- German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee
The "Admiral Graf Spee" was one of the most famous German naval warships of
World War II, along with the "Bismarck". Her size was limited to that of a cruiserby the Treaty of Versailles, however she was as heavily armed as a battleshipdue to innovative weight-saving techniques employed in her construction.
She was sent to the Atlantic Ocean as a commerce raider in 1939, where she sank nine Allied merchant ships. Numerous British hunting groups were assigned to find her, with three British ships finally tracking her down in December 1939. The
Battle of the River Plateensued, during which the "Graf Spee" was damaged. She docked for repairs in the neutral port of Montevideo, but was forced by international law to leave within 72 hours. Faced with what he believed to be overwhelming odds, the captain scuttled his ship rather than risk the lives of his crew.
"Admiral Graf Spee" was a "
Deutschland class cruiser". Launched in 1934, she was named after the World War IAdmiral Graf Maximilian von Speewho died, along with two of his sons, in the first Battle of the Falkland Islandson 8 December 1914. She was the second vessel to be named after him, the first being the uncompleted World War IGerman battlecruiserSMS "Graf Spee".
Before "Admiral Graf Spee" was given her official name, she was referred to as "Panzerschiff C" and "Ersatz Braunschweig", as she would be replacing the old battleship "Braunschweig" in the fleet inventory. She cost 82 million Reichsmark to build.
World War I, replacement capital ships for the German Navy were limited by the Treaty of Versaillesto 10,000 tons and 11 inch (280 mm) guns.cite web|url=http://www.german-navy.de/kriegsmarine/ships/panzerschiffe/admiralgrafspee/history.html|title=Admiral Graf Spee History|publisher= Kriegsmarine|accessdate=2008-02-10] Electric arc weldingwas used in her construction instead of conventional rivets, thereby saving considerable weight by not requiring overlapping steel plates. [cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=DtJCAAAAIAAJ|title=In the Wake of the Raiders and The Merchant Navy Fights|year=1940|author=Arthur Durham Divine|publisher=E.P. Dutton & co.|accessdate=2008-02-10] Furthermore, "Graf Spee"’s eight main engines used diesel fuel, an unconventional configuration at the time that also contributed to weight saving. The weight saving allowed her carry a main gun of the same calibre as a battleship, while remaining under the displacementlimit of the Treaty of Versailles.,cite book|title=German Pocket Battleships 1939-45|author=Gordon Williamson|year=2003|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=1841765015|accessdate=2008-02-10] hence the classification by the British of her and her two sisters, "Deutschland" (later renamed "Lützow") and "Admiral Scheer", as pocket battleships. A year after the "Graf Spee"'s loss, her sisters were reclassified as heavy cruisers.
Unlike steam engines, raw low-grade bunker fuel needed treatment before it could be used in her diesel engines. A separating system routinely pre-cleaned the fuel and deposited it in six ready tanks situated close to the engines. The separators used high pressure steam produced in a boiler room lying between decks, aft of the funnel and above the armoured deck.
"Graf Spee's" last captain was
Hans Langsdorff, a longstanding naval officer who had seen action at the Battle of Jutland, [cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=yfo6jOQ0lJUC|publisher=Routledge|title=German Capital Ships and Raiders in World War II|isbn=0714652083|author=Eric Grove|year=2002|accessdate=2008-02-10] and who assumed command of the ship on 1 November 1938. After commissioning in 1936, "Admiral Graf Spee" served as fleet flagshipuntil 1938 and performed international maritime control duties off the coast of Spain during the Spanish Civil War.
