Infobox Belgium Municipality
Louis Tobback( SP.A)
SP.A-Vl.Pro, CD&V- N-VA
postal-codes=3000, 3001, 3010, 3012, 3018
web= [http://www.leuven.be/ www.leuven.be]
Leuven audio|Nl_be-Leuven.ogg|listen (French: "Louvain", often used in English, German: "Löwen") is the capital of the province of
Flemish Brabantin the Flemish Region, Belgium. It is located about 30 kilometers east of Brussels, with as other neighbouring cities Mechelen, Aarschot, Tienen, and Wavre.
townshipcomprises the historical cityof Leuven and the former municipalities of Heverlee, Kessel-Lo, a part of Korbeek-Lo, Wilseleand Wijgmaal.
It is home to
InBevand to the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the largest Belgian university, the largest and oldest university of the Low Countriesand the oldest Catholic university still in existence.
The first mention of Leuven goes back to 891 ('Loven'), when a Viking army was defeated by the Frankish king
Arnulf of Carinthia(see: Battle of Leuven). According to the city legend, its red-white-red colours depict the blood-stained shores of the river Dijleafter this battle.
Situated at this river and nearby the stronghold of the Dukes of Brabant, Leuven became the most important centre of trade in the
duchybetween the 11th and the 14th century. A token of its former importance as a centre of cloth manufacture, is nicely reflected in the typical Leuven linen cloth, known in late 14-15th century texts as "lewyn" (other spellings: "Leuwyn", "Levyne", "Lewan(e)", "Lovanium", "Louvain") [ [http://www.library.ucla.edu/yrl/reference/maps/blaeu/germania-inferior-nt.htm#prima_brabantiae Blaeu Atlas (UCLA Library - YRL Reference and Instructional Services) ] ] .
In the 15th century a new golden era began with the founding of the largest and oldest university in the
Low Countries, the Catholic University of Leuven, in 1425.
In the 18th century Leuven became even more important because of a flourishing
brewerythat would later become Interbrew(recently renamed to InBev), the largest brewery company in the world. In fact, InBev's Stella Artoisbrewery and main offices dominate the entire north-eastern part of the town, between the railway stationand the canalto Mechelen.
In the 20th century, both world wars inflicted major damage to the city. Upon German entry in WW1, the town was heavily damaged due to German "
Schrecklichkeit" policy. The Germans shot the burgomaster, university rector and all the city's police officers ["Fighting the Great War" by Michael S. Neiberg page 15 Harvard University Press, 2005] The university library was deliberately destroyed by the German army on August 25 1914, using petrol and incendiary pastilles. Hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable volumes and Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts were lost. [cite book |title= Dynamic Of Destruction, Culture and mass killing in the first world war |last= Kramer|first= Alan |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2008 |publisher=Penguin |location= |isbn= 9781846140136 |pages= ] [cite journal |last= Gibson |first= Craig |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2008 |month= |title= The culture of destruction in the First World War |journal=Times Literary Supplement |volume= |issue= January 30, 2008 |pages= |id= |url= http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/the_tls/article3277792.ece |accessdate= 2008-02-18 |quote= ] The world was outraged over this and the library was completely rebuilt after World War Iwith American charity funds and German war indemnities. After World War II, the burnt down building had to be restored again. It still stands as a symbol of the wars and of Allied solidarity.
* The Town Hall, built by
Sulpitius van Vorst, Jan II Keldermans, and, after both of them died, Matheus de Layensbetween 1439 and 1463 in a Brabantian late-Gothic style. The reception hall dates from 1750.
* The St. Peter's Church (1425–1500) was finished by
Jan Keldermansand Matheus de Layens. During the Second World War the church was damaged; during the restoration a Romanesque cryptfrom the 11th century was found. In the church itself there are several paintings from the 17th and 18th centuries (amongst others Dirk Boutsfamous painting of the last supper) and the grave of DukeHenry I of Brabant. The 50 meter high tower—which was meant to be 169 meters but was never completed—is home to a carillon. The tower was included in UNESCO's list of " Belfries of Belgium and France" in 1999.
* Saint-Anthony's Chapel, Pater Damiaanplein, from the 17th to the 20th centuries, contains the tomb of
Father Damien, the "leper priest" of Molokai, beatifiedby Pope John Paul II. The Catholic priest's remains were returned in Belgium with great fanfare in 1936 after having been originally buried on the Hawaiian Island of Molokaiwhere he had served the outcast lepers and died.
* The Linen-hall in an early-Gothic style, with baroque addition, is today the University Hall.
* The Church of Saint Michael was built in the typical
* The Church of Saint Quinten incorporates remains of a Romanesque church built in the 13th century.
* The University Library on the
Ladeuzepleinwas built by the American architect Whitney Warren. It was a gift from the American people to Leuven after World War Iduring which the Germans burned down the original library, causing much outroar in the USA. The tower houses one of the largest carillons in the world.
* There is a ducal castle dating from the 12th century on the Keizersberg ("Emperor's Mountain") which was demolished in the 17th Century. Today there is a neo-romanesque Abbey where the castle once stood.
* The Large Beguinage is one of the world's best remaining examples of its architectural type. It was recognized by
UNESCOas a World Heritage Sitein 1998.
* There are several other smaller churches and chapels around town.
