- Royal Canadian Army Cadets
Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=Royal Canadian Army Cadets
caption= Royal Canadian Army Cadets badge.
type= Youth Organization
command_structure= Canadian Cadet Organization
HRH Prince Philipthe Duke of Edinburgh [http://www.armycadethistory.com/colonels_in_chief.htm]
colonel_of_the_regiment= Major General Robert Meating
colonel_of_the_regiment_label= Colonel Commandant
motto= Acer acerpori
The Royal Canadian Army Cadets (RCAC) is a Canadian national youth program sponsored by the
Canadian Forcesand the civilian Army Cadet League of Canada. Administered by the Canadian Forces, the program is funded through the Department of National Defencewith the civilian partner providing support in the local community. Many Army Cadet corps receive additional support from affiliated Regular or Reserve Army units. While cadets may wear the badges and acoutrements of their affiliated unit, cadets are civilians, they are not members of the Canadian Forces nor is there any expectation of a future military career. [http://www.armycadetleague.ca/Templates/faqcadete.html]
Recognized as Canada's oldest youth program, there are approximately 21,000 army cadets in about 450 corps across the country. Together with the
Royal Canadian Sea Cadetsand Royal Canadian Air Cadets, it forms the largest federally-funded youth program. Cadets are encouraged to become active, responsible members of their communities.
Along with the
Royal Canadian Sea Cadetsand Royal Canadian Air Cadets, the RCAC is part of the Canadian Cadet Organization. Although the RCAC and the other cadet programs are sponsored by the Canadian Forces and the civilian Leagues, cadets are not members of the Forces, and are not expected to join the Canadian Forces. In keeping with Commonwealth custom, the Royal Canadian Army Cadets stand second in the order of precedence, after the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets, and before the Royal Canadian Air Cadets.
Persons aged 12 to 18 may join the RCAC, free of charge. Uniforms, training manuals, and instruction are provided. A cadet must leave the organization before their 19th birthday. Upon departing most items issued to them during their time in the program must be returned. Some cadet corps conduct a "leaving ceremony", to recognize departing cadets. If the senior-ranked cadet is departing he or she will relinquish the senior position by passing on the drill stick to his or her successor.
The organization and rank system of the Canadian Army is used, but cadets can only attain Non-Commissioned Officer status. Adult leadership is provided by commissioned officers of the Canadian Forces Reserve
Cadet Instructor Cadre, supplemented by contracted Civilian Instructors, authorized adult volunteers, in addition to officers and non-commissioned members of other CF branches. The Cadet Instructors Cadre (CIC) is composed of CF officers specially trained to deliver the Royal Canadian Sea, Army, and Air Cadet programs. Like all reservists they come from all walks of life including former cadets and long-service Regular and Reserve CF members, in addition to the parents of cadets. Royal Canadian Army Cadet Corps are usually affiliated to a Reserve or Regular Force army regiment and wear the accoutrements of their affiliated unit.
The Royal Canadian Army Cadet Badge is the official emblem of RCAC. It is worn on the upper sleeve of the cadet uniform and on the breast of the issue parkas. Some corps wear it as a brass cap badge. The term "acer acerpori" is
Latinfor "as the maple, so the sapling".
The aim of Royal Canadian Army Cadets is to develop in youth the attributes of good citizenship and leadership; promote physical fitness; and stimulate the interest of youth in the sea, land and air activities of the
Canadian Forces. The RCAC shares this aim with the Sea and Air Cadets; however, each organization focuses on its own parent element.
As part of their training, cadets may attend Cadet Summer Training Centres (CSTC) at
Canadian Forces bases and other locations. Progression in the local Corps training program is marked through different star levels: green, red, silver, and gold, and eventually, after the completion of the National Star Certification Exam, Master Cadet. Army cadets participate in a variety of adventurous training activities including lessons in abseiling, kayaking, trekking and mountain biking. Selected cadets may qualify for parachute training.
