- Kupffer cell
Kupffer cells, also known as Browicz-Kupffer cells, are specialized
macrophages located in the liverthat form part of the reticuloendothelial system(aka: mononuclear phagocyte system).
The cells were first observed by
Karl Wilhelm von Kupfferin 1876. [Haubrich WS. "Kupffer of Kupffer cells". Gastroenterology 2004;127:16. PMID 15236167.] The scientist called them "sternzellen" (star cells or stellate cells) but thought falsely that they were an integral part of the endotheliumof the liver blood vessels and that they originated from it. In 1898, after several years of research, Tadeusz Browicz, a polish scientist, identified them correctly as macrophages. [Szymanska R, Schmidt-Pospula M. "Studies of liver's reticuloendothelial cells by Tadeusz Browicz and Karl Kupffer. A historical outline". Arch Hist Med (Warsz). 1979;42(3):331-6. PMID 386989.] [Stachura J, Galazka K. "History and current status of Polish gastroenterological pathology." J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003 Dec;54 Suppl 3:183-92. PMID 15075472.]
Their development begins in the
bone marrowwith the genesis of promonocytesand monoblastsinto monocytes and then on to peripheral blood monocytes completing their differentiation into Kupffer cells. [Naito M, Hasegawa G, Takahashi K. "Development, differentiation, and maturation of Kupffer cells." Microsc Res Tech 1997;39:350-64. PMID 9407545.]
The red blood cell is broken down by phagocytic action and the
hemoglobinmolecule is split. The globin chains are reutilized while the iron containing portion or hemeis further broken down into iron which is reutilized and bilirubin, which is conjugated with glucuronic acidwithin hepatocytesand secreted into the bile.
Helmy et al. identified a receptor present in Kupffer cells, the
complement receptor of the immunoglobulin family(CRIg). Mice without CRIg could not clear complement system-coated pathogens. CRIg is conserved in mice and humans and is a critical component of the innate immune system. [cite journal | author = Helmy K, Katschke K, Gorgani N, Kljavin N, Elliott J, Diehl L, Scales S, Ghilardi N, van Lookeren Campagne M | title = CRIg: a macrophage complement receptor required for phagocytosis of circulating pathogens | journal = Cell | volume = 124 | issue = 5 | pages = 915–27 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16530040 | doi = 10.1016/j.cell.2005.12.039]
* - "Mammal, liver (EM, Low)"
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