- White Russia
"White Russia" ( _be. Белая Русь ~ _en. White Ruthenia) is a name that has historically been applied to various regions in
Eastern Europe, most often to that which roughly corresponds to present-day Belarus. In English, the use of "White Russia" to refer to Belarus is dated. Many other languages, however, continue to use a literal translation of "White Russia" to refer to Belarus. Because the term " White Russian" has the alternative (and potentially confusing) meanings of the post-Russian Revolution, anti-Communist White movementor White emigre- with perceived Russian imperialismthat came with them - some people in Belarus consider the name "White Russia" to be derogatory.
Meaning of the name and its translation
The name "White Russia" is a literal, although not entirely correct translation of the names "Belaya Rus" (Белая Русь). The problem with this translation is that the name "White Russia" seems to suggest that this territory is related to the present-day
Russian Federation, whereas it has nothing to do with the Russian Federation, but is related to the ancient lands of Ruthenia(or "Rus’"—see also Etymology of Rus and derivatives).
Ruthenia is the latinized version of Kievan Rus’, a 9th to 12th-century state that existed in the territories of modern-day Belarus,
Ukraine, and part of western Russiaand eastern Poland.
Although Belarus translates to "White Russia" in many modern languages for historic reasons (starting from Russian "Belorussiya" and most Germanic languages), the equation of "Rus’" and "Russia" is controversial today and is disputed by a number of historians. Many Belarusians rankle at its implications on their national self-determination, particularly in the light of
imperial Russian and Sovietrhetoric calling for the reunification of "one indivisible Russia".
Conversely, in some languages there is a clear distinction between the two words ("Russia" and the ancient "Rus"). For example:
German language, the usual name for the state of Belarusstill today is "Weißrussland" (White Russia). In official use (e.g. by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs), the name "Belarus" is often preferred. However, even the German Chancellor Angela Merkelused the term "Weißrussland" in her speech to the European Council Summit in March 2007.
Many other variants of this name appeared in ancient maps: for instance, "Russia Alba, Russija Alba, Wit Rusland, Weiss Reussen, White Russia, Hvite Russland, Hvíta Rússland, Weiss Russland, Ruthenia Alba, Ruthenie Blanche" and "Weiss Ruthenien" (Weißruthenien), assigned to various territories, often quite distant from that of present Belarus. For example, at one time the term was applied to
Only by the late 16th century did it become a name for the area of the present Belarus. Until this time and for a long time afterwards the population of this territory (
Belarusians) were known as Litvins(i.e., Lithuanians), by the name of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, into which the land had been integrated since the 13th - 14th centuries, or as Ruthenians, by the name of the Ruthenian state which this area used to belong to.
The origins of the name are somewhat unclear, but it may have had its origins in the efforts made by Russia's
tsars to distinguish themselves from their predecessors in Romeand Byzantium (on the basis that Russia was the " Third Rome"). The " Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii" by Sigismund von Herbersteinexplains that the Muscovite rulers wore white robes to distinguish themselves from the purple of the Roman rulers and the red of the Byzantines. The Russian Tsar was thus called the "White Tsar": "Sunt qui principem Moscovuiae Album Regem nuncupant. Ego quidem causam diligenter quaerebam, cur Regis Albi nomine appellaretur", or "Weisse Reyssen oder weissen Khünig nennen etliche unnd wöllen damit ain underscheid der Reyssen machen" (from "Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii").
The Tsar himself was often called the "Great White Tsar", while he included among his official titles the style (literal translation): "The Sovereign of all Rus': the Great, the Little, and the White". This appellation, together with the solemn wording "White Tsardom", was in use till the very end of the
Russian Empire. Ultimately, this colour was transferred onto the name of the counter-revolutionary White Army that fought against the Red Army.
Alternatively, it may have its origins in the four colored
cardinal directions used in many central Asian cultures, where "white" is an indicator for "west".
It is noteworthy that some other peoples have been referred to by colour. There have been White, Red and Black
Croats( White Croatsand White Croatiawere in today's Croatia, western Bosnia and Herzegovinaand in south-east Polandand western Ukraine, beyond the Carpathians; Red Croatsand Red Croatiawere in today's south-eastern Bosnia and Herzegovinaand southern Montenegro, and in area beyond the Don river; Black Croatsin today's north-east Czech Republic); White Serbs in today's East Germany. In the People's Republic of ChinaRed, Black, and Green Miao are known.
There is also a region historically known as
Black Ruthenia(Black Russia, "Чорная Русь"). It covers Northwestern lands of modern-day Belarus: Hrodna, Slonim, Navahrudak, Vaukavysk, and partly Minskregion.
Etymology of Rus and derivatives
White Russians (Russian Civil War)(this old-Russia-wide notion is unrelated to the topic of this article)
Color metaphors for race
* [http://www.pravapis.org/art_belarus_name.asp The 21 Names of Belarus]
* [http://www.pravapis.org/art_white_russia.asp Why is the Russia White?]
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