- United States Air Force Research Laboratory
Infobox Military Unit
unit_name= Air Force Research Laboratory
caption=Emblem of AFRL
branch= Air Force
type= Research and development
size= 4,200 civilian
Air Force Materiel Command
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio
commander1= [http://www.af.mil/bios/bio.asp?bioID=4640 Maj Gen Curtis Bedke]
commander2= [http://www.af.mil/bios/bio.asp?bioID=7722 Joe Sciabica]
commander2_label= Executive Director
commander3= [http://www.wpafb.af.mil/library/biographies/bio.asp?id=10136 Col David Glade]
commander3_label= Vice-CommanderThe United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is a scientific research organization operated by the
United States Air ForceMateriel Command dedicated to the development of warfighting technologies.cite web | url=http://www.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=148 | title=Factsheets : Air Force Research Laboratory | accessdate=2008-06-20 | author=US Air Force | publisher=AFRL] It controls the entire Air Force science and technology research budget which was $2.4 billion in 2006. [cite web | url=http://www.dodig.osd.mil/Audit/reports/FY07/07130sum.htm | title=Contracting Practices at Air Force Laboratory Facilities | author=Department of Defense Inspector General | publisher=Department of Defense | date=2007-09-28 | accessdate=2008-07-13]
The Laboratory was formed at
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohioon October 31, 1997as a consolidation of four Air Force laboratory facilities (Wright, Phillips, Rome, and Armstrong) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under a unified command. The Laboratory is composed of 8 technical directorates, 1 wing, and the Office of Scientific Research. Each technical directorate emphasizes a particular area of research within the AFRL mission which it specializes in performing experiments in conjunction with universities and contractors.
Since the Laboratory's formation in 1997, it has conducted numerous experiments and technical demonstrators in conjunction with
NASA, Department of Energy National Laboratories, DARPA, and other research organizations within the Department of Defense. Notable projects include the X-37, X-40, X-53, HTV-3X, YAL-1A, Advanced Tactical Laser, and the Tactical Satellite Program.
* Leading the discovery, development and integration of affordable aerospace warfighting technologies;
* Planning and executing the Air Force science and technology program;
* Provide warfighting capabilities to United States air, space and cyberspace forces.
The path to a consolidated Air Force Research Laboratory began with the passage of the
Goldwater-Nichols Actwhich was designed to streamline the use of resources by the Department of Defense. [cite web | url=http://www.ndu.edu/library/goldnich/S2295.pdf | title=S. 2295. Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 | format=PDF | date=1986-04-08 | accessdate=2008-07-14 | author=United States Congress | publisher=99th Congress, Second Session] In addition to this Act, the end of the Cold Warbegan a period of budgetary and personnel reductions within the armed forces in preparation for a "stand-down" transition out of readiness for a global war with the Soviet Union. [cite book | last=Duffner | first=Robert | title=Science and technology: the making of the Air Force Research Laboratory | year=2000 | publisher=Air University Press | location=Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama | isbn=1-58566-085-X | pages=pg 9 | url=http://aupress.maxwell.af.mil/Books/Duffner/Duffner.pdf | accessdate=2008-07-13 | ref=Duffner00] Prior to 1990, the Air Force laboratory system spread research out into 13 different laboratories and the Rome Air Development Center which each reported up two separate chains of command: a product center for personnel, and the Air Force Systems CommandDirector of Science & Technology for budgetary purposes. [ Duffner 2000: 18] Bowing to the constraints of a reduced budget and personnel, the Air Force merged the existing research laboratories into four "superlabs" in December 1990. [ Duffner 2000: 11] During this same time period, the Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Commandmerged to form Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) in July 1992. [cite web | url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_action=doc&p_docid=0F5051FDF45145BF&p_docnum=1 | title=New Era Taking Off at Wright-Pat: Materiel Command Startup a Key to Realignment | accessdate=2008-07-20 | last=Gaffney | first=Timothy R. | publisher=Dayton Daily News]
While the initial consolidation of Air Force laboratories reduced overhead and budgetary pressure, another push towards a unified laboratory structure came in the form of the
