Palestine Peace Not Apartheid

Palestine Peace Not Apartheid

Infobox Book
name = Palestine Peace Not Apartheid

image_caption = Cover showing the author, left, and protesters at the Israeli West Bank barrier, right
author = Jimmy Carter
cover_artist = Michael Accordino
country = United States
language = English
subject = Political Science
genre = Non-fiction
publisher = Simon & Schuster
release_date = 14 November 2006
media_type = Print (Hardback) AudioBook (Audio CD)
pages = 264 pp
isbn = ISBN 9780743285025

"Palestine Peace Not Apartheid" is a "New York Times" Best Seller written by Jimmy Carter, 39th President of the United States (1977–1981) and winner of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, and published by Simon and Schuster in November 2006. [According to [ "Best Sellers: Hardcover Nonfiction] ", "New York Times", accessed January 27, 2007: "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid" was number 6 on the list as of date accessed. It was listed as number 11 in [ "New York Times Best Sellers: Hardcover Nonfiction"] on March 18, 2007, on the list for 15 weeks for the week ending 3 March 2007. As of 6 May 2007, it no longer appears on the expanded list featured at that site.] While President, Carter hosted talks between Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt that led to the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty.

In this book Carter argues that "Israel's continued control and colonization of Palestinian land have been the primary obstacles to a comprehensive peace agreement in the Middle East." [ Excerpt: Chapter 17: "Summary,"] online posting, "Simon and Schuster", accessed January 27, 2007.] That perspective, coupled with "Apartheid" in the titular phrase "Peace Not Apartheid" (which many regard as a subtitle) and allegations of errors and misstatements in the book, has raised great controversy throughout the mass media and academia. Carter has defended his book against such charges and countered that response to it "in the real world…has been overwhelmingly positive."Jimmy Carter, [,0,7544738.story "Speaking Frankly about Israel and Palestine"] , "Los Angeles Times" 8 December 2006, accessed December 24, 2006.]

Purpose, main argument, and major points

"The ultimate purpose"

Thesis: How to achieve "permanent peace in the Middle East"

Carter identifies "two interrelated obstacles to permanent peace in the Middle East":quotation|

[1] Some Israelis believe they have the right to confiscate and colonize Palestinian land and try to justify the sustained subjugation and persecution of increasingly hopeless and aggravated Palestinians; and
[2] Some Palestinians react by honoring suicide bombers as martyrs to be rewarded in heaven and consider the killing of Israelis as victories.
To bring an end to what he calls "this continuing tragedy", in Chapter 17 ("Summary"), Carter calls for a revitalization of the peace process following the following three "key requirements": quotation|
a. The security of Israel must be guaranteed. ...
b. The internal debate within Israel must be resolved in order to define Israel's permanent legal boundary. ...
c. The sovereignty of all Middle East nations and sanctity of international borders must be honored. ...

"Some major points"

In his recent op-ed entitled "Reiterating the Keys to Peace", published in the Boston Globe on 20 December 2006, Carter summarizes what he calls " [s] ome major points in the book":quotation|

*Multiple deaths of innocent civilians have occurred on both sides, and this violence and all terrorism must cease.
*For 39 years, Israel has occupied Palestinian land, and has confiscated and colonized hundreds of choice sites.
*Often excluded from their former homes, land, and places of worship, protesting Palestinians have been severely dominated and oppressed. There is forced segregation between Israeli settlers and Palestine's citizens, with a complex pass system required for Arabs to traverse Israel's multiple checkpoints.
*An enormous wall snakes through populated areas of what is left of the West Bank, constructed on wide swaths of bulldozed trees and property of Arab families, obviously designed to acquire more territory and to protect the Israeli colonies already built. (Hamas declared a unilateral cease-fire in August 2004 as its candidates sought local and then national offices, which they claim is the reason for reductions in casualties to Israeli citizens.)
*Combined with this wall, Israeli control of the Jordan River Valley will completely enclose Palestinians in their shrunken and divided territory. Gaza is surrounded by a similar barrier with only two openings, still controlled by Israel. The crowded citizens have no free access to the outside world by air, sea, or land.
*The Palestinian people are now being deprived of the necessities of life by economic restrictions imposed on them by Israel and the United States because 42 percent voted for Hamas candidates in this year's election. Teachers, nurses, policemen, firemen, and other employees cannot be paid, and the UN has reported food supplies in Gaza equivalent to those among the poorest families in sub-Sahara Africa, with half the families surviving on one meal a day.
*Mahmoud Abbas, first as prime minister and now as president of the Palestinian National Authority and leader of the PLO, has sought to negotiate with Israel for almost six years, without success. Hamas leaders support such negotiations, promising to accept the results if approved by a Palestinian referendum.
*UN Resolutions, the Camp David Accords of 1978, the Oslo Agreement of 1993, official US Policy, and the International Roadmap for Peace are all based on the premise that Israel withdraw from occupied territories. Also, Palestinians must accept the same commitment made by the 23 Arab nations in 2002: to recognize Israel's right to live in peace within its legal borders. These are the two keys to peace.Jimmy Carter, [ "Reiterating the Keys to Peace,"] "Boston Globe" December 20, 2006, accessed January 3, 2007. (Bullets added.)]

