:"For the modern municipality, see
Sikyona."Sicyon (Σικυών) was an ancient Greek city situated in the northern Peloponnesusbetween Corinth and Achaea. The king-list given by Pausanias [Pausanias 2.5.6-6.7.] comprises twenty-four kings, beginning with the autochthonousAegialeus; the penultimate king of the list, Agamemnon, compels the submission of Sicyon to Mycenae; after him comes the Dorianusurper Phalces. Pausanias shares his source with Castor of Rhodes, who used the king-list in compiling tables of history; the common source was convincingly identified by F. Jacoby [F. Jacoby on Castor in "Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker" 250 F 2, noted with approval by Robertson 1999:65 and note 36.] as a lost "Sicyonica" by the late fourth-century poet Menaechmusof Sicyon.
Sicyon was built on a low triangular
plateauabout two miles from the Corinthian Gulf. Between the city and its port lay a fertile plain with olivegroves and orchards. After the Dorian invasionthe community was divided into the ordinary three Dorian tribes and an equally privileged tribe of Ionians, besides which a class of serfs lived on and worked the land.
For some centuries, Sicyon remained subject to
Argos, where its Dorian conquerors had come from; as late as 500 BC it acknowledged a certain suzerainty. However, its virtual independence was established in the 7th century BC, when a line of tyrants arose and initiated an anti-Dorian policy. Chief of these rulers was the founder's grandson Cleisthenes, the uncle of the Athenian legislator Cleisthenes. Besides reforming the city's constitution to the advantage of the Ionians and replacing Dorian cults with the worship of Dionysus, Cleisthenes gained renown as the chief instigator and general of the First Sacred War( 590 BC) in the interests of the Delphians.
About this time, Sicyon developed the various industries for which it was noted in antiquity. As the abode of the sculptors
Dipoenus and Scyllisit gained pre-eminence in woodcarving and bronze work such as is still to be seen in the archaic metal facings found at Olympia. Its pottery, which resembled Corinthian ware, was exported with the latter as far as Etruria. In Sicyon also the art of paintingwas supposed to have been invented. After the fall of the tyrants their institutions survived till the end of the 6th century BC, when Dorian supremacy was re-established, perhaps by the agency of Sparta, and the city was enrolled in the Peloponnesian League. Henceforth, its policy was usually determined either by Spartaor Corinth.
5th century BCSicyon, like Corinth, suffered from the commercial rivalry of Athensin the western seas, and was repeatedly harassed by squadrons of Athenian ships. In the Peloponnesian WarSicyon followed the lead of Sparta and Corinth. When these two powers quarrelled after the peace of Niciasit remained loyal to the Spartans. Again in the Corinthian war, Sicyon sided with Sparta and became its base of operations against the allied troops round Corinth. In 369 it was captured and garrisoned by the Thebans in their successful attack on the Peloponnesian League. During this period Sicyon reached its zenith as a centre of art: its school of painting gained fame under Eupompusand attracted the great masters Pamphilus and Apellesas students; its sculpture was raised to a level hardly surpassed in Greece by Lysippusand his pupils.
The destruction of Corinth (146) brought Sicyon an acquisition of territory and the presidency over the
Isthmian games; yet in Cicero's time it had fallen deep into debt. Under the Roman empireit was quite obscured by the restored cities of Corinth and Patrae; in Pausanias' age (A.D. 150) it was almost desolate. In Byzantine times it became a bishop's seat, and to judge by its later name Hellas it served as a refuge for the Greeks from the Slavonic immigrants of the 8th century.
The village of
Vasiliko(described by the 1911 " Encyclopedia Britannica" as "insignificant") now occupies the site.
This is one of the historical sites least visited by tourists in Greece.Fact|date=May 2007
As of 2006, entry to all areas except the small museum is unrestricted.
Butades( 7th century BC) sculptor
Canachus( 6th century BC) sculptor
5th century BC) sculptor
Praxilla(5th century BC) poetess
Eupompus( 4th century BC) painter
Melanthius(4th century BC) painter
Pausias(4th century BC) painter
Eutychides(4th century BC) sculptor
Lysippos(4th century BC) sculptor
Lysistratus(4th century BC) sculptor
3rd century BC) sculptor
4th century BC) pankratiast; thrice Olympic champion
Aratos of Sicyon( 3rd century BC) Head of Achaean League
* [http://www.sikyon.com/Sicyon/sicyon_egpg1.html "Sicyon: The most ancient Greek city-state"] , Ellen Papakyriakou/Anagnostou. Contains a great deal of information on ancient and present-day Sicyon.
* [http://www.whitman.edu/theatre/theatretour/sicyon/introduction/sicyon.intro1.htm "The Greco-Roman Theatre at Sicyon"] , The Ancient Theatre Archive. Theatre specifications and tour of the ancient theatre.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.