John Cage

John Cage

John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer. A pioneer of chance music, electronic music and non-standard use of musical instruments, Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde and, in the opinion of many, the most influential American composer of the 20th century. [Pritchett, Grove: "He has had a greater impact on music in the 20th century than any other American composer."] He was also instrumental in the development of modern dance, mostly through his association with choreographer Merce Cunningham, who was also Cage's romantic partner for the most part of the latter's life. [Perloff, Junkerman, p. 93.] [David W. Bernstein, Christopher Hatch. "Writings through John Cage's Music, Poetry, and Art", pp. 43 45. University of Chicago Press, 2001. ISBN 0226044076]

Cage is perhaps best known for his 1952 composition "4′33″", the three movements of which are performed without a single note being played. A performance of "4′33″" can be perceived as including the sounds of the environment that the listeners hear while it is performed, [Kostelanetz, pp. 69–70.] rather than merely as four minutes and thirty three seconds of silence [Reviews cited in Fetterman, p. 69.] and has become one of the most controversial compositions of the century. Another famous creation of Cage's is the prepared piano (a piano with its sound altered by placing various objects in the strings), for which he wrote numerous dance-related works and a few concert pieces, the most well-known of which is "Sonatas and Interludes" (1946–48). [Nicholls, p. 80: "Most critics agree that "Sonatas and Interludes" (1946-48) is the finest composition of Cage's early period."]

His teachers included Henry Cowell (1933) and Arnold Schoenberg (1933–35), both known for their radical innovations in music, but Cage's major influences lay in various Eastern cultures. Through his studies of Indian philosophy and Zen Buddhism in the late 1940s, Cage came to the idea of chance-controlled music, which he started composing in 1951. The "I Ching", an ancient Chinese classic text on changing events, became Cage's standard composition tool for the rest of his life. In a 1957 lecture, "Experimental Music", he described music as "a purposeless play" which is "an affirmation of life – not an attempt to bring order out of chaos nor to suggest improvements in creation, but simply a way of waking up to the very life we're living". [Cage, p. 12.]

In addition to his composing, Cage was also a philosopher, writer, artist, printmaker [GroveArtOnline|Cage, John|Davies, Hugh|20 February|2007] and an avid amateur mycologist and mushroom collector.


1912–1931: Early years

Cage was born in Los Angeles, California. His father John Milton Cage Sr. (1886–1964) was an inventor, and his mother Lucretia ("Crete") Harvey (1885–1969) worked intermittently as journalist for the "Los Angeles Times". [Nicholls, p. 4.] The family's roots were completely American: in a 1976 interview Cage mentioned "a John Cage who helped [George] Washington in the surveying of Virginia". [Cage quoted in Kostelanetz, p. 1. For details on Cage's ancestry, see, for example, Nicholls, pp. 4–6.] Cage described his mother as a woman with "a sense of society" who was "never happy",cite web | url= | title=An Autobiographical Statement | publisher=Southwest Review| date=1991 | author=Cage, John | accessdate=2007-03-14] while his father is perhaps best characterized by his inventions: sometimes idealistic, such as a submarine that gave off bubbles, [Nicholls, p. 4.] others revolutionary and against the scientific norms, such as the "electrostatic field theory" of the universe. [Cage quoted in Kostelanetz, pp. 1–2. Cage mentions a working model of the universe that his father had built, and that the scientists who saw it could not explain how it worked and refused to believe it.] John Milton Sr. taught his son that "if someone says 'can't' that shows you what to do." In 1944–45 Cage wrote two small character pieces dedicated to his parents: "Crete" and "Dad". The latter is a short lively piece that ends abruptly, while "Crete" is slightly longer, mostly melodic contrapuntal work. [Recording and notes: "John Cage - Complete Piano Music Vol.7: Pieces 1933-1950". Steffen Schleiermacher (piano). MDG 613 0789-2.]

Cage's first experiences with music were from private piano teachers in the Greater Los Angeles area and several relatives, particularly his aunt Phoebe Harvey who introduced him to the piano music of 19th century. He received first piano lessons when he was in the fourth grade at school, but although he liked music, he expressed more interest in sight reading than in developing virtuoso piano technique, and apparently was not thinking of composition. [Kostelanetz, p. 2.] By 1928, however, Cage was convinced that he wanted to be a writer. That year he graduated from Los Angeles High School as a valedictorian [Nicholls, p. 21.] and enrolled at Pomona College, Claremont. However, in 1930 he dropped out, believing that "college was of no use to a writer" [Kostelanetz, p. 4.] by an incident described in the 1991 autobiographical statement:

I was shocked at college to see one hundred of my classmates in the library all reading copies of the same book. Instead of doing as they did, I went into the stacks and read the first book written by an author whose name began with Z. I received the highest grade in the class. That convinced me that the institution was not being run correctly. I left.
Cage persuaded his parents that a trip to Europe would be more beneficial to a future writer than college studies. [Nicholls, p. 8.] He subsequently hitchhiked to Galveston and sailed to Le Havre, where he took a train to Paris. [Perloff, Junkerman, p. 79.] Cage stayed in Europe for some 18 months, trying his hand at various forms of art. First he studied Gothic and Greek architecture, but decided he was not interested enough in architecture to dedicate his life to it. [Kostelanetz, p. 4.] He then took up painting, poetry and music. It was in Europe that he first heard the music of contemporary composers (such as Igor Stravinsky and Paul Hindemith) and finally got to know the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, which he had not experienced before.