Critical reaction and commentary

Critical response to "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid" has been mixed. Some journalists and academics have praised what they regard as Carter's courage for speaking honestly about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in a media environment described as hostile to opponents of Israel's policies. Others, however, have been more negative. According to Julie Bosman, criticism of the book "has escalated to a full-scale furor," much of which has focused on Carter's use of the word "apartheid" in the subtitle.Julie Bosman, [ "Carter View of Israeli 'Apartheid' Stirs Furor,"] "New York Times" December 12, 2006, accessed March 28, 2008.] Some of the book's critics, including several leaders of the Democratic Party and of American Jewish organizations, have interpreted the subtitle as an allegation of Israeli apartheid, which they believe to be inflammatory and unsubstantiated." [ "Brandeis News: Full coverage of the Historic Jan. 23rd Visit by Former President Jimmy Carter,"] "Brandeis University" January 24, 2007, accessed January 27, 2007.] Tom Zeller, Jr., " [ "Carter and His Critics: The Skirmishes Continue,"] "New York Times", The Lede (blog), January 12, 2007, assessed January 12, 2007; includes PDFlink| [ Letter of resignation dated January 11, 2007] |79.4 KiB .] Eric Pfeiffer, [ "Carter Apologizes for 'stupid' Book Passage,"] "Washington Times" January 26, 2007, accessed January 26, 2007.] Former President Bill Clinton wrote a brief letter to the chairman of the American Jewish Committee, thanking him for articles criticizing the book and citing his agreement with Dennis Ross's attempts to "straighten ... out" Carter's information and conclusions about Clinton’s own summer 2000 Camp David peace proposal. [ [ "President Clinton Thanks AJC on Carter Book"] , press release, "American Jewish Committee", n.d., accessed May 3, 2007.] Cf. Jennifer Siegel, [ "Apartheid Book Exposes Carter-Clinton Rift:] Clinton: 'I Don’t Know Where His Information Came From'", "Jewish Daily Forward" March 30, 2007, accessed May 3, 2007.] The book led to 15 resignations from among the more than 200-member Board of Councilors of the Carter Center.Information about the [ Board of Councilors] of the Carter Center is featured on its website. Founded in 1987, "There are more than 200 councilors, with representatives from among the top leadership of Atlanta and Georgia businesses. The governor of Georgia, the mayor of Atlanta, and the president of Emory University are ex officio members. ... Membership is granted for three years, and the group is divided into three classes so there is a gradual rotation of members. A small number of senior members who have demonstrated sustained support for The Carter Center and its mission have been elevated to the status of life members."] Associated Press, [ "Atlanta: 14 Carter Center Advisers Resign in Protest Over Book,"] "" January 11, 2007, accessed January 11, 2007. (Timeline: 3:45:51 p.m.)] Brenda Goodman, [ "Carter Center Advisers Quit to Protest Book"] , "New York Times" January 12, 2007, accessed January 14, 2007.] Some reviewers of the book, such as Jeffrey Goldberg (who served in the Israeli Defense Forces as a prison guard during the First Intifada) and Ethan Bronner (NY Times Jerusalem correspondent), respectively, have accused Carter of engaging in hyperbole throughout the book, placing too much of the burden of responsibility for what he regards as the plight and mistreatment of the Palestinians on Israel, and misrepresenting historical facts.Jeffrey Goldberg, [ "What Would Jimmy Do?"] "Washington Post" December 10, 2006.] Ethan Bronner, [ "Jews, Arabs and Jimmy Carter,"] "The New York Times Book Review" January 7, 2007, accessed January 7, 2007.] Although, according to James D. Besser, Abraham Foxman, the national director of the Anti-Defamation League, initially accused Carter of "engaging in anti-Semitism" in the book, Foxman told James Traub later that he would not call the former president himself an "anti-Semite" or a "bigot".James D. Besser, [ "Jewish Criticism of Carter Intensifies:] Charge of Anti-Semitism from One Leader as Ex-president Deepens His Critique of Israeli Policy in West Bank", "The Jewish Week" December 15, 2005, accessed January 8, 2007.] James Traub, [ "Does Abe Foxman Have an Anti-Anti-Semite Problem?"] "New York Times Magazine" January 14, 2007: 30-35, accessed January 14, 2007 online; January 18, 2007 in print.] Despite the initial claims, Bronner stresses that Carter's "overstatement" in the book "hardly adds up to anti-Semitism." Several familiar with Israeli press reportage, including some left-leaning Israeli politicians, such as Yossi Beilin, argue that Carter's critique of Israeli policy in the Palestinian territories reflects that of many Israelis themselves.Yossi Beilin, [ "Carter Is No More Critical of Israel Than Israelis Themselves,"] "The Forward", January 19, 2007, accessed January 20, 2007.] Cf. Shulamit Aloni, [ "Road is for Jews Only: Yes, There is Apartheid in Israel,"] "CounterPunch", January 8, 2007, accessed February 18, 2007. (Aloni, Israel's former minister for education (1992-1993), serves on the board of Yesh Din, Volunteers for Human Rights.)]

Carter's response to criticism of the book

Carter has responded to negative reviews in the mainstream news media in an op-ed published in the "Los Angeles Times" (which was excerpted in the London "Guardian" and elsewhere):quotation|

Book reviews in the mainstream media have been written mostly by representatives of Jewish organizations who would be unlikely to visit the occupied territories, and their primary criticism is that the book is anti-Israel. Two members of Congress have been publicly critical. Incoming Speaker Nancy Pelosi for instance, issued a statement (before the book was published) saying that "he does not speak for the Democratic Party on Israel." Some reviews posted on call me "anti-Semitic", and others accuse the book of "lies" and "distortions." A former Carter Center fellow has taken issue with it, and Alan Dershowitz called the book's title "indecent."
Out in the real world, however, the response has been overwhelmingly positive. I've signed books in five stores, with more than 1,000 buyers at each site. I've had one negative remark — that I should be tried for treason — and one caller on C-SPAN said that I was an anti-Semite. My most troubling experience has been the rejection of my offers to speak, for free, about the book on university campuses with high Jewish enrollment and to answer questions from students and professors. I have been most encouraged by prominent Jewish citizens and members of Congress who have thanked me privately for presenting the facts and some new ideas.Jimmy Carter, [,0,7544738.story "Speaking Frankly about Israel and Palestine"] , "Los Angeles Times" December 8, 2006, accessed December 24, 2006.] Jimmy Carter, [,,1970058,00.html "Israel, Palestine, Peace and Apartheid,"] London "Guardian" December 12, 2006.]

He also wrote a "Letter to Jewish Citizens of America" explaining "his use of the term 'apartheid' and sympathizing with Israelis who fear terrorism."Associated Press, [ "Carter Explains Apartheid Reference in Letter to US Jews,"] , "International Herald Tribune", December 15, 2006, accessed March 12, 2007.]