National Defense Authorization Actfor Fiscal Year 1996, Section 277. This section instructed the Department of Defense to produce a five-year plan for consolidation and restructuring of all defense laboratories. [cite web | url=http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/F?c104:1:./temp/~c104esp577:e180701: | title=S.1124 National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, Section 277 | author=United States Congress | publisher=104th Congress, Second Session | accessdate=2008-07-14] The currently existing laboratory structure was created in October 1997through the consolidation of Phillips Laboratory headquartered in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Wright Laboratory in Dayton, Ohio, Rome Laboratory (formerly Rome Air Development Center) in Rome, New York, and Armstrong Laboratory in San Antonio, Texasand the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). [ Duffner 2000: 117] The single laboratory concept was developed and championed by Maj Gen Richard Paul, then Director of Science & Technology for AFMC and Gen Henry Viccellio Jr, then Commander, AFMC. [ Duffner 2000: 38]
With the merger of the laboratories into a single entity, the history offices at each site ceased to maintain independent histories and all history functions were transferred to a central History Office located at AFRL HQ at Wright-Patterson AFB. [ Duffner 2000: 257] In homage to the predecessor laboratories, the new organization named four of the research sites after the laboratories and assured that each laboratories' history would be preserved as inactivated units. [ Duffner 2000: 261]
The laboratory is divided into 8 Technical Directorates, one wing, and the Office of Scientific Research based on different areas of research. AFOSR is primarily a funding body for external research while the other directorates perform research in-house or under contract to external entities.
A directorate is roughly equivalent to a military wing. Each directorate is composed of a number of divisions and typically has at least three support divisions in addition to its research divisions. [ Duffner 2000: 190] The Operations and Integration Division provides the directorate with well-conceived and executed business computing, human resource management, and business development services while the Financial Management Division manages the financial resources and the Procurement Division provides an in-house contracting capability. [ Duffner 2000: 227-251] The support divisions at any given location frequently work together to minimize overhead at any given research site. Each division is then further broken down into branches, roughly equivalent to a military
Superimposed on the overall AFRL structure are the eight detachments. Each detachment is composed of the AFRL military personnel at any given geographical location. [ Duffner 2000: 262] For example, the personnel at Wright-Patterson AFB are all part of Detachment 1. Each detachment will typically also have a unit commander separate from the directorate and division structure.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research
The Office of Scientific Research, located in
Arlington, Virginia, invests in basic research efforts for the Air Force by funding investigation in areas relevant scientific areas. This work is performed in cooperation with private industry, academia, and other organizations in the Department of Defense and AFRL Directorates. The current Director of AFOSR is Brendan Godfrey.cite web | url=http://www.wpafb.af.mil/afrl/bios.asp | title=Air Force Research Laboratory Biographies | accessdate=2008-07-12 | author=US Air Force | publisher=AFMC]
AFOSR's research is organized into three scientific directorates: the Aerospace, Chemical, and Material Sciences Directorate; the Mathematics, Information, and Life Sciences Directorate; and the Physics and Electronics Directorate. [cite web | url = http://www.wpafb.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=8131 | title = AFOSR Fact Sheet | accessdate=2008-06-22 | author=US Air Force | publisher=AFRL] Each directorate funds research activities which it believes will enable the technological superiority of the Air Force.
AFOSR also maintains two foreign technology offices located in
London, United Kingdomand Tokyo, Japan. These overseas offices coordinate with the international scientific and engineering community to allow for better collaboration between the community and Air Force personnel.cite web | url=http://www.wpafb.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=9492 | title=Factsheets : AFOSR : About - Mission | accessdate=2008-06-22 | author=US Air Force | publisher=AFRL]
Air Vehicles Directorate
The Air Vehicles Directorate, located at Wright-Patterson AFB, has the mission of developing technologies that support cost-effective and survivable aerospace vehicles capable of accurate and quick delivery of a variety of future weapons or cargo anywhere. The current Director is Col John Wissler.
