Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross-section. The two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes is its ability to create very complex cross-sections and work materials that are brittle, because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. It also forms finished parts with an excellent surface finish.cite book |last= Oberg |first= E. |coauthors= et al. |title= Machinery's Handbook |edition= 25th ed. |year= 1996 |publisher= Industrial Press Inc. |pages= 1348-1349]
Extrusion may be continuous (theoretically producing indefinitely long material) or semi-continuous (producing many pieces). The extrusion process can be done with the material hot or cold.
Commonly extruded materials include
metals, polymers, ceramics, and foodstuffs.
Joseph Bramahpatented the first extrusion process for making lead pipe. It involved preheating the metal and then forcing it through a die via a hand driven plunger. The process wasn't developed until 1820 when Thomas Burr constructed the first hydraulic powered press. At this time the process was called squirting. In 1894, Alexander Dick expanded the extrusion process to copper and brass alloys.Drozda, pp. 13-11 & 13-12.]
The process begins by heating the stock material. It is then loaded into the container in the press. A dummy block is placed behind it where the ram then presses on the material to push it out of the die. Afterwards the extrusion is stretched in order to straighten it. If better properties are required then it may be
heat treated or cold worked.
Hot extrusion is done at an elevated temperature to keep the material from
work hardeningand to make it easier to push the material through the die. Most hot extrusions are done on horizontal hydraulic presses that range from 250 to 12,000 tons. Pressures range from 5,000 to 100,000 psi, therefore lubrication is required, which can be oil or graphite for lower temperature extrusions, or glass powder for higher temperature extrusions. The biggest disadvantage of this process is its cost for machinery and its upkeep.
The extrusion process is generally economical when producing between several pounds and many tons, depending on the material being extruded. There is a crossover point where rolling becomes more economical. For instance, some steels become more economical to roll if producing more than 50,000 lb.
Cold extrusion is done at room temperature or near room temperature. The advantages of this over hot extrusion are the lack of oxidation, higher strength due to
cold working, closer tolerances, good surface finish, and fast extrusion speeds if the material is subject to hot shortness.
Materials that are commonly cold extruded include: lead, tin, aluminum, copper, zirconium, titanium, molybdenum, beryllium, vanadium, niobium, and steel.
Examples of products produced by this process are: collapsible tubes,
fire extinguishercases, shock absorbercylinders, automotive pistons, and gear blanks.
Warm extrusion is done above room temperature, but below the recrystallization temperature of the material. It is usually used to achieve the proper balance of required forces, ductility and final extrusion properties.
There are many different variations of extrusion equipment. They vary by four major characteristics:
# Movement of the extrusion with relation to the ram. If the die is held stationary and the ram moves towards it then its called "direct extrusion". If the ram is held stationary and the die moves towards the ram its called "indirect extrusion".
# The position of the press, either vertical or horizontal.
# The type of drive, either hydraulic or mechanical.
# The type of load applied, either conventional (variable) or
A single or twin screw auger, powered by an electric motor, or a ram, driven by hydraulic pressure (often used for steel and titanium alloys), oil pressure (for aluminum), or in other specialized processes such as rollers inside a perforated drum for the production of many simultaneous streams of material.
There are several methods for forming internal cavities in extrusions. One way is to use a hollow billet and then use a fixed or floating
mandrel. A fixed mandrel, also known as a German type, means it is integrated into the dummy block and stem. A floating mandrel, also known as a French type, floats in slots in the dummy block and aligns itself in the die when extruding. If a solid billet is used as the feed material then it must first be pierced by the mandrel before extruding through the die. A special press is used in order to control the mandrel independently from the ram. The solid billet could also be used with a spider die, porthole die or bridge die. All of these types of dies incorporate the mandrel in the die and have "legs" that hold the mandrel in place. During extrusion the metal divides and flows around the legs, leaving weld lines in the final product. [Drozda, p. 13-21.]
Typical extrusion presses cost more than $100,000, whereas dies can cost up to $2000.
Direct extrusion, also known as forward extrusion, is the most common extrusion process. It works by placing the billet in a heavy walled container. The billet is pushed through the die by a ram or screw. There is a reusable dummy block between the ram and the billet to keep them separated. The major disadvantage of this process is that the force required to extrude the billet is greater than that need in the indirect extrusion process because of the frictional forces introduced by the need for the billet to travel the entire length of the container. Because of this the greatest force required is at the beginning of process and the slowly decreases as the billet is used up. At the end of the billet the force greatly increases because the billet is thin and the material must flow radially to exit the die. The end of the billet, called the butt end, is not used because of this reason.Drozda, p. 13-13.]