In a report updated by the Associated Press after the publication of Carter's "Letter to Jewish Citizens of America", Greg Bluestein observes that Carter replied generally to complaints of the book's errors and inaccuracies by Dennis Ross, Alan Dershowitz, Kenneth Stein, the Simon Wiesenthal Center, and others by pointing out that the Carter Center staff as well as an "unnamed 'distinguished' reporter" fact-checked it.Greg Bluestein (Associated Press), [ "Carter Defends His Book's Criticism of Israeli Policy,"] online posting, "" December 8, 2006, accessed December 24, 2006 (outdated URL; previously verified); [ cached version] accessed May 4, 2007.] Rachel Zelkowitz points out that, as cited in various news accounts, "Carter has consistently defended his book's accuracy against Stein and other critics"; in a prepared statement, Carter's press secretary Deanna Congileo responds "that Carter had his book reviewed for accuracy throughout the writing process" and that " [a] s with all of President Carter's previous books, any detected errors will be corrected in later editions...." [Rachel Zelkowitz, [ "Professor Describes Carter 'Inaccuracies',"] "The Emory Wheel" December 12, 2006, accessed January 12, 2007. Carter reiterated a desire to correct any such errors in his subsequent speaking engagement at Brandeis University and elsewhere (See below).] In response to the Associated Press's request for a comment on the resignations of Stein and fourteen other members of the Center's Board of Councilors, speaking on behalf of both Carter and the Carter Center, Ms. Congileo also provided a statement from its executive director John Hardman, who, according to Zelkowitz, "also fact checked "Palestine", saying that the members of that board 'are not engaged in implementing the work of the Center.'" [Associated Press, [ "Atlanta: 14 Carter Center Advisers Resign in Protest Over Book,"] "" January 11, 2007, accessed January 11, 2007. (Timeline: 3:45:51 p.m.)]

Public and other programs pertaining to the book

Carter has said that debate on issues concerning Israel is silenced in the US media because of lobbying efforts by the pro-Israel lobby: " [M] any controversial issues concerning Palestine and the path to peace for Israel are intensely debated among Israelis and throughout other nations — but not in the United States. . . . This reluctance to criticize any policies of the Israeli government is because of the extraordinary lobbying efforts of the American-Israel Political Action Committee [sic] and the absence of any significant contrary voices." He stresses that through the debate among others that he hopes this book will stimulate and through his own related public-speaking and media appearances, he hopes to tear down the "impenetrable wall" that stops the people of the US from seeing the plight of Palestinians.

Brandeis University visit

In early December 2006 Brandeis University invited Carter to visit the university to debate his book with Alan Dershowitz: "Brandeis president Jehuda Reinharz said he agreed with a trustee's suggestion to invite Carter last month [December 2006] , if Carter were willing to debate one of his most outspoken critics, Harvard Law professor Alan Dershowitz."Farah Stockman and Marcella Bombardieri, [ "Carter Book Won't Stir Brandeis Debate: Ex-president Was to Outline View on Palestinians,"] "Boston Globe" December 15, 2006.] But Carter declined that invitation, explaining: "I don't want to have a conversation even indirectly with Dershowitz. There is no need to for me to debate somebody who, in my opinion, knows nothing about the situation in Palestine." Carter said that the Brandeis debate request, "is proof that many in the United States are unwilling to hear an alternative view on the nation's most taboo foreign policy issue, Israel's occupation of Palestinian territory," adding: "There is no debate in America about anything that would be critical of Israel." In response, Dershowitz criticized Carter's refusal to debate him, asserting: "Carter’s refusal to debate wouldn't be so strange if it weren't for the fact that he claims that he wrote the book precisely so as to start debate over the issue of the Israel-Palestine peace process. If that were really true, Carter would be thrilled to have the opportunity to debate."Alan Dershowitz, [ "Why Won't Carter Debate His Book?"] "Boston Globe" December 21, 2006.] See|Alan Dershowitz#Jimmy Carter's book Palestine Peace Not Apartheid|Alan Dershowitz#Alan Dershowitz and Jimmy CarterAdditionally, Dershowitz pointed out that his later presentation in George Washington University, Carter, in addressing Brandeis's proposal to debate Dershowitz, responded that he had "never received any invitation to debate, contrary to what a Harvard professor has said." [ [ Carter: "Apartheid" Is Apt For West Bank, Former President Defends Book Title, Says He Was Never Invited To Debate - CBS News ] ] This has raised an contradiction that Carter has yet to address.

According to an article entitled "Brandeis Group Pursues Carter Visit: Professors Call Debate an Insult", published in the "Boston Globe" on December 22, 2006, however:

On December 26, 2006, WCVB-TV (an ABC-TV affiliate), reports that " [a] bout 100 students, faculty and alumni of Brandeis University have signed an online petition to push the administration to bring former President Carter to campus to discuss his new book on Palestine, without being required to debate it." [ "Brandeis Students Support Carter Visit:] Students, Faculty Sign Online Petition", (updated) online posting, "", WCVB-TV, Channel 5, Boston, December 26, 2006, accessed December 26, 2006.]

"The Boston Globe" reports that since it initially revealed "that Carter felt unwelcome on the Waltham campus, people have argued over whether he is unwilling to answer for his views, or whether Brandeis, which was founded by the American Jewish community, can't tolerate criticism of Israel. The latter is a view that some professors hope they can dispel by reviving the Carter visit." "The main organizer of the effort, according to other professors, is Gordon Fellman, a sociologist who is chairman of Brandeis's program in peace, conflict, and coexistence studies...." David Gil, a professor of social policy, is suggesting that "Brandeis should choose Carter's book next year [2007-2008] as the work that all incoming freshmen read over the summer and discuss it during orientation. Carter could visit to talk with them about it", Professor Gil says, and he "also has decided to assign the book in his spring [2007] seminar.