The Directorate has previously collaborated with
NASAin the X-24 project to research concepts associated with lifting bodytype aircraft. [cite book | last=Reed | first=R. Dale | title=Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story | month=June | year=1997 | publisher=National Aeronautics and Space Administration | isbn=0-16-049390-0 | pages=pp. 129-143 | ref=Reed97] The X-24 was one of a series of experimental aircraft, including the M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, and HL-20, by NASA and Air Force programs to develop the lifting body concept into maturity. The tests conducted during these programs led to the choice of an unpowered landing for the Space Shuttle program. [ Reed 1997: 128]
In 2002, the Directorate initiated the
X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wingprogram in cooperation with NASA's Dryden Flight Research Centerand Boeing Phantom Worksto research ways to make more efficient use of the wing's planformduring high-speed maneuvers. [cite web | url=http://www.boeing.com/news/frontiers/archive/2002/may/i_pw.html | title=Let's Twist Again! : Technology that enables wing 'warping' rolled out at Dryden | accessdate=2008-06-29 | last=Cole | first=William | work=Boeing Frontiers Online | publisher=Boeing]
The Directorate is also a collaborator with
DARPA, the U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, Sandia National Laboratoriesand AFRL's Space Vehicles Directorate on the FALCON program, which includes the HTV-3X Blackswift hypersonicflight demonstration vehicle. [cite web | url=http://www.space.com/businesstechnology/060126_darpa_falcon.html | title=Air Force Plans Flight Tests Of Hypersonic Vehicle | last=David | first=Leonard | publisher=Space.com | date=2006-01-26 | accessdate=2008-07-20] The Air Vehicles Directorate also collaborated with NASA and Boeingon the initial work for the X-37B Orbital Test Vehicle and the 80% scaled version, X-40A Space Maneuver Vehicle, prior to the classification of the program and its transfer from NASA to DARPA in late 2004. [cite web | url=http://www.space.com/news/061117_x27b_otv.html | title=U.S. Air Force Pushes For Orbital Test Vehicle | last=David | first=Leonard | date=2006-11-17 | accessdate=2008-07-19 | publisher=Space.com] The X-37 program is now managed by the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office.
Directed Energy Directorate
In addition to serving as the Air Force's Center of Excellence for high power microwave technology, the Directed Energy Directorate is also the Department of Defense's Center of Expertise for laser development of all types. The current Director is Susan Thornton.
Starfire Optical Rangeat Kirtland AFB, North Oscura Peakon White Sands Missile Range, and the Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing observatory(AMOS) are also operated by divisions of the Directed Energy Directorate in addition to their facilities at the Directorate's headquarters at Kirtland AFB. The Starfire Optical Range is used to research various topics of advanced tracking using lasers as well as studies of atmospheric physics which examines atmospheric effects which can distort laser beams. [cite web | url=http://www.engadget.com/2006/06/28/starfire-optical-range-a-death-ray-for-sciences-sake/ | title=Starfire Optical Range -- a death ray for science's sake | accessdate=2008-07-20 | last=Miller | first=Paul | date=2006-06-28 | publisher=Engadget] North Oscura Peak is used to research the various technologies necessary to facilitate successful tracking and destruction of an incoming missile via a laser and is used frequently for laser-based missile defense tests. [cite web | url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/oscura.htm | title=Oscura Range | author=GlobalSecurity.org | publisher=GlobalSecurity.org | accessdate=2008-07-19] AMOS provides space observation capabilities and computational resources to AFRL, the Department of Defense and other agencies of the US Government. [cite web | url=http://www.fas.org/spp/military/program/track/amos.htm | title=Air Force Maui Optical Station | author=Federation of American Scientists | accessdate=2008-07-19]
Directed Energy projects typically fall into two categories:
