:"Theodosiopolis redirects here; it is also a name of the ancient city of
official_name = Erzurum
image_caption = General view of Erzurum
subdivision_name1 = East Anatolia
subdivision_name2 = Erzurum| population_total = 361235|population_footnotes=
total population| =
population_as_of = 2000
pushpin_map_caption =Location of Erzurum
latd = 39.9
longd = 41.27
website = [http://www.erzurum-bld.gov.tr www.erzurum-bld.gov.tr]
gwebsite = [http://www.erzurum.gov.tr www.erzurum.gov.tr]
Erzurum ( _hy. Կարին ("Karin"), see also its former and other names) is a city in
eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The name "Erzurum" derives from "Arz-u Rum" (literally "The Land of the Romans" [ [http://lexicorient.com/e.o/erzurum.htm Erzurum] ] in Persian).
Erzurum has a population of 361,235 (2000 census). It is the capital of
Erzurum Province, the largest province in Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region. The city is situated 1757 meters (5766 feet) above sea level and has an extreme continental climatewith an average January temperature of convert|-11|°C|°F|lk=on|abbr=on. Temperatures often drop below convert|-30|°C|°F|abbr=on in the winter, with heavy snowfall.
Erzurum, known as "The Rock" in
NATOcode, has served as NATO's southeasternmost air force post during the Cold War.
The city uses the double-headed Anatolian Seljuk Eagle as its coat-of-arms, a motif based on the double-headed Byzantine Eagle that was a common symbol throughout Anatolia and the Balkans in the medieval period.
Erzurum existed since the ancient times as "Karin" and at various times belonged to ancient
Armenia[ [http://slovari.yandex.ru/dict/bse/article/00093/73600.htm?text=%D1%8D%D1%80%D0%B7%D1%83%D1%80%D1%83%D0%BC Erzurum in Great Soviet Encyclopedia] ] , Persian, Roman, Seljuk Turks, and Ottoman Empires.
The town was known in Byzantine times as "Theodosiopolis", acquiring its present name only after its final Muslim conquest following the
battle of Manzikert. Saltuklus were rulers of an Anatolian Turkish Beylik(principality) centered in Erzurum, who ruled between 1071 to 1202. Melike Mama Hatun, sister of Nâsırüddin Muhammed, was the ruler between 1191 and 1200.
The city was captured by
Russiain 1829, but given back to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Adrianople(Edirne). During the Crimean warRussian forces approached Erzurum, but did not attack it because of insufficient forces and the continuing Russian siege of Kars. The city was attacked and, after overcoming strong resistance, captured by a Russian army in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, but was returned to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of San Stefano.
There were massacres of the city's Armenian citizens during the
Hamidian massacres(1894-1896). [Warrant for Genocide (Ppr): Key Elements of Turko-Armenian Conflict - Page 141 by Vahakn N. Dadrian] "The Graphic", 07.12.1895, Massacres of Erzeroum of October 30, 1895] [Los Angeles Times Jul 26, 1890 TURKISH ATROCITIES. - DETAILS OF THE MASSACRE AT ERZEROUM] It was also a major extermination and deportation center during the Armenian Genocideof 1915. [The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response - Page 176 by Peter Balakian] The deportation route for the Armeniansof Erzurum and neighbouring areas in eastern Anatoliawent through the city of Harput. [The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey: A Disputed Genocide - Page 165 by Lewy, Guenter]
The city was the location of one of the key battles in the
Caucasus Campaignof World War Ibetween the armies of the Ottoman and Russian Empires which resulted in capture of Erzurum by Russian forces under command of Grand Duke Nicholasand Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenichon February 16, 1916. It was returned to the Ottomans with the Treaty of Brest-Litovskin 1918. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, one of the founders of the modern Turkish Republic, resigned from the Ottoman Army in Erzurum, and was declared the "Honorary Native" and the freeman of the city, which issued him his first citizenship registration and certificate (Nüfus Cuzdanı) of the new Turkish Republic. The Erzurum Congressof 1919 was one of the starting points of the Turkish War of Independence.
The largest economy, in recent years, has been the university.
Atatürk Universityis one of the largest universities in Turkey, having more than forty-thousand students. Tourism, also, provides a large proportion of the province's income.
Erzurum is notable for the small-scale production of objects crafted from Oltu stone: most are sold as souvenirs and include prayer beads, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, earrings and hairclips.
Little of medieval Erzurum survives beyond scattered individual buildings such as the citadel fortress, and the
Çifte Minareli Medrese.
Six kilometres to the south of the center of Erzurum is an important
skiingcenter on the Palandöken Mountainrange. There are several ski runs; the south ski run is 8 km long, the north ski run is intended for advanced skiers. The highest point of Mt. Palandöken, great Ejder at 3188m, can be reached to an altitude of 3100 metres by a chair lift. The International University Sports Federation (FISU) World Winter Games, 2011 Winter Universiade, will be held in Erzurum.
One specialty of Erzurum's cuisine is
Ciğ Kebab. Although this kebabvariety is of recent introduction outside its native region, it is rapidly attaining wide-spread popularity around Turkey.
Kadayif Dolmasiis an exquisite sugary. There is walnut in Kadayif Dolmasi.
The main bus station has bus links to most major Turkish cities. Erzurum is also the main railroad endpoint for the Eastern Anatolia region.
Erzurum Airport, also used by the Turkish Air Force, has runways that are the second longest in Turkey.
Arif Sağ, Turkish singer, bağlama virtuoso
Cemal Gürsel, the fourth president of Turkey
Fethullah Gülen, modernist Islamic scholar and writer
İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumi, Turkish and Sufi philosopher and encyclopedist
Johannes Avetaranian, a descendent of Mohammed
Karekin Pastermadjian, a leader of the Armenian Revolutionary Federationand an ambassador of Armenia
Markos Vafiadis, leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece(KKE), Prime Minister of Greece
Nene Hatun, female defender of Erzurum during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78
Orhun Ene, Turkish Basketball player
* Erzurum [http://www.erzurumtso.org.tr Chamber of Commerce]
* [http://www.pbase.com/dosseman/erzurum Pictures of the capital of this province]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.