Prior to the invasion of Poland plans were made to deploy the "Panzerschiffe" as raiders in the Atlantic Ocean. "Admiral Graf Spee" sailed from
Wilhelmshavenon 21 August 1939, to act as a commerce raider in the South Atlantic. [cite book|author=Leonard Charles Frederick Turner|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=fGUZAAAAIAAJ|year=1961|publisher=Oxford University Press|title=War in the Southern Oceans, 1939-45|accessdate=2008-02-10] Langsdorff plotted a course to cross major shipping lanes at night to avoid detection.Cambareri, Carmen S. "Scuttle the "Graf Spee" "United States Naval Institute Proceedings" (June 1983) pp.51-54] Supported by her supply ship, the tanker "Altmark", her orders were to sink British merchant ships, but to avoid combat with superior enemy forces, thus threatening vital Allied supply lines and drawing British naval units off their stations in other parts of the world. "Graf Spee" received orders on 26 September 1939 to "commence active participation in the trade war."
On 30 September the 5050-ton British tramp steamer "Clement"Stephen, Martin "SEA BATTLES in close-up: World War 2" Naval Institute Press (1988) ISBN 0-87021-556-6 p.13] was stopped and sunk off Brazil with twenty thousand cases of kerosene bound from New York to Salvador, Brazil. "Graf Spee" radioed the location of "Clement"s lifeboatsStephen, Martin "SEA BATTLES in close-up: World War 2" Naval Institute Press (1988) ISBN 0-87021-556-6 p.14] and "Clement"s captain and first officer were placed aboard the neutral Greek steamer "Papalemos" a few days later. "Graf Spee" stopped the 4650-ton British tramp steamer "Newton Beach" on 5 October with a cargo of maize. "Newton Beach" served as a prison ship with a prize crew until 8 October.Stephen, Martin "SEA BATTLES in close-up: World War 2" Naval Institute Press (1988) ISBN 0-87021-556-6 p.15] The 4222-ton British steamer "Ashlea" with a cargo of sugar was stopped and sunk on 7 October. The 8196-ton British liner "Huntsman" with a cargo of tea was stopped on 10 October, and became a replacement prison ship. "Graf Spee" used "Huntsman"s radio to transmit a deceptive message indicating "Huntsman" had been attacked by a submarine at a different location. "Huntsman" was sunk after transferring the prisoners to "Almark" on 17 October. "Graf Spee" machine-gunned the bridge and upper deck of the 5299-ton British steamer "Trevanion" (loaded with ore concentrates) on 22 October when that ship tried to radio a distress message.
"Graf Spee" moved into the
Indian Oceanon 28 October and sank the motor tanker "Africa Shell" (in ballast) in the Mozambique channel in 15 November. "Graf Spee" returned to the South Atlantic and sank the 10086-ton Blue Star liner "Doric Star" on 2 December with a cargo of meat, dairy products, and wool. "Doric Star" radioed a distress message; and sabotaged it's engines so it could not be taken as a prize. "Graf Spee" sank "Tairoa" with a cargo of meat, wool, and lead on 3 December after the 7983-ton steamer radioed a distress call.Stephen, Martin "SEA BATTLES in close-up: World War 2" Naval Institute Press (1988) ISBN 0-87021-556-6 p.16] The 3895-ton steamer "Streonshalh" with a cargo of wheat was sunk on 9 December. Captain Hans Langsdorffstrictly adhered to the rules of mercantile warfare at the time and saved all of the crew members of these ships; not a life was lost in these sinkings. The captured crews were transferred to the tanker "Altmark". Later, these 303 crew members were freed by force in neutral Norwegian territorial waters by the British destroyer "HMS Cossack" (the Altmark Incident).
Battle of the River Plate
Britain formed eight hunting groups in the Atlantic and one in the Indian Ocean to look for "Admiral Graf Spee", totalling three
battleships, two battlecruisers, four aircraft carriers, and 16 cruisers(including several French ships). More groups were assembled later.
On 13 December 1939, she was located by the British Hunting Group G, consisting of the 8 inch (203 mm) gunned
cruiserHMS "Exeter" and the 6 inch (152 mm) gunned light cruisers HMS "Ajax" and HMS "Achilles" (of the New Zealand Division), and the Battle of the River Plateensued. During the battle, the "Graf Spee" inflicted heavy damage upon the "Exeter", forcing the latter to break off the engagement. Later in the exchange, one of "Graf Spee"'s shells caused some casualties on the "Achilles". In return, the "Graf Spee" was hit repeatedly by the 6-inch shells of the light cruisers, which could not penetrate her armour but nonetheless inflicted significant topside damage.