laserand microwave. Laser projects range from completely non-lethal targeting lasers to dazzlers, such as the Saber 203used by US forces during the Somali Civil Warand the more recent PHaSR dazzler,cite web | url=http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn8275 | title=US military sets laser PHASRs to stun | accessdate=2008-07-02 | last=Knight | first=Will | date=2005-11-07 | publisher=New Scientist] to powerful missile defense lasers such as the chemical oxygen iodine laser(COIL) used in the YAL-1A project now led by the Missile Defense Agency. [cite web | url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/systems/abl.htm | title=Airborne Laser | accessdate=2008-07-17 | author=GlobalSecurity.org | publisher=GlobalSecurity.org] A continuation of the Airborne Laser experiment is also being conducted in the form of the Advanced Tactical Laser, which is a Special Forces demonstrator project to mount a COIL system in a tactical AC-130 gunship. [cite web | url=http://www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2004-06/advanced-tactical-laser | title=Advanced Tactical Laser | date=2004-06-01 | accessdate=2008-07-17 | last=Adams | first=Eric | publisher=Popular Science] Microwave technologies are being advanced for use against both electronics and personnel. One example of an anti-personnel microwave project is the "less-than-lethal" Active Denial Systemwhich uses high powered microwaves to penetrate less than a millimeter into the target's skin where the nerve endings are located. [cite web | url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1540562/US-unveils-%27heat-gun%27.html | accessdate=2008-07-17 | title=US unveils 'heat gun' | last=Hooper | first=Duncan | publisher=Daily Telegraph | date=2007-01-26]
Going back as far as 1995, there were arguments that laser dazzlers could potentially cause permanent blindness in targets and these same concerns were revived with the announcement of the PHaSR project which is claimed to be a non-blinding laser weapon. Due to concerns that even low-powered lasers could cause blindness, the
Human Rights Watchproposed that all tactical laser weapons should be scrapped and research stopped by all interested governments. [cite web | url=http://www.hrw.org/reports/1995/Us2.htm | title=U.S. Blinding Laser Weapons | accessdate=2008-07-05 | year=1995 | month=May | work=Human Rights Watch Arms Project | publisher=Human Rights Watch] The Active Denial System has also been the target of Amnesty Internationalas well as, less directly, a United Nationsspecial rapporteur as being a potential weapon of torture. [cite web | url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2006/oct/05/guardianweeklytechnologysection | title=Targeting the pain business | accessdate=2008-07-05 | date=2006-10-05 | publisher=The Guardian | last=Wright | first=Steve]
711th Human Performance Wing
March 2008, AFRL's Human Effectiveness Directorate located at Wright-Patterson AFB was merged with the Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine and the Human Performance Integration Directorate from the 311th Human Systems Wingboth located at Brooks City-Base, Texas to form the 711th Human Performance Wing. [cite web | url=http://www.bizjournals.com/dayton/stories/2008/01/28/daily19.html | title=$230M of construction headed to Wright-Patt | author=Dayton Business Journal | date=2008-01-30 | accessdate=2008-07-26] In its vision statement, the wing includes the goals of improving aerospace medicine, science and technology, and human systems integration. The current Director of the 711th is Thomas Wells. One practical application of its work is ensuring and advancing the safety of ejection systems for pilots.cite web | url=http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA286991 | title=Air Force Research Laboratories Success Stories: A Review of 1997/1998 | format=PDF | author=US Air Force | publisher=AFRL | accessdate=2008-07-13 | month=March | year=1999] With the increasing number of females in the Air Force ranks, anthropometry is of greater import now than ever, and 711th's WB4 'whole-body scanner' enables swift and accurate acquisition of anthropometric data which may be used to design pilot equipment with a better fit for comfort and safety. [cite web | url=http://www.cyberware.com/news/newsletters/newsletter06.html | title=Wright-Patterson to Use the First Whole Body Scanner | accessdate=2008-07-13 | author=Cyberware]
The mission of the Information Directorate, located at the Rome Research Site in New York, is to lead the discovery, development, and integration of affordable warfighting information technologies for air, space, and cyberspace forces. The current Director of the Information Directorate is Donald Hanson.