After several months in Paris Cage's enthusiasm for America was revived after he read Walt Whitman's "Leaves of Grass" – he wanted to return immediately, but his parents, with whom he regularly exchanged letters during the entire trip, persuaded him to stay in Europe for a little longer and explore the continent. [Perloff, Junkerman, p. 80.] Cage started travelling, visited various places in France, Germany and Spain, as well as Capri and, most importantly, Majorca, where he started composing. [Nicholls, p. 22.] His first compositions were created using dense mathematical formulae, but Cage was displeased with the results and left the finished pieces behind when he left. [Perloff, Junkerman, p. 81.] Cage's association with theatre also started in Europe: during a walk in Seville he witnessed, in his own words, "the multiplicity of simultaneous visual and audible events all going together in one's experience and producing enjoyment." [Cage quoted in Perloff, Junkerman, p. 81.]

1931–1936: Apprenticeship

Cage returned to the United States in 1931. [Perloff, Junkerman, p. 81.] He went to Santa Monica, California, where he made a living partly by giving small, private lectures on contemporary art. He got to know various important figures of the Southern California art world, such as pianist Richard Buhlig (who became his first teacher [Pritchett, Grove.] ) and arts patron Galka Scheyer. [Kostelanetz, p. 4.] By 1933 Cage decided to concentrate on music rather than painting. "The people who heard my music had better things to say about it than the people who looked at my paintings had to say about my paintings", Cage later explained. [Kostelanetz, p. 4.] In 1933 he sent some of his compositions to Henry Cowell; the reply was a "rather vague letter", [Cage quoted in Nicholls, p. 24.] in which Cowell suggested that Cage study with Arnold Schoenberg—Cage's musical ideas at the time included composition based on a 25-tone row, somewhat similar to Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique. [Kostelanetz, p. 61.] Cowell mentioned, however, that before approaching Schoenberg, Cage should take some preliminary lessons, and recommended Adolph Weiss, a former Schoenberg pupil. [Nicholls, p. 24.]

Following Cowell's advice, Cage travelled to New York City in 1933 and started studying with Weiss as well as taking lessons from Cowell himself at the New School for Social Research. [Pritchett, Grove.] He supported himself financially by taking up a job washing walls at a Brooklyn YWCA. [Kostelanetz, p. 7.] Cage's routine during that period was apparently very tiring, with just four hours of sleep on most nights, and four hours of composition every morning starting at 4 AM. [Pritchett, p. 9.] [Kostelanetz, p. 7.] Several months later, still in 1933, Cage became sufficiently good at composition to approach Schoenberg. [Different sources give different details of their first meeting. Pritchett, in Grove, implies that Cage met Schoenberg in New York City: "Cage followed Schoenberg to Los Angeles in 1934", however, in a 1976 interview quoted in Kostelanetz, p. 5, Cage mentions that he "went to see him [Schoenberg] in Los Angeles."] He could not afford Schoenberg's price, however, and when he mentioned it, the older composer asked whether Cage would devote his life to music. After Cage replied that he would, Schoenberg offered to tutor him for free. [This conversation was recounted many times by Cage himself: see "", p. 261; "A Year from Monday", p. 44; interviews quoted in Kostelanetz, pp. 5, 105; etc.]

Cage studied with Schoenberg in California: first at the USC and then at the UCLA, as well as privately. [Pritchett, Grove.] The older composer became one of the biggest influences on Cage, who "literally worshipped him", [Kostelanetz, p. 6.] particularly as an example of how to live one's life being a composer. [Pritchett, p. 9.] The vow Cage gave, to dedicate his life to music, was apparently still important some 40 years later, when Cage "had no need for it [i.e. writing music] ", he continued composing partly because of the promise he gave. [Cage interview quoted in Kostelanetz, p. 105.] Schoenberg's methods and their influence on Cage are well documented by Cage himself in various lectures and writings. Particularly well-known is the conversation mentioned in the 1958 lecture "Indeterminacy":

After I had been studying with him for two years, Schoenberg said, "In order to writemusic, you must have a feeling for harmony." I explained to him that I had no feeling forharmony. He then said that I would always encounter an obstacle, that it would be as though Icame to a wall through which I could not pass. I said, "In that case I will devote my life tobeating my head against that wall." [Cage, p. 260.]
Cage studied with Schoenberg for two years, but although he admired his teacher, he decided to leave after Schoenberg told the assembled students that he was trying to make it impossible for them to write music. Much later, Cage recounted the incident: " [...] When he said that, I revolted, not against him, but against what he had said. I determined then and there, more than ever before, to write music." [Kostelanetz, p. 6.] Although Schoenberg never complimented Cage on his compositions during these two years, in a later interview he said that none of his American pupils were interesting, except Cage: "Of course he's not a composer, but he's an inventor—of genius." [Kostelanetz, p. 6.]