On the other hand, "Exeter"’s 8-inch hits ran through the armour easily. About 06:38 an 8-inch shell penetrated two decks and exploded in "Graf Spee"’s funnel area, causing crippling internal damage.
"Exeter"’s early 8-inch hit wrecked the boiler room, shutting down the fuel-separating system. Chief Engineer Commander Klepp advised the captain they could not repair the damage at sea. Klepp estimated the ship had about sixteen hours of running time, using pre-cleaned fuel from the day tanks. They could not replace the rapidly depleting fuel, so the ship was denied the possibility of outrunning her pursuers on the open sea.
"Admiral Graf Spee" entered the neutral port of
Montevideo, Uruguayfor repairs. The damage was surveyed by a British observer on 14 December 1939, who reported that the port midship 6" gun was unserviceable, the starboardanti-aircraft guns appeared out of action, rangefinders were out of action, the aircraft was wrecked, there were shell holes in the control tower and two holes below the waterline. In total, there was evidence of 30-60 hits.cite book|title=German Capital Ships and Raiders in World War II|last=Grove|first=Eric|year=2002|publisher=Routledge|isbn=0714652083|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=yfo6jOQ0lJUC|accessdate=2008-02-10] Captain Langsdorff and the Chief Engineer carefully kept the fuel problem secret. Although the specific details were signaled to SKL in January 1940 this vital information lay buried from public knowledge for sixty years.
One of Langsdorff's first actions when he entered Montevideo was to release the 62 crew of the merchant ships he had sunk during her most recent voyage. [cite book|title=The First Three Years of the War: A Day-by-day Record|author=Harold Hobson|year=1942|publisher=Hutchinson|accessdate=2008-02-10] Out of nine merchant ships sunk, none of the crews had been killed. All of those released spoke highly of their treatment and of Langsdorff, who spoke perfect English and lent them English books to pass the time. Captain Dove of the "Africa Shell" had already become friends with Langsdorff.
Hague Conventionof 1907, the Graf Spee was not entitled to remain in the port for more than 24 hours, without risking internment. [cite book|title=International Law: A Dictionary|author=Boleslaw Adam Boczek|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=NR7mFXCB-wgC|publisher=Scarecrow Press|year=2005|isbn=0810850788|accessdate=2008-02-10] In addition, under the same convention, the Graf Spee had to give British merchant ships 24 hours start if they left port, and the British Consul organised for the merchant ships in port to sail at 24 hour intervals, effectively locking the Spee in the port whilst at the same time spreading propaganda about the vast fleet of British warships converging on the area. On 14 December, British Minister Millington-Drake officially requested that the Uruguayan government intern the ship if she stayed in port longer than 24 hours, on grounds that she was still seaworthy. The Uruguayan government obliged, announcing that if the "Graf Spee" did not sail within 72 hours of its arrival, it would be interned. On 15 December, the ship's 36 dead were buried with full military honours in the German cemetery in Montevideo. [cite book|The Battle of the River Plate|title=The Battle of the River Plate|author=Joseph Montague Kenworthy Strabolgi|year=1940|publisher=Hutchinson & Co. Ltd] At the funeral ceremony, Captain Hans Langsdorff used the naval salute, while all others around him used the Nazi salute. [cite book|title=The Drama of Graf Spee and the Battle of the Plate: A Documentary Anthology|url=http://books.google.com/books?ei=6K-dR6bkFJm-swOQnb2YCg|author=Eugen Millington-Drake|publisher=P. Davies|year=1965|accessdate=2008-02-10] Many officers of the sunk ships attended the burial of those killed in the battle.