The Information Directorate has contributed research to a number of technologies which have been deployed in the field. These projects include collaboration with other agencies in the development of
ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet, as well as technologies used in the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System which is a key aspect of theater command and control for combat commanders.cite web | url=http://www.wpafb.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-080416-042.ppt | title=AFRL Information Directorate Overview | accessdate=2008-06-22 | author=US Air Force | format=PPT | publisher=AFRL] The Directorate also collaborated with the Department of Justice performing research on voice stress analysistechnologies. [cite web | url=http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/193832.pdf | title=Integration and Evaluation of Voice Stress Analysis Technology | accessdate=2008-07-20 | date=2002-02-13 | last=Haddad | first=Darren | coauthors=et al | format=PDF | publisher=Office of Justice Programs]
Materials and Manufacturing Directorate
The Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, located at Wright-Patterson AFB and
Tyndall AFB, develops materials, processes, and advanced manufacturing technologies for aerospace systems and their components to improve Air Force capabilities in these areas. The current Director is David Walker.
In 2003, the Directorate announced a new manufacturing method for use producing the turbine exhaust casing for the F119 jet engine used on the
F-22 Raptorstealth fighter which will result in an estimated savings of 35% of the cost while also improving the durability. [cite web | url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/systems/f119.htm | title=F119-PW-100 | author=GlobalSecurity.org | accessdate=2008-07-20 | publisher=GlobalSecurity.org] In collaboration with Lockheed Martin Aeronautics, the Directorate helped develop a new laser-based ultrasonic scanner to inspect composite parts also for use on the F-22. [cite web | url=http://www.lockheedmartin.com/news/press_releases/1998/LockheedMartinConstructingLaserUltr.html | title=Lockheed Martin Constructing Laser Ultrasonics Center at Tactical Aircraft Systems Plant | last=Lamberton | first=Lance | date=1998-04-28 | accessdate=2008-07-20 | publisher=Lockheed Martin] The Directorate also developed an advanced thermoplasticcomposite material for use in the landing geardoors on the F-22. In 2008, the Air Force announced that the Directorate had developed a method of using fabric made of fiber optic material in a friend or foe identification system. [cite web | url=http://www.foxnews.com/wires/2008Feb20/0,4670,FriendlyFiber,00.html | title=Clothing IDs Friends for Military | last=Hannah | first=James | publisher=Associated Press | date=2008-02-20 | accessdate=2008-07-20]
The mission of the Munitions Directorate, located at
Eglin AFB, Florida, is to "develop, demonstrate and transition science and technology for air-launched munitions for defeating ground fixed, mobile/relocatable, air and space targets to assure pre-eminence of U.S. air and space forces." The current Director of the Munitions Directorate is Col Kirk Kloeppel.
Notable projects which have been made public include the
GBU-28"bunker-buster" bomb which debuted during the 1991 Persian Gulf War in Iraqand took only 17 days from concept to first deployment. [cite web | url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/gbu-28.htm | title=Guided Bomb Unit-28 | publisher=GlobalSecurity.org | author=GlobalSecurity.org | accessdate=2008-07-21] The Directorate also developed the GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast bombwhich was deployed during the 2003 invasion of Iraq for Operation Iraqi Freedomand was the largest non-nuclear air-delivered munitions at that time. [cite web | url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/moab.htm | title=GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast Bomb | author=GlobalSecurity.org | accessdate=2008-07-18 | publisher=GlobalSecurity.org]
The mission of the Propulsion Directorate, located at Wright-Patterson AFB and
Edwards AFB, is "to create and transition propulsion and power technology for military dominance of air and space." The current Director of the Propulsion Directorate is William Borger. Research areas range from experimental rocket propulsion to developing the first ever lithium-ion main aircraft battery for use in the B-2 stealth bomber. [cite web | url=http://www.space.com/businesstechnology/technology/mer_batteries_030903.html | title=From Bombers to Mars: Rover Batteries Based on Air Force Research | last=Malik | first=Tariq | date=2003-09-03 | accessdate=2008-07-20 | publisher=Space.com] At Edwards AFB, the Directorate's test area is located east of Rogers Lake.
