- Bruno Maderna
Maderna was born in
At the age of four he was taught violin in
Chioggia, and his grandfather noticed the young boy was a genius; Madame de Polignac (a French princess and patron) paid his following studies, so at the age of eight he was able to conduct the orchestras of La Scalaand Arena di Verona. From here, he started a career as a child prodigy, internationally known as "Brunetto" (Italian for Little Bruno).
He protracted his studies in Milan (1935), Venice (1939) and in
Rome(1940), where he finally took his degree in composition and musicology at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Ceciliaunder the guide of Alessandro Bustiniand Antonio Guarnieri. After his degree he studied also composition with Gian Francesco Malipieroand conducting with Hermann Scherchen.
World War IIhe joined the army, the Partisan Resistance and he was also imprisoned in a concentration camp. After the war years, he taught composition at the Venice Conservatoryfrom 1947 to 1950, where he was called by Malipiero; here he studied a lot the ancient and medieval music, which was the base for many of his early works. In those years he held a very big class, in which there was also Luigi Nono(at that time only a young law student). Karl Amadeus Hartmanncalled him to conduct a concert in the "Musica Viva" festival in Munich; this was the first time a foreign director was called, and for Maderna it was the beginning of a fabulous career. Whilst at the (1951) Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik in Darmstadt he founded the Internationales Kranichsteiner Kammer-Ensemble; here he met, among others, Boulez, Messiaen, Stockhausen, Cage, Pousseur and the most important players of the "neue musik" that inspired him to compose new pieces (for example he wrote "Musica su due dimensioni" for Severino Gazzelloni).
Maderna was an eclectic director, so he was able to switch between different musical styles: he directed Purcell's "
Dido and Aeneas", Wagner's " Parsifal", many works by Debussy and Ravel, classical and romantic symphonies; he also liked jazz music. Together with Luciano Berio, he founded the Studio di Fonologia Musicaleof the RAI( Radiotelevisione Italiana) in 1955 and they also organized the "Incontri Musicali" music review and concert series.
In 1957-58 he taught dodecaphonic technique at the Milan Conservatory; in this period he also taught composition seminars at the Dartington's Summer School of Music. In 1963 he became a German citizen. From 1967 to 1970 he taught conducting at the
SalzburgMozarteum and also at the Rotterdam Conservatory. In 1970 he obtained the Darmstadt's citizenship (but he never changed his Italian citizenship for the German one). In 1971 and 1972 he was the Tanglewood(MA, USA) Berkshire Music Center's director. In 1971 he became the Milan RAI Symphony Orchestra's director.
He died in 1973 at
Darmstadt, when he was working on Debussy's " Pelléas et Mélisande". Pierre Boulez wrote his " Rituel in Memoriam Bruno Maderna" the following year.
Among the early works we find the "Concerto per due pianoforti e strumenti" (1947-1948) with Bartók influences and a special attitude towards difficult sonorities; we find also the "Quartetto per archi in due tempi" (1955), a more serial/
As mentioned before, the flutist Severino Gazzelloni inspired Maderna during the
Darmstadtexperience. In those years he was obviously influenced also by the electronic musicnew paradigm. In 1961 he composed "Honeyreves" for flute and piano: this piece was built on the complex flute melodies and on the strange piano sound effects (clusters, playing on the strings, etc.). In the Studio di Fonologia Musicale, with the help of the sound technician Marino Zuccheri, he wrote some of the most impressive electroacustic works of his time: "Musica su due dimensioni" ("Music on two dimensions", 1958) for flute and magnetic tape, "Notturno" (1956) and "Continuo" (1958) both for magnetic tape.
Maderna's favorite solo instrument was the oboe: this was the perfect 'aulodic' media that he was searching in order to build the 'absolute melody' (Aulody is a word that mixes the Greek aulos (i.e. oboe) and melody). In 1962-63, he wrote the first concert for oboe ("Konzert fur Oboe und Kammerensemble"), in which he was influenced by serial composition; in 1967 he wrote the second "Concerto per oboe", in 1973 he wrote the "Terzo Concerto per Oboe".
One of his most famous works was "Quadrivium" for four percussionists and four orchestra's groups (played for the first time at the Royan Festival, in 1969). This masterpiece uses an enormous amount of players, and is influenced by the aleatory technique. The aleatory technique is used also in "Ausstrahlung" for female voice, flute and oboe obbligati, big orchestra and magnetic tape ("Irradiation", 1971, a homage to Persian culture), in "Serenata per un satellite" for — ad libitum — violin, flute, oboe, clarinet, marimba, harp, guitar and mandolin ("Serenata for a Satellite", 1969) and in "Grande Aulodia" for flute and oboe soli with orchestra (1970). Among the other compositions, we find an electroacustic divertimento called "Le Rire" (1964), many Sonatas, an incomplete opera called "Hyperion", and other diverse works.
A sign of Maderna's eclecticness was the fact that he also wrote music for five Italian movies released between 1946 and 1968. One of his pieces was featured in the soundtrack of , but his name was not in the film credits.
*Mila, Massimo (1999). "Maderna musicista europeo". Nuova Edizione, 1999,
*Rossana Dalmonte, Mario Baroni, "Bruno Maderna, Documenti", 1985 Suvini Zerboni, Milano
*Rossana Dalmonte, Mario Baroni, "Studi su Bruno Maderna", 1989 Suvini Zerboni, Milano
*Nicola Verzina, "B. Maderna. Etude historique et critique", 2003 , L'Harmattan, Paris
*Rossana Dalmonte, Marco Russo, "Bruno Maderna Studi e Testimonianze", 2004, LIM, Lucca
*Raymond Fearn, "Bruno Maderna", 1990 Harwood Academic Publishers
* [http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Bio/Maderna-Bruno.htm Biography]
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