At some point in 1934–5, during his studies with Schoenberg, Cage was working at his mother's arts and crafts shop, where he met artist Xenia Andreyevna Kashevaroff. She was an Alaskan-born daughter of a Russian priest; her work encompassed fine bookbinding, sculpture and collage. Although Cage had at least one serious homosexual relationship before (and indeed was in one when he met Xenia), he fell in love immediately. Cage and Kashevaroff were married in the desert at Yuma, Arizona, on June 7, 1935. [For details on Cage's first meeting with Xenia, see Kostelanetz, p. 7–8; for details on Cage's homosexual relationship with Don Sample, an American he met in Europe, as well as details on the Cage-Kashevaroff marriage, see Perloff, Junkerman, pp. 81, 86.]

The Cornish School years

In the late 1930s, Cage went to the Cornish School of the Arts in Seattle, Washington. There he found work as an accompanist for dancers. He was asked to write some music to accompany a dance by Syvilla Fort called "Bacchanale". He wanted to write a percussion piece, but there was no pit at the performance venue for a percussion ensemble and he had to write for a piano. While working on the piece, Cage experimented by placing a metal plate on top of the strings of the instrument. He liked the resulting sound, and this eventually led to his conceiving the prepared piano, in which screws, bolts, strips of rubber, and other objects are placed between the strings of the piano to change the character of the instrument. This creation was influenced by his old teacher Henry Cowell, who wrote pieces requiring performers to pluck the piano strings with their fingers and use metal slides.

The "Sonatas and Interludes" of 1946–48 are usually considered Cage's greatest work for prepared piano. Pierre Boulez was one of the work's admirers, and he organized its European premiere. The two composers struck up a correspondence which ended when they disagreed over Cage's use of chance in composing. For Boulez, this was an unacceptable abdication of the composer’s control over his art. However for Cage this was to be a wholly necessary step in his subsequent aesthetic evolution.

Another significant prepared piano work is "The Perilous Night" (1943). "Cage always referred to it as his 'autobiographical' piece, and his biographer, David Revill has convincingly associated it with the traumas associated with Cage's sexual reorientation, culminating in divorce from his wife (1945) and the beginning of a monogamous homosexual parternership with Merce Cunningham, that lasted to the end of his life. [This piece was] Cage's attempt to express, and thereby relieve, the anxieties he was experiencing in his private life"³.

It was also at Cornish that Cage founded a percussion orchestra for which he wrote his "First Construction (In Metal)" in 1939, a piece that uses metal percussion instruments to make a loud and rhythmic music. He also wrote "Imaginary Landscape No. 1" in that year, possibly the first composition to employ record players as instruments. It consisted of a quartet using "a muted piano, a suspended cymbal, and two variable-speed turntables on which single-frequency radio test records were played at various steady speeds and also sliding between speeds in siren-like glissandos"³. Around this time, he met the dancer and choreographer Merce Cunningham, who became a major creative collaborator and his lifelong partner following Cage's split from his then-wife Xenia. (The couple divorced in 1945 or 1946.)

In late 1942 and early 1943 Cage composed his "'Ten-Piece Percussion Ensemble' whose members included his [then] wife Xenia and Merce Cunningham"³. This piece was performed at the New York Museum of Modern Art, February 7, 1943. "It was widely written up in the press, including a picture spread in "Life" magazine, and won him his first fame"³.

While at the Cornish School, Cage encountered ideas that influenced his later work. From the Indian musician Gita Sarabhai he heard Thomas Mace's saying "The purpose of music is to sober and quiet the mind, thus making it susceptible to divine influences." Cage developed an interest in Hindu aesthetics through the writings of the nineteenth century mystic Sri Ramakrishna, the twentieth century Indian art historian Ananda K. Coomaraswamy and, through Coomaraswamy, the medieval Christian mystic Meister Eckhart. These influences are detectable in such pieces such as "The Seasons" and the "String Quartet in Four Parts", whose anti-directional and harmonically static forms suggest the cycles of nature.

Most influential, though, was Cage’s discovery in the late forties of Taoism and then Zen Buddhism, through Japanese scholar Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki. In 1950, Cage received a copy of the "I Ching" from composer Christian Wolff. Rather than fortune-telling, Cage used it to make compositional decisions. The first work Cage composed by tossing coins was titled, appropriately enough, "Music of Changes"³. The reduced, static expression of the Indian inspired works faded as Cage aimed to dissolve personality, intention and expression altogether via the use of chance. Another important work from this era is the "Concerto for Prepared Piano and Chamber Orchestra" of 1951.

John Cage put the influence of Zen Buddhism into practice through music. He described his music as "purposeless play", but "this play is an affirmation of life—not an attempt to bring order out of chaos, nor to suggest improvements in creation, but simply to wake up to the very life we are living, which is so excellent once one gets one’s mind and desires out the way and lets it act of its own accord." Hence comes his favorite saying "nichi nichi kore kōnichi" or, "every day is a good day".Fact|date=November 2007


After leaving the Cornish School, Cage joined the faculty of the Chicago School of Design for a time, then moved to New York City. He continued to write music and establish new musical contacts. He toured America with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company several times, and also toured Europe with the experimental pianist David Tudor, his other closest collaborator during this period.

