TLR 2

TLR 2

TLR-2 is a biomolecule, which plays a role in the human immune system. TLR-2 is a membrane protein, a receptor, which is expressed on the surface of certain cells and recognizes native or foreign substances, and passes on appropriate signals to the cell and/or the nervous system.

TLR-2 is a member of a large family of homologous Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLR2 has also been designated as CD282 (cluster of differentiation 282).

Impact

TLR-2 is a membrane receptor found at the surface of immune system cells that recognises many bacterial, fungal, viral and endogenous substances. Phagocytosis of bound materials takes place in endosome/phagosome and a cellular activation, so that the elements of the innate immune system take over such as macrophages, PMN and dendritic cells tasks of the nonspecific immune defense, B1a and form MZB first anti-bodies and uses in the process the specific anti-body formation. Here cytokine is involved e.g. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF α) and different interleukins (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12). Before TLRs were discovered, some of the materials specified below were grouped under the term so-called "Moduline". By that rather Th1 appropriate cytokine pattern is seen in most experimental models an immune deviation this way, away of the Th2-expression. Conjugates are developed as vaccines or already used without a priori knowledge.

One only 2006 recognized characteristic is the expression of the TLR-2 on the Tregs (special form of the T-cells), which is brought equally to TCR determined proliferation and functional inactivity. Thereby, a disinhibition of the early inflammation phase and the specific anti-body formation is reached. After reduction of the exciter number many exciter-specific Tregs are present, which, now without TLR-2-Signal, become active and the specific like the inflammatory immune reaction to restrain (see also TGF beta, Interleukin 10). Older literature, which attributes a direct immune stimulation effect over TLR-2 to a given substance, must be interpreted under circumstances that the used TLR-2-knockouts has regularly quite few Tregs.

Functionally relevant polymorphism is described, which reduced to a function restriction and thus usually survival rate with infections/sepsis with Gram-positive bacteria leads in particular.

The signal transduction is represented in the article toll-like receptor.

Expression

TLR-2 is expressed on microglia, Schwann cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, B-cells (B1a, MZB, B2), T-cells including regulatory T cells (CD4, CD25). TLR-2 is likewise in the epithelium of the bronchial tube and the alveoli.

Agonists

Further reading

PBB_Further_reading
citations =
*cite journal | author=Aderem A, Ulevitch RJ |title=Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response. |journal=Nature |volume=406 |issue= 6797 |pages= 782–7 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10963608 |doi= 10.1038/35021228
*cite journal | author=Muzio M, Polentarutti N, Bosisio D, "et al." |title=Toll-like receptor family and signalling pathway. |journal=Biochem. Soc. Trans. |volume=28 |issue= 5 |pages= 563–6 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11044375 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Hallman M, Rämet M, Ezekowitz RA |title=Toll-like receptors as sensors of pathogens. |journal=Pediatr. Res. |volume=50 |issue= 3 |pages= 315–21 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11518816 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Dziarski R, Gupta D |title=Role of MD-2 in TLR2- and TLR4-mediated recognition of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and activation of chemokine genes. |journal=J. Endotoxin Res. |volume=6 |issue= 5 |pages= 401–5 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11521063 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Lien E, Ingalls RR |title=Toll-like receptors. |journal=Crit. Care Med. |volume=30 |issue= 1 Suppl |pages= S1–11 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11782555 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Xu D, Komai-Koma M, Liew FY |title=Expression and function of Toll-like receptor on T cells. |journal=Cell. Immunol. |volume=233 |issue= 2 |pages= 85–9 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15950961 |doi= 10.1016/j.cellimm.2005.04.019
*cite journal | author=Lorenz E |title=TLR2 and TLR4 expression during bacterial infections. |journal=Curr. Pharm. Des. |volume=12 |issue= 32 |pages= 4185–93 |year= 2007 |pmid= 17100621 |doi=

PBB_Controls
update_page = yes
require_manual_inspection = no
update_protein_box = yes
update_summary = no
update_citations = yes


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • TLR-2 — Masse/Länge Primärstruktur 784 Aminosäuren …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • TLR 1 — is a member of the Toll like receptor family (TLR) of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system.cite journal | author = Rock FL, Hardiman G, Timans JC, Kastelein RA, Bazan JF | title = A family of human receptors structurally… …   Wikipedia

  • Tlr — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. {{{image}}}   Sigles d une seule lettre   Sigles de deux lettres > Sigles de trois lettres …   Wikipédia en Français

  • TLR — TLR: TLR  Двухобъективная зеркальная камера TLR  Толл подобные рецепторы Список значе …   Википедия

  • TLR 3 — is a member of the Toll like receptor family of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Discovered in 2001,cite journal | author = Alexopoulou L, Holt AC, Medzhitov R, Flavell RA | title = Recognition of double stranded RNA and …   Wikipedia

  • TLR — ist eine Abkürzung für folgende Begriffe: Air Libya, libysche Fluggesellschaft (ICAO Code) Toll like Receptor, ein Bestandteil des angeborenen Immunsystems Tonischer Labyrinth Reflex, ein frühkindlicher Reflex bei Säuglingen Twin Lens Reflex,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • TLR — (three letter acronym) acronym composed of three letters (Internet Slang) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • TLR — The three letter abbreviation TLR can mean * Teaching and Learning Responsibility a category for the award of supplementary pay in teachers salaries in England* Toll like receptors, proteins constituting an important part of the immune system *… …   Wikipedia

  • TLR 7 — Toll like receptor 7, also known as TLR7, is an immune gene possessed by humans and other mammals and additionally in avian species. PBB Summary section title = summary text = The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll like receptor …   Wikipedia

  • TLR 4 — Toll like receptor 4, also known as TLR4, is a human gene. TLR 4 is a toll like receptor. It detects lipopolysaccharide on Gram negative bacteria and is thus important in the activation of the innate immune system. TLR4 has also been designated… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”