* "Fonske" is a statue near the centre of town . Its full name is "Fons Sapientiae", Latin for "fountain of wisdom." The statue represents a university student who, while reading a book, lets wisdom flow into his head as liquid from a glass. Just like
Manneken Pisin Brussels, Fonske is from time to time dressed in costumes appropriate for the occasion.
Given the presence of the KULeuven, an important European institution for academic research and education, much of the local economy is concentrated on spin-offs from academic research. There are several biotech and ICT companies;
Gasthuisberg, the academic hospital and research center and a large number of private service providers in the medical and legal field.
Being the capital of the region of Flemish-Brabant means that there are many governmental institutions located in Leuven as well as the regional headquarters of transport corporations such as
De Lijn.As the largest and one of the oldest cities in the immediate Flemish vicinity Leuven, with a large palate of cafés, restaurants, cultural institutions and shopping neighouborhoods, the city also attracts people from nearby cities and villages.
Leuven is also the worldwide headquarters of
InBev, an international beer giant.
Nowadays Leuven is a real "student city", as during the academic year most citizens in its centre are students.
Leuven sports one of the liveliest bar scenes in Belgium. Besides boasting the "longest bar" in Belgium, the Old Market, tens of bars and cafés crammed into a central square in Leuven, it's also the proud home city of Belgium's smallest bar, Onder den Toog in the Noormannenstraat.
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven( K.U.Leuven; the Catholic University Leuven) is the oldest Catholic university still in existence in the World and the biggest university in Belgium.
One of the orchestras formed by students is the "Arenbergorkest", allowing these young people to combine study and music. There is also a number of "
hogescholen" (Vocational university, literally translated: "high schools") such as the Katholieke Hogeschool Leuven( KHLeuven; the Catholic "High School" Leuven), as well as a university college: Groep T(Group T).
mayorof Leuven is currently Louis Tobback, a socialist politician prominent on the national level, formerly minister of internal affairs and leader of the socialist faction in the lower chamber of the Belgianparliament, among other positions held.
Leuven is twinned with:
's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands
sister cities, Leuven has friendly relations with:
Republic of China
Stellenbosch, South Africa
Leuven is well known for its summer rock festival
Marktrock. The main football clubof the municipality is Oud-Heverlee Leuven, the successor of K. Stade Leuven.Leuven also has some orchestras, like the famous Arenberg Orchestra.
Born in Leuven
*Most Dukes of Brabant in the 12th and 13th century
Maria of Brabant, queen consortof France(1256-1321)
Martin Margiela, fashion designer (b. 1957)
Quentin Matsys, painter (1466-1530)
Petrus van der Aa, jurist(1530-1594)
Adriaan van Roomen, mathematician(1561-1615)
Charles de Bériot, violinist(1802-1870)
Eugène Prévinaire, (1805-1877), second governor of the National Bank of Belgium.
Laurent-Guillaume de Koninck, palaeontologistand chemist(1809-1887)
Jean Stas, analytical chemist (1813-1891)
Arthur De Greef, pianistand composer(1862-1940)
Christian de Duve, cytologistand biochemist, recipient of the 1974 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine(b. 1917)
Arthur Berckmans, comicsauthor (b. 1929)
Mark Eyskens, politicianand former Prime Minister of Belgium(b. 1933)
Louis Tobback, politician and mayor(b. 1938)
Emiel Puttemans, middle- and long-distance runner (b. 1947)
Peter Van Lancker, boat designer (b. 1952)
Jaak Pijpen, media personality (b. 1952)
*Frank Vandenbroucke, politician (b. 1955)
Kim Gevaert, sprint athlete, Olimpyc silver medalist in 4x100 relay (b.1978)
Lived in Leuven
Dirk Bouts, painter (c. 1410/20-1475)
Matheus de Layens, architect(d.1483)
Desiderius Erasmus, humanist and theologian (1466-1536)
Eustace Chapuys, Imperial ambassador to England (1489-1556)
Michel Baius, theologian(1513-1589)
Justus Lipsius, philologistand humanist (1547-1606)
Cornelius Jansen, father of Jansenism(1585-1638)
Mícheál Ó Cléirigh, Irish chronicler(1590-1643)
Philip Verheyen, surgeon and rectorof the University of Leuven(1648-1711)
Jean Baptiste Abbeloos, orientalistand rector of the University of Leuven (1836-1906)
Jean-Baptiste Janssens, philosophyteacher, Superior General of the Society of Jesus(1889-1964)
Jan Van der Roost, composer (b. 1956)
Andreas Vesalius, anatomist, physician (1514-1564)
Abdul Qadeer Khan, metallurgical engineer (1935-*)
*Ron Lewis, basketball player (b. 1984)
*, chapter from
George Wharton Edwards1911 book, . (Wikisource)
* [http://www.leuven.be Official Leuven website]
* [http://wijgmaal.be Wijgmaal website]
* [http://wikitravel.org/en/Leuven Leuven at Wikitravel]
* [http://www.drieduizend.be Drieduizend, Leuven Photoblog]
* [http://cwisdb.kuleuven.be/kaarten-bin/basiskaart.pl Detailed map of Leuven] (detailed map of Leuven by the KUL)
* [http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/index.php/Leuven Free map of Leuven] (partial OpenStreetMap of Leuven)
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