After it was introduced to him by Christian Wolff, Cage began to use the mechanism of the "I Ching" (Chinese “Book of Changes”) in the composition of his music in order to provide a framework for his uses of chance. He used it, for example, in the "Music of Changes" for solo piano in 1951, to determine which notes should be used and when they should sound. Another piece Cage wrote consisted of lines, running horizontally and some vertically across the page of all different length. The performer must determine the speed, pitch, clef, and length of each note based on what he perceived the line to instruct. He used chance in other ways as well; "Imaginary Landscape No. 4" (1951) is written for twelve radio receivers. Each radio has two players; one to control the frequency the radio is tuned to, the other to control the volume level. Cage wrote very precise instructions in the score about how the performers should set their radios and change them over time, but he could not control the actual sound coming out of them, which was dependent on whatever radio shows were playing at that particular place and time of performance. This piece marked a move away from scores which had been merely composed with indeterminate methods, to those which were also performatively indeterminate. Such pieces as the "Variations" series paradoxically placed great responsibility in the hands of the performer in the demands the music made in terms of realising indeterminate (chance) procedures. When applied to the often-conservative infrastructure of the symphony orchestra, in pieces such as the "Concert for Piano and Orchestra" (1958) and "Atlas Eclipticalis" (1961), Cage’s radical demands resulted in markedly hostile performer reactions.

The detailed nature of Cage's compositional use of chance remains poorly understood. Generally, Cage proceeded from the broadest aspects of a new composition to extremely specific ones. For all these decisions, he determined the number of possibilities for each aspect and then used chance to select a particular possibility: the number of possibilities would be related to one or a series of numbers corresponding to the sixty-four hexagrams of the "I Ching." For instance, Cage might choose a musical pitch from three possibilities. Possibility A could be related to "I Ching" numbers 1–24, possibility B to 25–48, and possibility C to 49–64. The actual choice of an "I Ching" number, as described in the book itself when it is used as an oracle, was accomplished by tossing coins or (later) by running a computer program, initially the print-out of one designed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign under the supervision of Lejaren Hiller and later one designed by Cage's assistant, the composer Andrew Culver. There, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Cage wrote a "mixed-media performance called HPSCHD (computerese for "harpsichord"). Programming the computer to make the "I Ching" coin tosses for him enabling Cage to make enough random decisions—more than a million—to keep seven keyboard players, fifty-two tape recorders playing random computer-generated 'tunes' in fifty-two different tuning systems, fifty-two film projectors and sixty-four slide projectors (showing scenes of space travel, some from old science-fiction movies) constantly busy for four-and-a-half hours, May 16, 1969"³. Cage called the generation of an "I Ching" number a "chance operation."... A finished composition generally entailed numerous chance operations. Before "HPSCHD", He composed "Atlas eclipticalis" (1961). This piece was written for "eighty-six instrumental parts that could be played in whole or in part, for any duration and in any combination from soloist to full orchestra. The "I Ching" decided which staves carried which clefs, and how they were to be assigned to the various instruments. The performance was a fiasco. The orchestra rebelled along with the audience...some so enraged that they threw their microphones on the floor and stamped on them"³. These are just a few examples of 'Chance Music' that Cage comprised and the reactions he received. Most performers often felt that Cage's 'chance' music was so detailed that there was nothing left to chance (or improvise). The performers felt more like slaves of the music rather than interpreters. Cage later went on to say "In my opinion it is the composer's privilege to determine his works, down to the minutest detail"³.

Black Mountain, "4’33’’"

In 1948, Cage joined the faculty of Black Mountain College, where he regularly worked on collaborations with Merce Cunningham. Around this time, he visited the anechoic chamber at Harvard University. (An anechoic chamber is a room designed in such a way that the walls, ceiling and floor will absorb all sounds made in the room, rather than bouncing them back as echoes. They are also generally soundproofed.) Cage entered the chamber expecting to hear silence, but as he wrote later, he "heard two sounds, one high and one low. When I described them to the engineer in charge, he informed me that the high one was my nervous system in operation, the low one my blood in circulation." Cage had gone to a place where he expected there to be no sound, yet sound was nevertheless discernible. He stated "until I die there will be sounds. And they will continue following my death. One need not fear about the future of music." The realization as he saw it of the impossibility of silence led to the "composition" of his most notorious piece, "4′33″".

Cage repeatedly claimed that he composed "4′33″" in small units of silent rhythmic durations which, when summed, equalled the duration of the title. Cage suggested that he might have made a mistake in addition.Fact|date=April 2008 Some have speculated that the title of the work refers to absolute zero, as 4’33″expressed in seconds is 273 seconds, and minus 273 degrees is absolute zero in the Celsius scale; there is, however, no evidence that this relationship is anything more than a coincidence.

The premiere of the three-movement "4′33″" was given by David Tudor on August 29, 1952 in Woodstock, New York as part of a recital of contemporary piano music. The audience saw him sit at the piano and, to mark the beginning of the piece, close the keyboard lid. Some time later he opened it briefly, to mark the end of the first movement. This process was repeated for the second and third movements [Tudor's movements in performance are often misdescribed: Cage's score (written after the first performance) states that the lid was closed during the movements, and raised for the breaks.] . The piece had passed without a note being played—in fact without Tudor (or anyone else) having made any deliberate sound as part of the piece. Only then could the audience recognize what Cage insisted upon, that “There is no such thing as silence. Something is always happening that makes a sound."

