
Isaac Newtonsitting below an appletree. The words "APPLE COMPUTER CO." were drawn on a ribbon banner ornamenting the picture frame. The frame itself held a quotation from Wordsworth: "Newton...A Mind Forever Voyaging Through Strange Seas of Thought...Alone." The logo was hand drawn and thus did not use an established font. However, the type is similar to Caslonwith some idiosyncratic details, such as an "R" deviating from the general style.
In the marketing of the Newton PDA, Apple chose to use
Gill Sansinstead of the regular Apple Garamond. Gill Sans Regular was used in the logo, for the model name on the computer, the keyboard and in advertisement materials, though it was not used as a screen font (except for as part of the Newton logo). Gill Sans was originally designed by Eric Gill around 1927–29 for the Monotype Corporation.
Apple's keyboards have long been labeled with
UniversCondensed Oblique, a design choice by Apple's industrial design partner, Frog Design. This began in 1984 with the Apple IIc, the tilt of whose front-panel buttons matched the inclination of the lettering.
Univers was eventually replaced on Apple's keyboards by
VAG Rounded, which was used on all iBookmodels, 2003 and later PowerBooks, MacBooks, MacBook Pros and Apple Keyboards since August 2007. VAG stands for "Volkswagenwerk Aktiengesellschaft", and the font was developed by Sedley Place Ltd. for German car manufacturer Volkswagenand was used in much of their marketing materials. Volkswagen's modification of a classical typeface is similar to Apple's modification of Garamond to create a corporate typeface that is both universal and proprietary.
Fonts used in other products
Apple's earliest computers had extremely limited graphical capabilities and could originally only display uppercase
ASCIIusing a set bitmap font. The IIc and Enhanced Apple IIesupported 80 columns of text and an extended character set called MouseText. It was used to simulate simple graphical user interfaces, similar to the use of ANSIX3.64. The latter versions of Apple IIGS system software and Finder used very rectangular pixels (640x200) thus requiring a stout, 8 pt bitmap font called "Shaston 8" as the system font (menus, window titles and so on). Shaston was described in Apple IIGS technote #41 as "a modified Helvetica", but the similarities are not striking. The fonts of the original Macintosh were also available for the GS.
1993, Apple's Human Interface Group designed the typeface Espy Sansspecifically for on-screen use. It was first used for the Newton OS GUI and later integrated into Apple's ill-fated eWorldonline service. The Newton used the font Apple Casual to display text entered using the Rosetta handwriting recognition engine in the Newton. The same font found its way into the Rosetta-derived writing recognition system in Mac OS X—Inkwell. The TrueType font can be made available to any application by copying the font file, which is embedded in a system component, to any font folder. (See List of fonts in Mac OS Xfor more information.) The Newton logo featured the Gill Sanstypeface, which was also used for the Newton keyboard.
eWorldalso used the larger bold condensed bitmap fonteWorld Tight for headlines. The metrics of eWorld Tight were based on Helvetica Ultra Compressed. Lucida Grandeis the standard font used in Mac OS X user interface elements such a menus, dialog boxes and other widgets.
When released in 2001, Apple's
iPodmusic player reused the bitmap Chicago font from the original Macintosh GUI. Later versions of the iPod drew from the larger character repertoire of the TrueType Chicago, adding a number of characters not present in the bitmap Chicago, such as Greek and Cyrillic. Even though the screen supports grayscale, the characters were not anti-aliased.Fact|date=August 2007
iPod miniuses the typeface originally designed for the Newton, Espy Sans. In the fourth-generation color iPod (formerly iPod Photo), Podium Sanshas displaced Chicago as the user interface font, in part due to the higher resolution of the new color screen.
List of Apple typefaces
Fonts on the Mac
List of fonts in Mac OS X
* Apple Computer:
** [http://www.apple.com/macosx/features/font.html Fonts on Mac OS X] . Retrieved
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** [http://developer.apple.com/documentation/carbon/conceptual/managing_fontmanager/fm_concepts/chapter_2_section_3.html Font Support in the Mac OS] . Retrieved
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** (November 1990). [http://www.umich.edu/~archive/apple2/technotes/tn/iigs/TN.IIGS.041 Apple II GS TN #41 — Font Family Numbers] . Retrieved
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* Jaques Moury Beauchap. [http://www.jacques-moury-beauchamp.com/moury/beauchamp/SIGNEDAMERICA/pages/JANOFFUS.html Rob Janoff — Graphic Designer, Author of the first logo for Apple Computer] . Retrieved
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* Erfert Fenton (October 1994). Inside QuickDraw GX Fonts, "MacWorld". [http://web.archive.org/web/19970614041630/http%3a//www.macworld.com/pages/october.94/Feature.1143.html 1997 archived version] , retrieved
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* Nobumi Iyanaga (
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* Tony Kavadias (
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* Steve Gibson (
2003- 04-10). [http://grc.com/ctwho.htm The Origins of Sub-Pixel Font Rendering] . Retrieved 2004- 10-27.
* Jens Hofman Hansen (
July 2, 2002). [http://www.maclab.dk/dokumentation/logoet/ Apple-logoets historie] . Retrieved 2004- 09-22.
* Susan Kare. [http://www.folklore.org/StoryView.py?project=Macintosh&story=World_Class_Cities.txt World Class Cities] . Retrieved
* John Kheyt (
2003- 05-23). [http://www.macobserver.com/columns/devilsadvocate/2003/20030523.shtml The Devil's Advocate — MS's ClearType KOs Apple's Quartz In The Lightweight Division] . Retrieved 2004- 10-27.
* Microsoft (
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* Jonathan Ploudre (
June 1, 2000). [http://www.lowendmac.com/backnforth/2k0601.html Macintosh System Fonts] . Retrieved 2004- 09-21.
* Ed Tracy (
1998- 10-15). " [http://www.landsnail.com/apple/local/design/index.html Apple and the History of Personal Computer Design] ". Retrieved 2004- 10-27.
* Norman Walsh (
August 14, 1996). [http://www.faqs.org/faqs/fonts-faq/part7/ comp.fonts FAQ: Macintosh Info] . Retrieved 2004- 09-21.
* XvsXP. [http://www.xvsxp.com/system/fonts_view.php XvsXP.com — Fonts] . Retrieved
* [http://images.apple.com/pro/pdf/L311277A_FontTT_v4.pdf Advanced Typography with Mac OS X Tiger]
* [http://developer.apple.com/fonts/ Text & Fonts] Apple's typography developer site
* [http://developer.apple.com/fonts/TTRefMan/index.html TrueType Reference Manual]
* [http://developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/ LastResort Font]
** [http://developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortTable.html Full LastResort glyph table]
** LastResort glyphs: — [http://developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortGlyphs236pp.pdf 236 pages PDF] , [http://developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortGlyphs5pp.pdf 5 pages PDF]
* [http://www.alanwood.net/unicode/fonts_macosx.html Unicode fonts for Mac OS X computers] — Survey of Unicode fonts included with Mac OS X and Microsoft Office 2004.
* [http://www.microsoft.com/typography/ClearTypeInfo.mspx Microsoft's ClearType web site]
* [http://fondu.sourceforge.net/ Fondu] – program to convert (and separate) Mac OS X dfont data fork files to TrueType, OpenType, Type 1, and Glyph Bitmap parts
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