The Propulsion Directorate was formed through the merger of the aerospace propulsion section at Wright Laboratory and the space propulsion section at Phillips Laboratory. [ Duffner 2000: 169] Each section, both before and after the merger, has played a significant role in past and present propulsion systems. Prior to the development of Project Apollo by NASA, the Air Force worked on the development and testing of the F-1 rocket engine used to power the
Saturn Vrocket. [cite web | url=http://www.stormingmedia.us/cat/sub/subcat136-3.html | title=Huge Rocket Component Test Stand Completed | author=California Space Authority | date=2004-01-14 | accessdate=2008-07-18] The facilities for testing rockets are frequently used for testing new rocket engines including the RS-68rocket engine developed for use on the Delta IVlaunch vehicle. [cite web | url=http://www.thefreelibrary.com/ROCKET+LAB+MAY+BENEFIT+FROM+RENEWED+INTEREST+IN+MISSILES+EDWARDS...-a079092149 | title=Rocket Lab May Benefit From Renewed Interest In Missiles Edwards Facility Has Been Involved In Most Major Propulsion Projects | last=Skeen | first=Jim | date=2001-08-13 | accessdate=2008-07-18 | publisher=Los Angeles Daily News] The space propulsion area also develops technologies for use in satellites on-orbit to alter their orbits. An AFRL-developed experimental Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX) arcjet was flown on the ARGOS satellite in 1999 as part of the Air Force Space Test Program. [cite web | url=http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/1999/news_release_990106a.html | title=ARGOS Satellite Serves as Platform for Leading-Edge Technology and Research | author=Boeing | date=1999-01-06 | accessdate=2008-07-18]
The Directorate currently manages the X-51A program, which is developing a
scramjetdemonstration vehicle. [cite web | url=http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2007/q2/070601a_nr.html | title=Successful Design Review and Engine Test Bring Boeing X-51A Closer to Flight | accessdate=2008-06-14 | author=Boeing | date=2007-06-01] The X-51 program is working to develop a flight demonstrator for a hypersonic cruise missilewhich could reach anywhere on the globe in an hour. [cite web | url=http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/military_law/4203874.html | title=Hypersonic Cruise Missile: America's New Global Strike Weapon | year=2007 | month=January | last=Shachtman | first=Noah | publisher=Popular Mechanics] In January 2008, the Directorate used a modified Scaled CompositesLong-EZ aircraft to demonstrate that a pulse detonation enginecould successfully power flight. [cite web | url=http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2008/03/05/222008/us-afrl-proves-pulse-detonation-engine-can-power-aircraft.html | title=US AFRL proves pulse-detonation engine can power aircraft | accessdate=2008-07-19 | last=Warwick | first=Graham | publisher=Flightglobal] That aircraft has now been transferred to the National Museum of the U.S. Air Forceat Wright-Patterson AFB for display.