Richard Kostelanetz suggests that the very fact that Tudor, a man known for championing experimental music, was the performer, and that Cage, a man known for introducing unexpected non-musical noise into his work, was the composer, would have led the audience to expect unexpected sounds. Anybody listening intently would have heard them: while nobody produces sound deliberately, there will nonetheless be sounds in the concert hall (just as there were sounds in the anechoic chamber at Harvard). It is these sounds, unpredictable and unintentional, that are to be regarded as constituting the music in this piece. The piece remains controversial among those who continue to take it seriously, and is seen as challenging the very definition of music.

While it may challenge the definition of music, it does not challenge any definition of composition — the earliest score was written on conventional manuscript paper using graphic notation similar to that used in "Music of Changes", with the three movements precisely scored to reflect their individual lengths. The most famous version of the score is the so-called "Tacet" edition, which features three movements all on one page, each labelled tacet — the traditional musical term for when a musician does not play for a movement. The score provides no time limits for any of the parts. Neither the whole piece nor the duration of the first performance were decided using chance operations. The piece can have any duration and thus any title, but is stuck with the famous first performance duration and title (i.e. movement I: 30’’;- movement II: 2’23’’;- movement III: 1’40’’;). Cage himself refers to it as his "silent piece" and writes: "I have spent many pleasant hours in the woods conducting performances of my silent piece... for an audience of myself, since they were much longer than the popular length which I have published. At one performance... the second movement was extremely dramatic, beginning with the sounds of a buck and a doe leaping up to within ten feet of my rocky podium." (in John Cage: "Silence: Lectures and Writings"). [Compare this with William Brooks "Pragmatics of Silence", in: 'Silence, music, silent music',edited by Nicky Losseff and Jenny Doctor, Aldershot, Burlington: Ashgate 2007, pp. 97-126. Brooks argues that '4'33"' and the so-called 'Silent Prayer' do not share the same aesthetical basis.]

It is a potential problem though if one wishes to regard the unpredictable sounds as constituting the music in this piece. This comes forward clearly in the recording made by the Amadinda Percussion Group, in which the group place themselves in a park. One hears birdsongs, of course, only interrupted twice due to the pauses following each part. If the sounds during the parts are the music, then the sounds between the parts are not, and then the Amadinda recording is true to its source. However, in a performance the listener would not be able to distinguish the parts in sounds, but only in the acts of the performer(s). In this respect Cage’s silent pieces constitute theater more than sound.

Happenings & Fluxus

John Cage's 'Experimental Composition' classes from 1957 to 1959 at the New School for Social Research have become legendary as an American source of Fluxus, the international network of artists, composers, and designers. The majority of his students had little or no background in music, most of whom were artists. His students included Jackson Mac Low, Allan Kaprow, Al Hansen, George Brecht, Alice Denham and Dick Higgins, as well as the numerous artists he invited to attend his classes unofficially. Several famous pieces came from these classes: George Brecht's "Time Table Music," and Alice Denham's "48 Seconds."

Conceived in 1952, "Theater Piece No. 1" consisted of Cage collaborating with Merce Cunningham, David Tudor, Robert Rauschenberg, and Charles Olson at Black Mountain College where the performance took place amongst the audience. "Happenings", as set forth by Cage, are theatrical events that abandoned the traditional concept of stage-audience and occur without a sense of definite duration; instead, they are left to chance. They have a minimal script, with no plot. In fact, a "Happening" is so-named because it occurs in the present, attempting to arrest the concept of passing time. Cage believed that theater was the closest route to integrating art and (real) life. The term "Happenings" was coined by Allan Kaprow, one of his students, who was to define it as a genre in the late fifties. Cage met Kaprow while on a mushroom hunt with George Segal and invited him to join his class. In following these developments Cage was strongly influenced by Antonin Artaud’s seminal treatise "The Theatre and Its Double", and the “Happenings” of this period can be viewed a forerunner to the ensuing Fluxus movement. In October of 1960, Mary Baumeister's Cologne studio hosted a joint concert by Cage and the video artist Nam June Paik, who in the course of his 'Etude for Piano' cut off Cage's tie and then washed his co-performer’s hair with shampoo.

ubsequent works

Cage’s work from the sixties features some of his largest and most ambitious, not to mention socially utopian pieces, reflecting the mood of the era yet also his absorption of the writings of both Marshall McLuhan, on the effects of new media, and R. Buckminster Fuller, on the power of technology to promote social change. "HPSCHD" (1969), a gargantuan and long-running multimedia work made in collaboration with Lejaren Hiller, incorporated the mass superimposition of seven harpsichords playing chance-determined excerpts from the works of Cage, Hiller, and a potted history of canonical classics, with fifty-two tapes of computer-generated sounds, 6,400 slides of designs many supplied by NASA, and shown from sixty-four slide projectors, with forty motion-picture films. The piece was initially rendered in a five-hour performance at the University of Illinois in 1969, in which the audience arrived after the piece had begun and left before it ended, wandering freely around the auditorium in the time for which they were there. More synaesthetic environment than "composition" in any normal sense, "HPSCHD" demonstrated Cage’s intention to create a viscerally involving environment for exploration by the audience, in which the density and variety of individual elements prevent any single dominant center of interest from arising.