On January 10, 2007, it was reported that President Carter would discuss "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid" at Brandeis University but that he would "not, however, debate the book with" Dershowitz. Brandeis officials reported that Carter would "be the first former president to visit Brandeis since Harry Truman delivered the commencement address in 1957.... It will be Carter's first visit to a university to discuss the book, [Carter's spokeswoman Deanna] Congileo said", confirming also "the president has set no conditions and would answer as many questions as possible"; Carter plans to "speak for about 15 minutes and then answer questions for 45 minutes during the visit." The speech, which occurred on January 23, 2007, was "closed to the public and limited to 'members of the university community only'"; nevertheless, Dershowitz said that he still planned to "attend and question Carter": "'I will be the first person to have my hand up to ask him a question,' he said. 'I guarantee that they won't stop me from attending.'"Associated Press, [ "President Carter Will Come to Brandeis,"] "Daily News Tribune" January 11, 2007, accessed January 11, 2007.] On January 18, 2007, Fox News and other news outlets reported that Brandeis announced that while Dershowitz could not attend Carter's speech, after it ended he would have the stage for a "rebuttal."Melissa Drosjack, [,2933,244303,00.html "Brandeis University to Allow Rebuttal After Carter Speech,"] "Fox News", January 18, 2007, accessed January 19, 2007.] See|Alan Dershowitz#Jimmy Carter's book Palestine Peace Not Apartheid

Streaming video of the speech (15 minutes), the question-and-answer period (45 minutes), followed by Dershowitz's rebuttal (one hour), have been posted on the Brandeis University website, as has been a transcript of Carter's remarks and ten of the questions and answers, preceded by a related student newspaper article. [ "Brandeis News: Full coverage of the Historic Jan. 23rd Visit by Former President Jimmy Carter,"] "Brandeis University" January 24, 2007, accessed January 27, 2007; [ "President Carter Addresses the Brandeis Campus Followed by Professor Dershowitz Addresses the Brandeis Campus,"] streaming video and audio link (QuickTime 7), Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts January 23, 2007, accessed January 27, 2007.]

The day after the speech, on January 24, 2007, "The New York Times" reported on the program in "At Brandeis, Jimmy Carter Responds to Critics": "Questions were preselected by the committee that invited Mr. Carter, and the questioners included an Israeli student and a Palestinian student.... After Mr. Carter left, Mr. Dershowitz spoke in the same gymnasium, saying that the former president oversimplified the situation and that his conciliatory and sensible-sounding speech at Brandeis belied his words in some other interviews." [Pam Belluck, [ "Jimmy Carter Responds to Critics at Brandeis,"] "New York Times" January 24, 2007, accessed January 24, 2007.] According to David Weber, of ABC News, Carter said "that he stood by the book and its title, that he apologized for what he called an 'improper and stupid' sentence in the book [which he acknowledged seemed to justify terrorism by saying that suicide bombings should end when Israel accepts the goals of the road map to peace with Palestinians and which he had already instructed his publisher to remove from its future editions,] and that he had been disturbed by accusations that he was anti-Semitic.... [Carter] ...acknowledged...that 'Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid' has 'caused great concern in the Jewish community,' but noted that it has nonetheless prompted discussion." [David Weber, [ Carter: Book Has Prompted Discussion,"] "ABC News" January 23, 2007, accessed January 24, 2007.] [David Abel and James Vaznis, [ "Carter Wins Applause at Brandeis:] Defends Stance on Palestinians; Critic Speaks Later", "Boston Globe" January 24, 2007, accessed January 25, 2007.] An editorial published in the Waltham, Massachusetts newspaper, the "Daily News Tribune", concludes: "Carter succeeded in bringing to Brandeis a productive, civil debate." [ [ "Editorial: Carter Brings a Productive, Civil Debate,"] "Daily News Tribune" January 25, 2007, accessed January 25, 2007.] Videotaped excerpts from Carter's visit to Brandeis were featured on several national news programs in the United States, such as NBC's morning program "Today", along with follow-up interviews with him. [ "Carter on His Book's Controversy,"] "Today," NBC January 26, 2007, accessed January 26, 2007.]

As a result of the visit, major donors told Brandeis University that they will no longer give it money in "retaliation", according to Stuart Eizenstat, chief domestic policy adviser and executive director of the White House Domestic Policy Staff during Carter's presidency and a current trustee of Brandeis, as quoted in "The Jewish Week" in mid-February 2007.Larry Cohler-Esses, [ "Brandeis Donors Exact Revenge For Carter Visit:] Major Givers Reportedly Withholding Funds from School, Sparking Fierce Free-Speech Debate on Massachusetts Campus", "The Jewish Week", February 16, 2006, accessed March 23, 2007.] According to Brandeis student Kevin Montgomery, who led the Student Committee to bring Jimmy Carter to Brandeis, as also cited in the "Jewish Week", the Brandeis University Development and Alumni Relations office had expected, prior to Carter's visit, to lose $5 million due to the visit.

"Man from Plains": Documentary feature film by Jonathan Demme

According to the "Boston Globe", Jonathan Demme "has been filming Carter for three months to compile footage for a documentary about the former president's book and Carter's efforts to increase debate on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict."Farah Stockman, [ "Carter Film Maker Faults Brandeis,"] "Boston Globe" January 20, 2007, accessed January 20, 2007.] "Time Out London" reports that the film, tentatively entitled "He Comes in Peace" but re-titled "Man from Plains", "follows the former President as he takes part in a book tour across America to publicise his new tome, 'Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid'."Chris Tilly, [ "Demme 'Comes in Peace',"] "The Time Out Movie Blog: This Week's Top Stories from the Movie World" (TOMB), "Time Out London" December 5, 2006, accessed January 23, 2007.] Borys Kitt and Nicole Sperling, [ "Demme Helms Docu on Carter for Participant"] , "The Hollywood Reporter" December 6, 2006, accessed May 3, 2007. Cf. Nick Paumgarten, [ "Jimmy Carter Aloft"] , "The New Yorker" December 11, 2006, accessed May 3, 2007.] While it granted camera access to members of the news media for their broadcasts, Brandeis University refused Demme's request to film Carter's January 2007 speech for the end of the film, citing logistical and legal considerations. "Man From Plains" debuted at the Toronto International Film Festival on September 10, 2007. [ "Man from Plains" Jonathan Demme"] , Toronto International Film Festival official website "film schedules", accessed September 10, 2007.]

Carter Center conversation

On February 22, 2007, former President Jimmy Carter participated in a "conversation" about "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid" with former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright at the Carter Center, moderated by Conflict Resolution Program Director Matthew Hodes. The event became sold out in early January 2007. [" [ Conversations at the Carter Center 2006-2007] ", accessed December 24, 2006. (Free admission, RSVP required.) (Updated; accessed January 11, 2007: "This event is sold out.")] The event was simultaneously webcast in the Carter Center's online "multi-media" section, and the Center's website now includes a direct link to the "archived webcast." [" [ Palestine Peace Not Apartheid] ", "Carter Center", RealPlayer media file (Updated), accessed February 25, 2007.]