In indirect extrusion, also known as backwards extrusion, the billet and container move together while the die is stationary. The die is held in place by a "stem" which has to be longer than the container length. The maximum length of the extrusion is ultimately dictated by the column strength of the stem. Because the billet moves with the container the frictional forces are eliminated. This leads to the following advantages:Drozda, p. 13-14.]
*A 25 to 30% reduction of friction, which allows for extruding larger billets, increasing speed, and an increased ability to extrude smaller cross-sections
*There is less of a tendency for extrusions to crack because there is no heat formed from friction
*The container liner will last longer due to less wear
*The billet is used more uniformly so extrusion defects and coarse grained peripherals zones are less likely.
The disadvantages are:
*Impurities and defects on the surface of the billet affect the surface of the extrusion. These defects ruin the piece if it needs to be
anodized or the aesthetics are important. In order to get around this the billets may be wire brushed, machined or chemically cleaned before being used.
*This process isn't as versatile as direct extrusions because the cross-sectional area is limited by the maximum size of the stem.
In the hydrostatic extrusion process the billet is completely surrounded by a pressurized liquid, except where the billet contacts the die. This process can be done hot, warm, or cold, however the temperature is limited by the stability of the fluid used. The fluid can be pressurized two ways:
#"Constant-rate extrusion": A ram or plunger is used to pressurize the fluid inside the container.
#"Constant-rate extrusion": A pump is used, possibly with a pressure intensifier, to pressurize the fluid, which is then pumped to the container.
The advantages of this process include:
*No friction between the container and the billet reduces force requirements. This ultimately allows for faster speeds, higher reduction ratios, and lower billet temperatures.
*Usually the ductility of the material increases when high pressures are applied.
*An even flow of material.
*Large billets and large cross-sections can be extruded.
*No billet residue is left on the container walls.
The disadvantages are:
*The billets must be prepared by tapering one end to match the die entry angle. This is needed to form a seal at the beginning of the cycle. Usually the entire billet needs to be machined to remove any surface defects.
*Containing the fluid under high pressures can be difficult.
Most modern direct or indirect extrusion presses are hydraulically driven, but there are some small mechanical presses still used. Of the hydraulic presses there are two types: direct-drive oil presses and accumulator water drives.
Direct-drive oil presses are the most common because they are reliable and robust. They can deliver over 5000 psi (34.5 MPa). They supply a constant pressure throughout the whole billet. The disadvantage is that they are slow, between 2 and 8 ips (51 to 203 mm/s).Drozda, p. 13-16.]
Accumulator water drives are more expensive and larger than direct-drive oil presses, plus they lose about 10% of their pressure over the stroke, but they are much faster, up to 15 ips (381 mm/s). Because of this they are used when extruding steel. They are also used on materials that must be heated to very hot temperatures for safety reasons.
Hydrostatic extrusion presses usually use castor oil at pressure up to 200 ksi (1380 MPa). Castor oil is used because it has good lubricity and high pressure properties. [Drozda, p. 13-20.]
*Surface cracking - When the surface of an extrusion splits. This often caused by the extrusion temperature, friction, or speed being too high. It can also happen at lower temperatures if the extruded product temporarily sticks to the die.
*Pipe - A flow pattern that draws the surface oxides and impurities to the center of the product. Such a pattern is often cause by high friction or cooling of the outer regions of the billet.
*Internal cracking - When the center of the extrusion develops cracks or voids. These cracks are attributed to a state of hydrostatic tensile stress at the centerline in the deformation zone in the die. (A similar situation to the necked region in a tensile stress specimen.)
Metals that are commonly extruded include: [Drozda, pp. 13-15 & 16.]
Aluminiumis the most commonly extruded material. Aluminium can be hot or cold extruded. If it is hot extruded it is heated to 575 to 1100 °F (300 to 600 °C). Examples of products include profiles for tracks, frames, rails, mullions, and heat sinks.
Copper(1100 to 1825 °F (600 to 1000 °C)) pipe, wire, rods, bars, tubes, and welding electrodes. Often more than 100 ksi (690 MPa) is required to extrude copper.
Leadand tin(maximum 575 °F (300 °C)) pipes, wire, tubes, and cable sheathing. Molten lead may also be used in place of billets on vertical extrusion presses.
Magnesium(575 to 1100 °F (300 to 600 °C)) aircraft parts and nuclear industry parts. Magnesium is about as extrudable as aluminum.
Zinc(400 to 650 °F (200 to 350 °C)) rods, bar, tubes, hardware components, fitting, and handrails.
Steel(1825 to 2375 °F (1000 to 1300 °C)) rods and tracks. Usually plain carbon steelis extruded, but alloy steel and stainless steelcan also be extruded.
Titanium(1100 to 1825 °F (600 to 1000 °C)) aircraft components including seat tracks, engine rings, and other structural parts.