Two years prior to this piece was the first "Musicircus" (1967), conceived by Cage and essentially an extension of the “Happenings” from the fifties. The first "Musicircus" featured multiple performers and groups in a large space who were all to commence and stop playing at two particular time periods, with instructions on when to play individually or in groups within these two periods. The result was a mass superimposition of many different musics on top of one another as determined by chance distribution, producing an event with a specifically theatric feel. Many Musicircuses have subsequently been held, and continue to occur even after Cage’s death. This concept of circus was to remain important to Cage throughout his life and featured strongly in such pieces as "Roaratorio: An Irish Circus on Finnegans Wake" (1979)- a many-tiered rendering in sound of both his text "Writing for the Second Time Through Finnegans Wake" and traditional musical and field recordings made around Ireland.

During the seventies and eighties, Cage's compositions took on a variety of guises, from the overtly political and polemic "Lecture on the Weather" (1975- based on the texts of the naturalist-anarchist author Henry David Thoreau) [Cage self-identified as an anarchist in a 1985 interview: "I'm an anarchist. I don't know whether the adjective is pure and simple, or philosophical, or what, but I don't like government! And I don't like institutions! And I don't have any confidence in even good institutions." [ John Cage at Seventy: An Interview] by Stephen Montague. "American Music", Summer 1985. Accessed May 24, 2007.] , through to the hyper-virtuosic- an example being the "Freeman Etudes" (1980), initially composed for the violinist Paul Zukofsky. Cage conceived the latter as a useful social demonstration of the performer practically surpassing his own abilities. Given their immense difficulty, such pieces can be considered to be a forerunner of the New Complexity movement.

Between 1987 and 1990 Cage composed a major series of works entitled "Europeras", numbered one to five. Cage was invited to compose the first two works for the Frankfurt Opera. They deconstruct operatic form, yet are not merely parodic. Plots, librettos, and arias (often sung at the same time) were assembled via chance methods from a wide range of conventional 18th and 19th century operas whose texts and scores were in the public domain. Chance determined other aspects as well, from stage lighting, scenery, costumes and props to the actions of the singers. There was no conductor; performers were instead guided by large projections of a digital clock according to strict time intervals. Cage even went so far as to hand out two separate sets of librettos to the audience at the premiere, themselves culled from previous operatic works. Being overtly based as they are upon previous works, the "Europeras" provide one of the most intriguing examples of Cage defamiliarising the familiar, rendering a complex new web of symbols and meanings overlapping across conventional aesthetic domains.

Yet other works, such as "Cheap Imitation" (1972), "Hymns and Variations" (1979), and "Litany for the Whale" (1980) resemble the less radical works of his early career. "Cheap Imitation", for example, was based on a re-writing of Satie’s "Socrate", and marked a return to conventional staff notation. In two groups of compositions from his last years — "Music for _____" and the Number Piece series — Cage attempted to reconcile the experimental, process-oriented character of his mature compositions with the idea of a musical work or object. In the Number Piece series in particular, Cage believed that he had finally discovered a way to write music that had harmony, which he now defined as sounds noticed at the same time.


John Cage died in New York City on August 12, 1992, only weeks before a celebration of his 80th birthday organized in Frankfurt by the composer Walter Zimmermann and the musicologist Stefan Schaedler was due to take place; however the event went ahead as planned, including a performance of the "Concert for Piano and Orchestra" by David Tudor and Ensemble Modern. cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=John Cage, 79, a Minimalist Enchanted With Sound, Dies |url= |quote=John Cage, the prolific and influential composer whose Minimalist works have long been a driving force in the world of music, dance and art, died yesterday at St. Vincent's Hospital in Manhattan. He was 79 years old and lived in Manhattan. |publisher=New York Times |date=August 13, 1992 |accessdate=2007-07-21 ]

Writings, visual art, and other activities

Cage was also highly prolific as a writer, producing a series of increasingly experimental texts that were largely incorporated into several books published during his lifetime. These are "" (1961), "A Year from Monday" (1968), "M" (1973), "Empty Words" (1979), "X" (1983) and "Anarchy" (1988). In these books, featuring writings ranging from straightforward essays to diary entries to wholly experimental writing. For example, he invented the mesostic, a type of poem in which Cage ‘wrote through’ texts such as Joyce’s "Finnegans Wake". Cage employed chance methodologies to create texts which were often presented spatially on the page in a striking variety of font sizes, typefaces and layouts- an approach towards creating an increasingly visual dimension to text, perhaps inspired by the experimental poetry of E. E. Cummings and lettrism.

In addition a series of interviews between Cage and the critic Daniel Charles are collected in the book "For the Birds" (1981), whose title is a reference to one of Cage's favorite sayings, which is typical of his often subtle, self-referential humor: "I am for the birds, not for the cages people put them in." Richard Kostelanetz assembled a collage of various interviews in "Conversing with Cage" (second ed., 2003), and a volume of conversations with Joan Retallack from the 1990s, "Musicage", appeared in 1996.