George Washington University visit

On 8 March 2007 George Washington University hosted a visit by Carter during which he discussed his book. According to Beth Schwartzapfel, in her report published in "The Forward", a group of Jewish students led by Robert Fishman, executive director of the campus , dominated the microphones, preventing other students from asking their own questions, while asking questions critical of Carter prepared, forwarded, and distributed to them in advance by faculty and students at Emory University as if they were their own questions:quotation|

The sheet distributed to students listed five questions. Among the issues raised were Carter’s refusal to debate Harvard Law School professor Alan Dershowitz and former U.S. Middle East negotiator Dennis Ross; continuing Palestinian violence in Gaza; Carter’s assertion that Israel did not accept Clinton’s peace proposal; whether donations from the Saudi royal family explains [sic] the failure of the Carter Center to criticize human rights abuses in Saudi Arabia, and Carter’s decision to use the word “apartheid” in his book’s title.
One of the students involved in distributing the handout, Aviva Berman, said that four of the five questions came directly from a list prepared by Deborah Lipstadt and other professors at Emory University, prior to Carter’s appearance at the school’s campus in Atlanta. "When Carter came to speak at Emory, they had those questions made up, so they just forwarded them to me", she told the Forward.Beth Schwartzapfel, [ "Hillel Director, Students Defend Tactics at Carter Speech"] , "The Jewish Daily Forward", March 22, 2007, accessed March 22, 2007.]

Schwartzapfel also cites " [a] video of the event, posted to the G.W. Web site, [which] shows that Carter received several standing ovations and long stretches of applause." [For the video of the event posted on server of George Washington University, see [ Jimmy Carter speech and Q&A] , RealPlayer video clip, March 8, 2007, accessed March 22, 2007.] "But", Schwartzapfel continues, "an Associated Press story that ran immediately after the event characterized the audience as 'polite but mostly critical,'" adding: "Jack Stokes, an A.P. spokesman, told the Forward that the article’s description of the audience 'was based on [reporter Barry] Schweid’s observation of the speech, as well as the subsequent Q&A Carter engaged in with the students. The A.P. story stands as written.'"

Schweid observes:

Schwartzapfel reports, however:quotation|

Brian Hennessey, vice president of the Vineeta Foundation, which is making a documentary on Carter, alleged to the Forward that he witnessed G.W. Hillel director Robert Fishman and several Jewish students conspiring to control the Q&A session. According to Hennessey, a handout was distributed with negative questions and then the students strategically grabbed the seats closest to the microphones. Hennessey said that he overheard people in the group saying that the point of their strategy was to make sure that Carter, whose book, "Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid", faced only tough questions.
In the end, most of the eight questions fielded by Carter at the March 8 event took a pro-Israel tack in challenging the former president. Four of the students read their questions off of the sheet distributed beforehand.

Fishman told the Forward, Schwartzapfel reports further:"'You know how we did it, honestly?...We said, "Let’s sit near the microphones." They each had a copy of the questions, and then they stood on line.'" Yet, she adds: "Hennessey asserted that the maneuver ended up influencing media coverage of the event. 'This small group successfully outgunned the microphones and managed to give some journalists this totally erroneous impression that that was how the student body felt about Carter,' he said." Whereas "Hennessey, who described Carter’s book as 'very courageous,' contended that the G.W. students 'very successfully stood up and blocked anyone else from asking a question,'" Schwartzapfel continues:quotation|

Berman insisted that she and her fellow pro-Israel students did nothing wrong. It wasn’t his [Fishman's] group’s responsibility "to let other people ask questions", he said. "If they wanted to get to the microphone quicker, they could have."
Fishman also rejected the assertion that the students’ tactics were improper.
"There was nothing done in there to stop anyone from asking questions", Fishman said. "It’s important that, when you have that many people in the room who may not be familiar with the Israeli-Palestinian situation, those people have the opportunity also to hear those areas that are questionable in the book."
In that sense, Fishman said, his group’s approach "is what dialogue is about."

University of Iowa visit

Pointing out that "The former president rarely speaks about his book at universities. He says he’s been invited to more than 100 campuses, but he's only visited five," Claire Keller reports that, during his public appearance at the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, on April 18, 2007, [ "University of Iowa News Release"] , press release, University of Iowa, April 11, 2007, accessed June 12, 2007 (provides related links).] Carter stated: " 'I wrote this book to describe the plight of the Palestinians and because I'm convinced we desperately need debate about where we are and where we ought to be going, and how to rejuvenate the non-existent peace process in the Middle East' ... [and that] Carter says the book's objective is permanent peace for Israel and its neighbors," adding: "It’s something the former president says he’s dedicated his entire adult life to."Claire Kellett, [ "Jimmy Carter Visits Iowa City"] , KCRG, April 18, 2007, updated April 19, 2007, accessed June 11, 2007.]

While Kellett states that "Many in attendance applaud his efforts," she also provides the following qualification: "But others criticize the author, claiming his book contains factual errors and misstatements. Members of the local Jewish community say it's simply one-sided." She quotes Tali Ariav of the Hillel Jewish Student Center on the Iowa campus, who stated: "'I am an Israeli so of course I served in the military, so I feel emotionally involved, but I feel every person, every American, every thinker needs to think twice about Carter's opinion, because it's not right' ..." Nevertheless, Keller adds: "Carter adamantly defends the accuracy of his book, saying he wrote every word himself."