A ruse by the British intelligence encouraged the captain to think that he was out-numbered, with
aircraft carriers and battleships on their way and that his escape route was cut off. In fact, only the "Cumberland" arrived in time to reinforce the existing ships. [cite book|title=The Third Reich Day by Day|author=Christopher Ailsby|accessdate=2008-02-11|publisher=Zenith Imprint|isbn=0760311676]
There were three possible channels that the "Graf Spee" could use in order to escape to the open sea, and the waiting British warships had to cover all of them.
Captain Langsdorff had been in discussion with the
Kriegsmarineover the various options available to him, which included fighting on, internmentat Montevideoor scuttlingthe ship. Adolf Hitlerresponded personally, writing the following in his own handwriting: [cite book|title=In the Shadow of the Hawk: An Intimate Chronicle of World War II and One Woman's Search for Meaning|author=Lester J Bartson|year=2004|publisher=University Press of Ohio|isbn=0761828699|accessdate=2008-02-10] cquote|Attempt by all means to extend time in neutral waters in order to guarantee freedom of action as long as possible. Fight your way through to Buenos Aires, using remaining ammunition. No internment at Uruguay. Attempt effective destruction of ship if scuttled.
At 6:15pm on 17 December 1939, the German warship left Montevideo harbour, with the British convert|6|in|mm|0|sing=on gunned cruisers "Ajax", "Achilles", and the convert|8|in|mm|0|sing=on gunned "Cumberland" waiting nearby in international waters. However, instead of trying to fight through the blockade, the German warship sailed just outside the harbour, and at 7:52, was scuttled in the estuary at coord|34|58|18|S|56|18|4|W|type:landmark|display=inline,title by her crew in order to avoid risking the crew in what Captain Langsdorff expected to be a losing battle. Captain Langsdorff committed suicide three days later by shooting himself, in order to prove he had not acted out of fear for his own life.Fact|date=February 2008
Part of the crew of the "Graf Spee" were interned in
Argentinawhere many stayed, even after the war ended in 1945. Since Argentina was friendlier than Uruguay, the Captain expected the crew would be released, but in the end this was not the case. Some of the crew were transferred to Montevideo, however these crew members, together with those of the German ship "Tacoma", were subsequently transferred to the "Cuartel Paso del Rey" (English: "Barracks Quarter of the Passage of the King") in "Sarandí del Yí", " Durazno" where the Military District II infantry guarded them. They remained here until transferred back to Montevideo and repatriated to Germany in 1946. Numerous objects pertaining to the "Graf Spee" remain at the "Cuartel Paso del Rey" museum in "Sarandí del Yí". [cite web|url=http://www.ejercito.mil.uy/rrpp/paginas/07museosarandiyi.htm|publisher= Military of Uruguay|title=Cuartel Paso del Rey: Batalla del Río de la Plata|accessdate=2008-02-10]
The Germans' behaviour during their stay in Montevideo, especially Langsdorff's action when faced with possible defeat at British hands, was held in high regard in Uruguay. Many locals feared that their city could become directly endangered during any hostilities, and Langsdorff's decision to leave port was seen as partly motivated by a desire not to cause such harm.
Immediately after the scuttling in shallow water, much of the ship's superstructure remained above water level, but then over the years the wreck subsided into the muddy bottom and today only the tip of the mast remains above the surface.
The first salvage from the ship was most likely carried out by
Royal Navyintelligence teams which recovered the highly advanced "Seetakt" radar not destroyed in the scuttling. In late January 1940, the wreck was boarded by US Navy sailors from the light cruiser USS|Helena|CL-50|6. [cite book|title=Final Voyages|author=Kermit Bonner|year=1996|publisher=Turner Publishing Company|isbn=1563112892|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=53l3ebkpCjcC|accessdate=2008-02-10]
In February 2004 a salvage team began work raising the wreck of the "Admiral Graf Spee". The operation is in part being funded by the government of
Uruguay, in part by the private sector, as the wreck is now a hazard to navigation. The first major section, a 27-ton gunnery range-finding telemeter, was raised on 25 February 2004. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3489532.stm|title=Divers recover piece of Graf Spee|publisher= BBC News|date=26 February 2004|accessdate=2008-02-10] It is expected to take several years to raise the entire wreck. Film director James Cameronis filming the salvage operation. After it has been raised, it is planned that the ship will be restored and put on display at the National Marine Museum in Montevideo.