From the late sixties Cage was also active as a visual artist, working on annual projects at Crown Point Press, from which he produced a series of drawings, prints and watercolours. Some of these were inspired by the drawings made by Thoreau in his "Journal", and by the aesthetics of his earlier friend, and chess partner, artist Marcel Duchamp. One of his most striking visual pieces is the 1969 work "Not Wanting to Say Anything About Marcel", which is comprised of a complex array of superimposed type encased within plexiglas panels. It seems at times as though Cage’s increasing interest in writing and visual art indicated a certain frustration with musical composition. However, as Cage pointed out, he aimed to remain faithful to his promise to Schoenberg to devote his life to music.

Cage had a lifelong interest in mushrooms. He co-founded the New York Mycological Society with three friends and his mycology collection is presently housed by the Special Collections department of the University Library at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

World's slowest, longest concert

The world's "slowest and longest concert" resumed on July 5, 2008, when the Halberstadt church organ played the next - 6th - chord of John Cage's "As Slow As Possible". The weights holding down the organ pedals were shifted resulting to the 6th chord change, and accordingly a chance of hearing the final note being played in the year 2639 would be a possibility. [ [, 'World's longest concert' resumes] ] In 1985, Cage opted to omit the detail of "exactly how slow the piece should be played." Its maiden performance was 29 minutes, while a second version took 71 minutes. The song is a 639-year-long version of Cage's "ORGAN2/ASLSP As Slow As Possible", first played on Cage's 89th natal day at 1361 St. Burchardi on September 5, 2001. At 3:33 p.m., Saxony-Anhalt politicians, tourists and media led by Hans-Jörg Bauer, head of John Cage Organ Project, attended the chord change to C4-A flat4. [ [, Germany's 639-year concert to celebrate 6th chord change] ]

The former Church of St. Burchard was used as a pig-sty in the communist years of East Germany. Two more organ pipes were added alongside the four installed and the tone became more complex at 3:33 p.m. local time. The second of the new pipes, the next musical change in John Cage's slow masterpiece will be in this November. A machine keeps the sound coming out. [,,3463502,00.html] [ [,2144,3463502,00.html, One Thousand Hear Change of Note in World's Longest Concert] ]


*The archive of the John Cage Trust is held at Bard College in upstate New York. [] .

*The John Cage Music Manuscript Collection held by the [ Music Division] of [ The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts] contains most of the composer's musical manuscripts, including sketches, worksheets, realizations, and unfinished works.
* [ The John Cage Papers] are held in Special Collections and Archives department of Wesleyan University's Olin Library in Middletown, Connecticut. They contain manuscripts, interviews, fan mail, and ephemera. Other material, including clippings, gallery and exhibition catalogs, a collection of Cage's books and serials, posters, objects, exhibition and literary announcement postcards, and brochures from conferences and other organizations
* [ The John Cage Collection] at Northwestern University in Illinois contains the composer's correspondence, ephemera, and the Notations collection.

Cultural references

*The Tragically Hip recorded a song called "Tiger the Lion" for their "Music @ Work" album which refers to John Cage and some of his ideas. (see liner notes on album) []

*The character John Cage in the American television legal dramedy "Ally McBeal" is named after him.Or|date=September 2007

*Sonic Youth on their "SYR4" album perform two realizations of Cage's piece "Six" and one of "Four6".

*Stereolab on their "Refried Ectoplasm" album recorded a song entitled "John Cage Bubblegum."

* In chapter 75 of Charles Bukowski's "Women" the narrator states, "If John Cage could get one thousand dollars for eating an apple, I’d accept $500 plus air fare for being a lemon."

* Oscar-winning actor Nicolas Cage (born "Nicholas Coppola" and so-billed in his film début, Amy Heckerling's "Fast Times at Ridgemont High"), took the last name "Cage" from his admiring both the Marvel Comics character Luke Cage and composer John Cage. Fact|date=August 2007

* Cage is mentioned in Gore Vidal's 1968 novel "Myra Breckinridge".

* The villain of the 1976 film "Lipstick" (featuring the débuts of both Margaux Hemingway and Mariel Hemingway) is envious of the success of "Sean Gage", obviously based upon John Cage. Or|date=September 2007

* "John Cage Is Dead" is a track on Mickey Hart's Mystery Box album

* On MC Paul Barman's album "Paullelujah!", track 7 ("Excuse You"), line three references Cage: "I can rock the mic to silence by John Cage with the arty flavor / I shoot the gift like a party favor"

See also

* List of compositions by John Cage
* Fluxus
* Sound art
* List of custom-made instrument builders

References and further reading


* John Cage. "Silence: Lectures and Writings", Wesleyan Paperback, 1973 (first edition 1961). ISBN 0-8195-6028-6
* Richard Kostelanetz. "Conversing with John Cage", Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-93792-2
* James Pritchett. "The Music of John Cage". Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 0521565448
* David Nicholls. "The Cambridge Companion to John Cage". Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0521789680
* David Revill. "The Roaring Silence: John Cage – a Life". Arcade Publishing, 1993. ISBN-10: 1559702206, ISBN-13: 978-1559702201
* William Fetterman. "John Cage's Theatre Pieces: Notations and Performances". Routledge, 1996. ISBN 3718656434
* Pierre Boulez, John Cage, Robert Samuels, Jean-Jacques Nattiez. "The Boulez-Cage Correspondence". Translated by Robert Samuels. Cambridge University Press, 1995. ISBN 0521485584
* Marjorie Perloff, Charles Junkerman. "John Cage: Composed in America". University of Chicago Press, 1994. ISBN 0226660575
* Kathan Brown. "John Cage Visual Art: To Sober and Quiet the Mind". Crown Point Press, 2001. ISBN-10: 1891300164, ISBN-13: 978-1891300165
* David W. Patterson (ed.). "John Cage: Music, Philosophy, and Intention, 1933-1950". Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0815329954
* David Nicholls. "John Cage". University of Illinois Press, 2007. ISBN 0252032152