University of California, Irvine visit

After being "greeted with thunderous applause" ("Event Synopsis"), on May 3, 2007, former President Jimmy Carter presented a lecture and participated in a discussion relating to the book, in association with the Center for Citizen Peacebuilding, Department of Political Science, at the University of California, Irvine. [ "Jimmy Carter" (index)] , University of California, Irvine, May 3, 2007, accessed June 12, 2007. (Menu incl. links to "Event Transcript & Questions Submitted for Former President Carter", video and audio, and other related links.)] According to an account by the Associated Press presented on Federal News Radio, "Former President Jimmy Carter urged students at a Southern California university with a history of strained relations between Jewish and Islamic groups to set differences aside and work together to find solutions. ... 'I'd like to see the leaders form a combined group and take my invitation to go to Palestine and see what's going on for yourselves,' Carter told a crowd of about 3,300 students and faculty ... 'If you take me up on it, I'll raise the money to pay for your trip,' he said ... reiterat [ing] his belief that Palestinians 'are being persecuted horribly.' "Associated Press, [ "Jimmy Carter Visits Calif. Campus"] , Federal News Radio, 1050AM (WFED), May 4, 2007, accessed June 12, 2007.] See|#Public and other programs by Jimmy Carter pertaining to the book

ee also

*"Man from Plains"
*Israel and the apartheid analogy
*Arab-Israeli conflict
*Carter Center
*Israeli-Palestinian conflict
*Israeli-Palestinian peace process
*Israeli West Bank barrier



Book excerpts

* [ "Contents"] : "Table of Contents" featured by Simon and Schuster (Canada).
**Appendices [with added links to corresponding Wikipedia articles]
# U.N. Resolution 242, 1967
# U.N. Resolution 338, 1973
# Camp David Accords, 1978
# Framework for Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty, 1978
# U.N. Resolution 465, 1980
# Arab Peace Proposal, 2002
# Israel's Response to the Roadmap, May 25, 2003
* [ Excerpt: Chapter 17: "Summary."] Featured by publisher Simon and Schuster and
*" [ Palestine Peace Not Apartheid] ". Simon and Schuster book description. (Links to Audiobook and Podcast.)
**" [ Palestine Peace Not Apartheid] ". Simon and Schuster audiobook read by Jimmy Carter. (Inc. links to clip from audiobook and to related information about Carter and his other published books.)
**" [ SimonSays Weekly Podcast] " featured book. Simon and Schuster. November 16, 2006. Accessed May 6, 2007. (Introd. to excerpts from audiobook read by Carter.)

Book reviews

* [ "Editorial reviews."] Features excerpts from three book reviews, rpt. from "Publishers Weekly", "Booklist" (Hooper), and "The Washington Post" (Goldberg). Accessed January 25, 2007. ["Number 6" in sales as of last date of access; also links to "customer reviews" and a forum.] (Updated.)] (Response by Carter in "Speaking Frankly.") [Revised by by January 22, 2007, to include also "An Interview with President Jimmy Carter", along with "Summary" excerpt from Chap. 17.]
*Bard, Mitchell. [ "Carter's Calumny: A Review of 'Palestine Peace Not Apartheid' by Jimmy Carter"] . "Jewish Virtual Library" ("A Division of the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise"). Copyright 2007. Accessed May 3, 2007.
*Bronner, Ethan. [ "Jews, Arabs and Jimmy Carter"] . "New York Times Book Rev." January 7, 2007. Accessed January 7, 2007. (Commentary by O'Connor and letters to the editor in #News accounts, editorials, and letters by others.)
*Brown, L. Carl. [ Book rev. of "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid"] . "Foreign Affairs" (March/April 2007). Accessed May 4, 2007.
*Fishman, Joel. [ "The 1930s: Déjà Vu All Over Again"] . "Jewish Political Studies Review" 19.3-4 (Fall 2007). Rpt. on the website of the "Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs" September 2007. Accessed September 11, 2007. (Dr. Fishman is "a fellow of the JCPA and chairman of the Foundation for the Research of Dutch Jewry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. ... carrying out research on political warfare, particularly media warfare and propaganda.")
*Foxman, Abraham H.. [ "Judging a Book by Its Cover and Its Content:] A Review of "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid" by Jimmy Carter (Simon & Schuster, November 2006)." "Anti-Defamation League" November 13, 2006. Accessed January 8, 2007.
*Garber, Stephanie. [ "Jimmy Carter's Rant: Anti-Israel Allegations Are the Focus of Former President's Book."] "Cleveland Jewish News" n.d. (copyright 2006). Accessed February 4, 2007.
*cite news|title = What Would Jimmy Do?|publisher = Washington Post|last = Goldberg|first = Jeffrey|date= 2006-12-10|accessdate=2006-12-15|url = Rpt. in " (Commentary in news report by Paul in #Protests and boycotts related to the book and its reception.)
*Hardy, Henry Edward. [ "Jimmy Carter's Middle East Peace Plan."] "Electric Current" (Washtenaw County's Entertainment Monthly) February 2007. Accessed February 14, 2007.
*Hooper, Brad. Review of "Palestine Peace, Not Apartheid". Booklist (American Library Association) October 15, 2006. Accessed January 19, 2007. (Excerpt rpt. on
*Ross, Dennis. [ "Don't Play With Maps"] "The New York Times" January 9, 2007. Accessed February 25, 2007.
* [ Review of "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid] ". "Publishers Weekly" November 27, 2005. Accessed January 26, 2007. (Excerpt rpt. on
* [ "Roundup of Commentary on Jimmy Carter's Book."] Online posting. CAMERA. December 6, 2006. Accessed December 26, 2006.
*Shehadeh, Raja. [ "Fresh Debate on Israel's West Bank Policies"] . "California Literary Review" December 19, 2006. Accessed May 4,2007.
*Stein, Kenneth W. [ "My Problem with Jimmy Carter's Book."] "Middle East Quarterly" 14.2 (Spring 2007). (12 pages.) A publication of the "Middle East Forum".