Magnesium and aluminium alloys usually have a 30 μin. RMS or better surface finish. Titanium and steel can achieve a 125 μin. RMS.
In 1950, Ugine Séjournet, of
France, invented a process which uses glass as a lubricant for extruding steel. [Citation | last = Bauser | first = Martin | last2 = Sauer | first2 = Günther | last3 = Siegert | first3 = Klaus | title = Extrusion | publisher = ASM International | page = 270 | year = 2006 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=9NnDQ0oJFLEC | isbn = 087170837X] The Ugine-Sejournet, or Sejournet, process is now used for other materials that have melting temperatures higher than steel or that require a narrow range of temperatures to extrude. The process starts by heating the materials to the extruding temperature and then rolling it in glass powder. The glass melts and forms a thin film, 20 to 30 mils (0.5 to 0.75 mm), in order to separate it from chamber walls and allow it to act as a lubricant. A thick solid glass ring that is 0.25 to 0.75 in (6 to 18 mm) thick is placed in the chamber on the die to lubricate the extrusion as it is forced through the die. A second advantage of this glass ring is its ability to insulate the heat of the billet from the die. The extrusion will have a 1 mil thick layer of glass, which can be easily removed once it cools.Citation | last = Avitzur | first = B. | contribution = Metal forming | year = 1987 | title = Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology | volume = 8 | pages = 80-109 | place = San Diego | publisher = Academic Press, Inc..]
Another breakthrough in lubrication is the use of phosphate coatings. With this process, in conjunction with glass lubrication, steel can be cold extruded. The phosphate coat absorbs the liquid glass to offer even better lubricating properties.
Plastic extrusion commonly uses plastic chips or pellets, which are usually dried in a hopper before going to the feed screw. The polymer resin is heated to molten state by a combination of heating elements and shear heating from the extrusion screw. The screw forces the resin through a die, forming the resin into the desired shape. The extrudate is cooled and solidified as it is pulled through the die or water tank. In some cases (such as fibre-reinforced tubes) the extrudate is pulled through a very long die, in a process called pultrusion.
A multitude of polymers are used in the production of plastic tubing, pipes, rods, rails, seals, and sheets or films.
Ceramic can also be formed into shapes via extrusion.
Terracottaextrusion is used to produce pipes. Many modern bricks are also manufactured using a brick extrusion process. [ [http://www.umich.edu/~bricks/brickwebsite/setting_drying/setting_drying_intro.htm Brick manufacturing process] ] Some Play-Dohtoy products also make use of the extrusion process.
Extrusion has found great application in food processing. Products such as
pastas, breakfast cereals, Fig Newtons, prefab cookie dough, Sevai, Idiappam, jalebiand ready-to-eat snacks are now manufactured by extrusion. Krispy Kreme doughnuts are also manufactured by extrusion to keep the doughnuts uniform in shape and size. Softer foods such as meringuehave long been "piped" using pastry bags. Extrusion is also used with grains such as wheat, corn, and rice.In feed industry it is used for process with floating and slow sinking feed.
Extrusion through nano-porous, polymeric filters is being used to manufacture suspensions of lipid vesicles
liposomes or Transfersomes for use in pharmaceutical products. The anti-cancer drug Doxorubicinin liposomedelivery system is formulated by extrusion, for example.
The following guidelines should be followed to produce a quality extrusion. The maximum size for an extrusion is determined by finding the smallest circle that will fit around the cross-section (called the circumscribing circle). This diameter, in turn, controls the size of the die required, which ultimately determines if the part will fit in a given press. For example, a larger press can handle 25 inch diameter circumscribing circles for aluminium and 22 in. diameter circles for steel and titanium.
Thicker sections generally need an increased section size. In order for the material to flow properly legs should not be more than ten times longer than their thickness. If the cross-section is asymmetrical, adjacent sections should be as close to the same size as possible. Sharp corners should be avoided; for aluminium and magnesium the minimum radius should be 1/64 in. and for steel corners should be 0.030 in. and
fillets should be 0.125 in. The following table lists the minimum cross-section and thickness for various materials.
Equal channel angular extrusion
*Citation | last = Drozda | first = Tom | last2 = Wick | first2 = Charles | last3 = Bakerjian | first3 = Ramon | last4 = Veilleux | first4 = Raymond F. | last5 = Petro | first5 = Louis | title = Tool and manufacturing engineers handbook | publisher = SME | volume = 2 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=9ty5NPJ0UI4C | isbn = 0872631354.
*Schmid, Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Fifth Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006.
* [http://www.efunda.com/processes/metal_processing/extrusion.cfm eFunda Engineering Fundamentals - Extrusion]
* [http://www.aec.org/assets/pdfs/AATolerancesTable_Jul2006.pdf Extrusion cross-sectional tolerances]
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