* Taruskin, Richard. "Oxford History of Western Music, The". Vol. 5. Oxford: Oxford UP, Inc., 2005. "Indeterminacy" pp. 55-101

Dissertations and articles

* Deborah Campana. "Form and Structure in the Music of John Cage". Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1985.
* Paul van Emmerik. "Thema's en Variaties: Systematische Tendensen in de Compositietechnieken van John Cage". Dissertation, University of Amsterdam, 1996. nl icon
* Rob Haskins, "An Anarchic Society of Sounds": The Number Pieces of John Cage". Ph.D., Musicology, Eastman School of Music, University of Rochester, 2004.


External links

General information and catalogues

* [ John Cage Database] - includes a complete catalogue of Cage's music with details on individual compositions, as well as a discography, a bibliography and a list of forthcoming performances of Cage's work.
* [ A John Cage Compendium] - website by Cage scholar Paul van Emmerik, in collaboration with performer Herbert Henck and András Wilheim. Includes exhaustive catalogues and bibliography, chronology of Cage's life, etc.
* [ Larry Solomon's John Cage Pages] - a complete catalogue of Cage's music and a filmography, as well as other materials.
* [ Silence: Scholarly discussion of the music of John Cage]
* [ James Pritchett: Writings] - articles on Cage's music in HTML and PDF form by Cage scholar James Pritchett.
* [ Edition Peters: John Cage Biography and Works] - Cage's principal publisher since 1961.
* [ Guide to the John Cage Mycology Collection]
* [ Silence/Stories:] related texts and poems by, among others, Lowell Cross, AP Crumlish, Karlheinz Essl, Raymond Federman, August Highland, George Koehler, Richard Kostelanetz, Ian S. Macdonald, Beat Streuli, Dan Waber, Sigi Waters and John Whiting

Link collections

* [ John Cage Online]
* [ Web resources about John Cage]

pecific topics

* [,12102,1123639,00.html The Music of Chance] - article from the UK Guardian newspaper, quotes from various people who knew Cage.
* [ John Cage's Europeras: a light- and soundscape as musical manifesto] , essay by Stefan Beyst.
* [] : "Sounds Visions, The Work of Jacques Pourcher, Perspectives on John Cage", essay by Ulrike Kasper on the exhibition "John Cage and Jacques Pourcher, Works on Paper", Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA.
* [ ORGAN2/ASLSP: As Slow as Possible - John-Cage-Orgelprojekt Halberstadt] - Web site about a current ongoing performance of one of the longest pieces of music ever written (by Cage), lasting hundreds of years.


* [ In Conversation with Morton Feldman, 1966, Part 1]
* [ In Conversation with Morton Feldman, 1966, Part 2]
* [ In Conversation with Morton Feldman, 1966, Part 3]
* [ In Conversation with Morton Feldman, 1966, Part 4]
* [ In Conversation with Morton Feldman, 1966, Part 5]


* John Cage at UbuWeb: [ historical] , [ sound] , [ film] .
* [ John Cage's etchings at the Crown Point Press website]
* [ Art of the States: John Cage] - audio files of "In the Name of the Holocaust" (1942), "Nocturne" (1947) and "Primitive" (1942).
* [ Indeterminacy] - Cage's short stories taken from various publications and accessed in random order.
* [ FontanaMixer] : computer program by Karlheinz Essl which generates a realtime version of John Cage's "Fontana Mix" (1958)
* [ Other Minds Archive: John Cage interviewed by Jonathan Cott] - streaming audio
* [ Other Minds Archive: John Cage and David Tudor Concert at The San Francisco Museum of Art (January 16, 1965)] - streaming audio
* [ Suite for Toy Piano (1948)] performed by Margaret Leng Tan at the Other Minds Music Festival in 1999 at the Cowell Theater in San Francisco.
* [ Video of John Cage's "Speech" on YouTube]
* [ Video of John Cage's "Water Walk" on YouTube] - from Cage's appearance on the game show "I've Got a Secret" in early 1950s.
* [ 4'33" and Sonatas and Interludes for prepared piano performed by James Tenney] at SASSAS sound, concert archive (streaming quicktime format). Excerpts available on YouTube: [] , []
* [ Solo for Voice 58 (18 Microtonal Ragas) with dhrupad vocalist Amelia Cuni]

NAME= Cage, John
ALTERNATIVE NAMES= Cage, John Milton, Jr.
SHORT DESCRIPTION= Composer, philosopher, printmaker, writer
DATE OF BIRTH= September 5, 1912
PLACE OF BIRTH= Los Angeles, California, United States
DATE OF DEATH= August 12, 1992
PLACE OF DEATH=New York City, New York, United States

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