Related opinion-editorials and interviews by Jimmy Carter

* [ "Carter on His Book's Controversy."] "Today". NBC. Broadcast January 26, 2007. Accessed January 26, 2007. (Video clip; contains excerpts from interviews with Carter and from his Brandeis University speech of Jan. 23, 2007.)
* [ "An Interview with Jimmy Carter."] Online posting. January 18, 2007. Accessed January 22, 2007.
* [ Interview with Jimmy Carter] . Rush transcript. "Larry King Live". CNN November 27, 2006. Accessed December 23, 2006.
* [,,1970058,00.html "Israel, Palestine, Peace and Apartheid:] Americans Need to Know the Facts about the Abominable Oppression of the Palestinians." London "Guardian" December 12, 2006. Accessed December 23, 2006. Rpt. from "The Los Angeles Times" of December 8, 2006.
* [ "Jimmy Carter Issues Letter to Jewish Community] on "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid", 15 December 2006: A Letter to Jewish Citizens of America." Press release. "Carter Center" December 15, 2006. Accessed December 24, 2006. (Reply by the Anti-Defamation League in "An Open Letter to Jimmy Carter", by Lewy and Foxman.)
* [ "Last Word: Jimmy Carter:] Revisiting 'Apartheid'." Interview with Jimmy Carter regarding "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid" published in "Newsweek" and featured by MSNBC.
* [,0,7999232.story?coll=la-home-commentary "Speaking Frankly about Israel and Palestine."] "Los Angeles Times" December 8, 2006, Op-Ed. Accessed December 23, 2006. Rpt. in the London "Guardian" on December 12, 2006.
* [ "Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid"] : Jimmy Carter in His Own Words." Interview conducted by Amy Goodman. "Democracy Now!" November 30, 2006. Accessed December 23, 2006. Incl. audio link to interview and "rush transcript."
*Postman, David. [ "An Interview with Former President Jimmy Carter"] . "The Seattle Times" December 13, 2006, Local News. Accessed May 4, 2007.
* [ "Reiterating the Keys to Peace."] "Boston Globe" December 20, 2006, Op-Ed. Accessed December 23, 2006.

Public and other programs by Jimmy Carter pertaining to the book

* [ Brandeis News: Full coverage of the Historic Jan. 23rd Visit by Former President Jimmy Carter."] Online posting. "Brandeis University". [ "President Carter Addresses the Brandeis Campus Followed by Professor Dershowitz Addresses the Brandeis Campus.] Real streaming video and audio link (QuickTime 7). Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts. January 23, 2007. ("Please note: QuickTime version 7 is required to see the video. If you do not have a previous version, you may get audio only.") January 24, 2007. Accessed January 27, 2007. Alternative "multimedia" resource link: [ Jimmy Carter speech] at Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, January 23, 2007. Accessed February 23, 2007.
*Clark, Carol. [ "Carter Defends Mideast Book at News-making Town Hall"] , "The Emory Report", Emory University, March 5, 2007. Accessed May 4, 2007.
*" [ Conversations at the Carter Center 2006-2007] ". February 22, 2007. Accessed December 24, 2006. (Free admission, RSVP required.) (Updated; accessed January 11, 2007: "This event is sold out.") The event was simultaneously webcast in the Carter Center's online "multi-media" section, and the Center's website now includes a direct link to the "archived webcast" of " [ Palestine Peace Not Apartheid] " (RealPlayer media file). (Updated; accessed February 25, 2007.)
* [ "Emory Organizes Series on Middle East"] , The Emory Wheel, April 4, 2007.
* [ "Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter Speaks at GW, March 8] : President Carter's Speech About the Middle East and His Book Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid is the Third Lecture in GW Elliott School of International Affairs' Middle East". [ Jimmy Carter speech and Q&A] . Streaming RealAudio video. George Washington University. March 8, 2007. Accessed March 22, 2007.
* [ "Jimmy Carter" (index)] . University of California, Irvine. May 3, 2007. Accessed June 12, 2007. (Menu incl. links to "Event Transcript & Questions Submitted for Former President Carter", video and audio, and other related links.)
*Millman, Sierra. [ "A Campus Divided Over Israel:] Professors at Brandeis Worry about Academic Freedom, While the University's President Talks about Academic Responsibility". "Chronicle of Higher Education" March 23, 2007: A8-10. Accessed March 19, 2007.
* [ "News: President Carter Answers More of Your Questions."] "The Brandeis Hoot" (Brandeis University's Community Newspaper) February 2, 2007. Accessed February 2, 2007.
*Prepose, David. [ "Front Page: Students Accept Carter Challenge."] "The Brandeis Hoot" (Brandeis University's Community Newspaper) February 2, 2007. Accessed February 2, 2007.
*Schwartzapfel, Beth. [ "Hillel Director, Students Defend Tactics at Carter Speech"] . "The Jewish Forward", March 22, 2007. Accessed March 22, 2007.
*Schweid, Barry (Associated Press). [ "Carter Defends Gaza Theory at GWU Speech"] . "The Washington Post" March 8, 2007. Accessed March 22, 2007.
* [ Web Extra: President Carter Talks at Brandeis] . WBZ-TV (Boston, Massachusetts). Online posting of video report on Carter's speech and its reception, incl. some filmed excerpts from the speech and interviews with students after it. "" January 23, 2007. Accessed January 25, 2007. (Searchable archive; page 6 of 2332 on date accessed.) See also "Carter on His Book's Controversy" in "Related opinion-editorials and interviews by Jimmy Carter" listed above.
* [ "University of Iowa News Release"] . Press release. University of Iowa April 11, 2007. Accessed June 12, 2007. (Provides links relating to the lecture, including one to [ "The Honorable Jimmy Carter"] , on the University Lecture Committee website.)