The mission of the Sensors Directorate, located at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio,
Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts, and Rome Research Site, New York, is to provide a full range of air and space sensors, networked to the warfighter, providing a complete and timely picture of the battlespace enabling precision targeting of the enemy and protection friendly air and space assets and its core technology areas include: radar, active and passive electro-optical targeting systems, navigation aids, automatic target recognition, sensor fusion, threat warning and threat countermeasures. The current Director is David Jerome. The divisions currently located at Hanscom AFB and Rome Research Site are scheduled to move to Wright-Patterson AFB under the Defense Base Realignment and Closure, 2005Commission.cite web | url=http://www.brac.gov/docs/final/Volume1BRACReport.pdf | title=2005 Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission Report: Volume 1 | last=Principi | first=Anthony J. | coauthors=et al | accessdate=2008-07-16 | date=2005-09-08]
The Directorate has contributed significantly to the
Integrated Structure is Sensor(ISIS) project managed by DARPA which is a project to develop a missile tracking airship. [cite web | url=http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/AFRL_Awards_ISIS_Contracts_To_Northrop_Grumman.html | title=AFRL Awards ISIS Contracts To Northrup Grumman | date=2006-05-22 | accessdate=2008-07-11 | author=Staff Writers | publisher=Space Daily] In June 2008, the Air Force announced that scientists working for the Sensors Directorate had demonstrated transparent transistors. These could eventually be used to develop technologies such as "video image displays and coatings for windows, visors and windshields; electrical interconnects for future integrated multi-mode, remote sensing, focal plane arrays; high-speed microwave devices and circuits for telecommunications and radar transceivers; and semi-transparent, touch-sensitive screens for emerging multi-touch interface technologies." [cite web | url=http://www.spacemart.com/reports/Air_Force_Scientists_Develop_Transparent_Transistors_999.html | title=Air Force Scientists Develop Transparent Transistors | last=Lachance | first=Molly | date=2008-06-19 | accessdate=2008-07-11 | publisher=Space Mart]
Space Vehicles Directorate
The mission of the Space Vehicles Directorate is to develop and transition space technologies for more effective, more affordable warfighter missions. In addition to the Directorate headquarters at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico and an additional research facility at Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts, the
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program(HAARP) located near Gakona, Alaskais also jointly operated by the Space Vehicles Directorate as well as DARPA, the Office of Naval Research(ONR), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and universities to conduct ionosphericresearch. [cite web | url=http://www.haarp.alaska.edu/haarp/factSheet.html | title=HAARP Fact Sheet | author=University of Alaska | accessdate=2008-07-16] The current Director is Col Bradley Smith. The Battlespace Environment division currently located at Hanscom AFB is scheduled to move to Kirtland AFB under the Defense Base Realignment and Closure, 2005Commission.
IBM RAD6000 radiation hardened single board computer, now produced by BAE Systems, was initially developed in a collaboration with the Space Electronics and Protection Branch and IBMFederal Systems and is now used on nearly 200 satellites and robotic spacecraft, including on the twin Mars Exploration Rovers—" Spirit" and " Opportunity". [cite web | url=http://www.securityfocus.com/news/7894 | title=Software on Mars rovers 'space qualified' | last=Fordahl | first=Matthew | accessdate=2008-07-16 | publisher=Associated Press | date=2004-01-23] In November 2005, the AFRL XSS-11 satellite demonstrator received Popular Science's "Best of What's New" award in the Aviation and Space category. [cite web | url=http://www.popsci.com/popsci/bown2005/aviationspace/5c1c1d15cc827010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.html | title=Experimental Satellite System 11 (XSS-11) | accessdate=2008-07-06 | archivedate=2007-05-27 | archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20061212011540/www.popsci.com/popsci/bown2005/aviationspace/5c1c1d15cc827010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.html | month=October | year=2005 | publisher=Popular Science] The Space Vehicles Directorate is also a leading collaborator in the Department of Defense Operationally Responsive Space Office's Tactical Satellite Programand served as program manager for the development of TacSat-2, TacSat-3, and