On 10 February 2006, the Convert|2|m|ft eagle figurehead of the "Admiral Graf Spee" was removed from the
sternof the ship and recovered. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4702832.stm|title=Graf Spee's eagle rises from deep|date=10 February 2006|publisher= BBC News|accessdate=2008-02-10] To protect the feelings of those sensitive to Nazi Germany, the swastikaat the base of the figurehead was covered as it was pulled from the water.
*Construction Indoctrination - KzS Conrad Patzig - 7 October 1935 - 6 January 1936
*KzS Conrad Patzig - 6 January 1936 - 2 October 1937cite web|url=http://www.german-navy.de/kriegsmarine/ships/panzerschiffe/admiralgrafspee/index.html|title=Admiral Graf Spee|publisher=
*KzS Walter Warzecha - 2 October 1937 - 1 November 1938
Hans Langsdorff- 1 November 1938 - 17 December 1939
In popular culture
* The sinking of the Graf Spee was dramatised in the 1956 film "The Battle of the River Plate", directed by Michael Powell & Emeric Pressburger.
* A tactical computer game called "Admiral Graf Spee" was released by Temptation Software for the
ZX Spectrumin 1982.
*Captain Patrick Dove, "I Was Graf Spee's Prisoner" (Cherry Tree Books, London & Manchester, 1940)
*Siegfried Breyer, "Battleships and Battlecruisers 1905-1970" (Doubleday and Company; Garden City, New York, 1973) (originally published in German as "Schlachtschiffe und Schlachtkreuzer 1905-1970", J.F. Lehmanns, Verlag, Munchen, 1970). Contains various line drawings of the ship as designed and as built.
*Jak P. Malmann Showell, "The German Navy in World War Two" (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1979), ISBN 0-87021-933-2
*Dudley Pope, "The Battle of the River Plate" (William Kimber & Co, 1956; Republished Pan Books 1974), ISBN 0-330-24020-X
*Eric J Grove, "The price of disobedience", UK 2000 , ISBN 1-55750-429-6
*Joseph Gilbey, "Langsdorff of the Graf Spee: Prince of Honor", Canada 1999, ISBN 0-9685994-0-0
*Joseph Gilbey, "Kriegsmarine: Admiral Raeder's Navy - A Broken Dream.", Canada 2005, ISBN 0-9685994-1-9
*Enrique R. Dick, "Tras La Estela del Graf Spee", Buenos Aires 1996, ISBN 950-43-8113-8 (published in Spanish, author is son of a Graf Spee crew member)
List of World War II ships
List of Kriegsmarine ships
List of naval ships of Germany
List of ship launches in 1934
List of ship commissionings in 1936
List of shipwrecks in 1939
* Other ships of the "Deutschland" class
German pocket battleship Deutschland
German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer
* [http://www.grafspee.com/ Grafspee.com]
* [http://www.german-navy.de/kriegsmarine/ships/panzerschiffe/admiralgrafspee/index.html German Naval History - pocket battleship "Admiral Graf Spee"]
* [http://ww2db.com/ship_spec.php?ship_id=166 WW2DB: Admiral Graf Spee] , with 44 photos
* [http://www.lummifilm.com/grafspee/ The Graf Spee Project: Recovering a WWII German Battleship]
* [http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/germany/pages/cruisers/admiral_graf_spee.htm Maritimequest Admiral Graf Spee photo gallery]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4702832.stm BBC News - Graf Spee eagle rises from the deep]
* [http://www.ejercito.mil.uy/rrpp/paginas/07museosarandiyi.htm "Sarandí del Yí Durazno" - "Cuartel Paso del Rey" - Battle of the River Plate Museum with numerous objects]
* [http://www.usshelena.org/grafspee2.html Photographs of battle damage, funeral and scuttling]
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