News accounts, editorials, and letters by others

*Abel, David. [ "Brandeis Is Urged to Bring In Carter:] Dozens Petition for Him to Speak". "Boston Globe" December 26, 2006. Accessed January 3, 2007.
*Ahmad, Firas. [ "How Jimmy Carter is Saving Israel"] . "Islamica Magazine" January 2007. Accessed February 20, 2007.
*–––, and James Vaznis. [ "Carter Wins Applause at Brandeis:] Defends Stance on Palestinians; Critic Speaks Later". "Boston Globe" January 24, 2007. Accessed January 25, 2007.
*Abramowitz, Alan, David R. Blumenthal, Sander Gilman, Herbert R. Karp, Harvey Klehr, Melvin Konner, Howard I. Kushner, Deborah E. Lipstadt, Andre J. Nahmias, Raymond F. Schinazi, and Donald G. Stein ("11 Emory professors"). [ "What's Jimmy Carter Afraid Of?"] "The Emory Wheel" February 16, 2007, editorial. Accessed March 22, 2007.
*Associated Press. [ "Carter Explains Apartheid Reference in Letter to US Jews"] . "International Herald Tribune" December 15, 2006. Accessed May 4, 2007. (Updates Bluestein.)
*Axelbank, Rachel L. [ "Carter apologizes for condoning terrorism:] President's speech receives standing ovation for '213' retraction". "Jewish Advocate" January 26, 2007. Accessed June 22, 2008.
*Bluestein, Greg, for the Associated Press. [ "Carter Defends His Book's Criticism of Israeli Policy"] . Online posting. "" December 8, 2006. Accessed December 24, 2006. (Updated by Associated Press.) [Outdated link previously verified); [ cached version] , accessed May 4, 2007.]
*Bosman, Julie. [ "Carter View of Israeli 'Apartheid' Stirs Furor"] . "New York Times" December 12, 2006. Accessed March 28, 2008.
*Cohen, Patricia. [ "Essay Linking Liberal Jews and Anti-Semitism Sparks a Furor"] . "New York Times" January 31, 2007. Accessed January 31, 2007. (Para. 4 mentions Carter's book "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid" as a context of recent controversy.)
* [ "Editorial: Carter Brings a Productive, Civil Debate"] . "Daily News Tribune" January 25, 2007. Accessed January 25, 2007.
*Findley, Paul. [ "Carter Enters Lions' Den:] Despite Criticism, His Book Is Work of a True Patriot". "Chicago Tribune" February 7, 2007, Editorials. Accessed February 9, 2007.
*Goodman, Brenda, and Julie Bosman. [ "Former Aide Parts with Carter over Book"] . "New York Times" December 7, 2006, Arts. Accessed March 28, 2008.
*Kelly, John. [ "The Middle East: Are Critics of Israel Stifled?"] "The Atlanta Journal-Constitution" December 17, 2006. Accessed December 26, 2006. [Full text accessible now via searchable archive (fee-based).]
*Kirk, Mark. [ "Peace Not Apartheid: More Fiction than Facts"] . "Congressional Record" (The United States House of Representatives), article 51, January 18, 2007. Accessed May 5, 2007.
* [ Letters to the Editor.] "The New York Times Book Review" January 28, 2007. Accessed January 31, 2007. Incl. letters about the book rev. by Bronner.
*Lewy, Glen S., and Abraham H. Foxman, [ "An Open Letter to Jimmy Carter"] . Press release. Online posting, "Anti-Defamation League" December 20, 2006. Accessed January 21, 2007. (Reply to "A Letter to Jewish Citizens of America", by Jimmy Carter.)
*Lipstadt, Deborah. [ "Jimmy Carter's Jewish Problem"] . "Washington Post" January 20, 2007:A23. Accessed January 20, 2007.
*Northam, Jackie. [ "Jimmy Carter's Book Stirs Criticism, Complaint"] . "Day to Day". National Public Radio December 11, 2006. Accessed January 13, 2007. (NPR audio for RealPlayer and Windows Media Player).
*O'Connor, Patrick. [ "Blind New York Times Continues Attacks on Carter] ". "Z Magazine" (part of "Z Communications") January 8, 2007. Accessed January 8, 2007. (Commentary on Bronner in #Book reviews.)
*Oren, Michael B. [ "A Religious Problem: Jimmy Carter's Book: An Israeli View"] . "The Wall Street Journal" December 26, 2006, Editorial, online posting in Accessed January 21, 2007.
*Postman, David. [ "Jimmy Carter Says Christians, Pro-Israel Lobby, Stifle Middle East Debate Here"] . "The Seattle Times" December 13, 2006, Postman on Politics (blog). Accessed May 4, 2007. [Incorporates and includes link to "full interview".]
*Richman, Rick. [ "The World According to Jimmy Carter"] . "American Thinker" November 14, 2006. Accessed March 10, 2007.
*Ross, Dennis. [ "Don't Play with Maps"] . "The New York Times" January 9, 2007, op-ed. Accessed February 26, 2007.
*Stockman, Farah. [ "Carter Film Maker Faults Brandeis"] . "Boston Globe" January 20, 2007. Accessed January 20, 2007.
*Tilly, Chris. [ "Demme 'Comes in Peace'"] . "The Time Out Movie Blog: This Week's Top Stories from the Movie World" (TOMB), "Time Out London" December 5, 2006. Accessed January 23, 2007.
*Weber, David. [ Carter: Book Has Prompted Discussion"] . "ABC News" January 23, 2007. Accessed January 24, 2007.
*Zelkowitz, Rachel. [ "Professor Describes Carter 'Inaccuracies'"] . "The Emory Wheel" December 12, 2006. Accessed January 12, 2007.

Further reading

*Abunimah, Ali. "One Country: A Bold Proposal to End the Israeli-Palestinian Impasse". New York: Metropolitan Books, 2006. ISBN 0-805-08034-1 (10). ISBN 978-080-508034-6 (13).
*Foxman, Abraham H. "Never Again? The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism". New York: HarperSanFrancisco (an imprint of Harper Collins), 2003. ISBN 0-060-54246-2 (10). ISBN 978-006-054246-7.
*Konner, Melvin. "Unsettled: An Anthropology of the Jews". Rpt. New York: Viking Adult, 2003. ISBN 0-670-03244-1 (10). ISBN 978-067-003244-0 (13).
*Ross, Dennis. "The Missing Peace: The Inside Story of the Fight for Middle East Peace". Rpt. paperback ed. 2004; New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2005. ISBN 0-37452980-9 (10). ISBN 978-037-452980-2 (13).
*Traub, James. [ "Does Abe Foxman Have an Anti-Anti-Semite Problem?"] "New York Times Magazine" January 14, 2007: 30-35. Accessed January 14, 2007 online; January 18, 2007 in print.
*Troy, Gil. "Why I Am a Zionist: Israel, Jewish Identity and the Challenges of Today". 3rd ed. 2001; Montreal: Bronfman Jewish Education Centre, 2006. ISBN 1-552-34648-X (10). ISBN 978-155-234648-8 (13).

External links

* [ Carter Q&A: Carter Question Blog] hosted by Brandeis University faculty and students about the book pursuant to the Brandeis University visit by Jimmy Carter. Answers by Carter. Also presents links to transcript of Carter's opening remarks, books, and media coverage. (Registration required for participation.)
*imdb title|title=He Comes in Peace|id=0913958. Documentary film by Jonathan Demme focusing on Jimmy Carter's book tour for "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid". Expected release date is 2008.

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