is current program manager for the development of TacSat-5. [cite paper | last=Doyne | first=Col Tom | coauthors=et al | title=ORS and TacSat Activities Including the Emerging ORS Enterprise | publisher=5th AIAA Responsive Space Conference |date=2007-04-23 | url= http://www.responsivespace.com/Papers/RS5%5CSESSION%20PAPERS%5CSESSION%204%5C4001_HURLEY%5C4001P.PDF | format=PDF | accessdate=2008-07-16] They also have contributed experimental sensors to TacSat-4which is managed by the NRL's Center for Space Technology. [cite paper | last=Raymond | first=Col Jay | coauthors=et al | title=A TacSat Update and the ORS/JWS Standard Bus | publisher=3rd AIAA Responsive Space Conference | date=2005-04-26 | url=http://www.responsivespace.com/Papers/RS3%5CSESSION%20PAPERS%5CSESSION%201%5C1006-HURLEY%5C1006C.pdf | format=PDF | accessdate=2008-07-16]
University Nanosatellite Program, a satellite design and fabrication competition for universities jointly administered by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics(AIAA), AFOSR, AFRL, and the Space Development and Test Wing, is also managed by the Space Vehicles Directorate's Spacecraft Technology division. [cite web | url=http://www.vs.afrl.af.mil/UNP/index.html | title=University Nanosatellite Program | accessdate=2008-06-22 | author=US Air Force | publisher = AFRL] The fourth iteration of the competition was completed in March 2007with the selection of Cornell University's CUSat as the winner. [cite web | url=http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Cornell_University_Chosen_To_Build_Nanosat_4_Flight_Experiment_999.html | title=Cornell University Chosen To Build Nanosat-4 Flight Experiment | accessdate=2008-07-10 | author=Staff Writers | date=2007-04-04 | publisher=Space Daily] Previous winners of the competition were University of Texas at Austin's Formation Autonomy Spacecraft with Thrust, Relnav, Attitude, and Crosslink(FASTRAC) for Nanosat-3 [cite web | url=http://media.www.dailytexanonline.com/media/storage/paper410/news/2005/01/21/University/Students.Satellites.Win.Right.To.Space.Flight-837585.shtml | title=Students' satellites win right to space flight | last=Torres | first=Juliana | publisher=The Daily Texan | date=2005-01-21 | accessdate=2008-07-13] and the joint 3 Corner Satellite(3CS) project by the University of Colorado at Boulder, Arizona State Universityand New Mexico State Universityfor Nanosat-2. [cite web | url=http://threecornersat.jpl.nasa.gov/ | title=Three Corner Satellite | accessdate=2008-07-13 | author=NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory | publisher=NASA] As of | 2008 | July, only the 3CS spacecraft has launched, [web cite | url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2004/041211-delta.htm | title=Delta IV readyfor liftoff today | last=Spires | first=Shelby G. | publisher=The Huntsville Times | date=2004-12-11 | accessdate=2008-07-26] however FASTRAC has a launch tentatively scheduled for December 2009. [cite web | url=http://fastrac.ae.utexas.edu/news/archive.php?news_id=28 | title=FASTRAC Satellites Get Updated Software, New Antennas | accessdate=2008-07-15 | date=2008-06-26 | last=Clark | first=Stephen | publisher=University of Texas at Austin]
The Directorate has indirectly faced significant controversy over the HAARP project. [cite book | last=Begich | first=Nick | coauthors=Manning, Jeane | title=Angels Don't Play This HAARP: Advances in Tesla Technology | year=1995 | publisher=Earthpulse Press | isbn=0-96488-120-9] While the project claims to be developed only for studying the effects of ionospheric disruption on communications, navigation, and power systems, many suspect it of being developed as a prototype for a "Star Wars" type of weapon system. [cite book | last=Smith | first=Jerry E. | url=http://books.google.com/books?id=CfXjAR0LlTQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=HAARP+controversy | title=HAARP: The Ultimate Weapon of The Conspiracy | month=August | year=1998 | publisher=Adventures Unlimited Press | accessdate=2008-07-13 | isbn=0-93281-353-4 | pages=pp. 21-22 | ref=Smith98] Still others are more concerned with the environmental impact to migratory birds of beaming thousands of watts of power into the atmosphere. [cite web | url=http://www.popsci.com/military-aviation-space/gallery/2008-06/scientific-tool-or-weapon-conspiracy | title=Scientific Tool or Weapon of Conspiracy? | accessdate=2008-07-16 | date=2008-06-18 | last=Streep | first=Abe | publisher=Popular Science] However one thing which all sides can agree on is the shroud of secrecy around the project and the government's attempts to cover up information. [ Smith 1998: 16]
* [http://www.wpafb.af.mil/AFRL/ Air Force Research Laboratory Homepage] (official)
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