The local Corps training program covers ten areas of instruction: drill, possibly including drill with arms; fundamental training, covering various aspects of membership in the RCAC;
bushcraft, map and compass; fire arms safety;marksmanship, instructional techniques (Silver and Gold Star only); public speaking; leadership; citizenship; and physical fitness. Cadets are required to take a star level qualification test, where the material is reviewed in a simple test. Upon passing, he or she achieves that star level and moves onto the next level of training. Completing the Star levels is mandatory for promotion or appointment to a higher rank.
The Royal Canadian Army Cadets (RCAC) can trace its history to the creation of drill associations or militia companies in 1861, pre-dating confederation by six years. These early militia companies and drill associations were not cadet corps but were militia sub-units formed in educational and other public institutions. Enrollment was limited to men between the ages of 13 and 60. The drill was not only a parade square and discipline exercise, but a skill that was necessary for the defence of the Colony. The
American Civil Warand the threat of the Fenian Raidsmotivated their creation in Upper and Lower Canada.
Trinity College Volunteer Rifle Company was formed June 1, 1861 in Port Hope, Ontario. Bishop’s College Drill Association was formed in Lennoxville, Que. on December 6, 1861. Another 14 of the early "Drill Associations" or "Rifle Companies" stood up in Ontario and Quebec. Canada's oldest continually serving cadet corps is No. 2 Bishop's College School Cadet Corps in Lennoxville, Quebec, its roots firmly in the previous drill associations.
In 1904 the allocation of numbers to cadet corps was instituted and the Quarterly Militia List, correct to April 1, 1904 lists Cadet Organizations from 1 to 104. The earliest date of organization shown is November 28, 1879 four months after Militia General Order 18 of July 25, 1879 allowed the formations of 74 "Associations for Drill in Educational Institutions" for young men. These cadets were taught drill and marksmanship, but were not required to be employed in active service. The 74 associations included 34 in
Ontario, 24 in Québec, 13 in the Maritimes, two in Manitoba, and one in British Columbia.
The origin of the term "Cadet Corps" is debatable, as some believe it was first used in 1898, in Ontario, bundled in a provision that the Corps' instructors would be a member of the local school teaching staff, and not from the local militia unit.
Increased support, motivated in part by the Northwest Campaign during the Riel Rebellion of 1885, allowed improved issue of uniforms, weapons and other equipment to schools providing military training.
The first authority for Cadet instructors to hold rank in the Militia was established by Special General Order Dec. 21, 1903. The appointment was 2nd Lieutenant and the officer was permitted to retain the rank only as long as he remained an instructor and the cadet corps remained efficient. On May 1, 1909 a cadre of commissioned officers, as a Corps of School Cadet Instructors was established. It was composed of qualified male school teachers. On May 1, 1921 the Corps was disbanded and reorganized on Jan 1, 1924 and designated the Cadet Services of Canada. It was a component of the Canadian Army Non-Permanent Active Militia and the forerunner of the current Cadet Instructor Cadre This officer cadre was disbanded in 1968 during a period of reorganization due to the unification of the
Canadian Forces. It reappeared as the Cadet Instructors List at the National Defense Headquarders. In July 1994 it was renamed Cadet Instructor Cadre.
In 1910, Sir
Donald Alexander Smith, Lord Strathcona, the Canadian High Commissioner to Britain, created a trust with the Dominion Government with a sum of $500,000, with the aim of inspiring citizenship and patriotism. through physical training, rifle shooting, and military drill. [http://www.cadets.ca/_docs/army-arm%E9e/pocket-poche/A-CR-CCP-120-402_e.pdf] He is remembered today with the Lord Strathcona Medal, which is awarded to a cadet in each corps and squadron who best exemplifies the qualities of being a cadet.
Approximately forty thousand former cadets served in His Majesty's forces during the First World War. By the end of the war, there were approximately 64,000 boys enrolled in Army Cadet corps across Canada.
During the twenty years following the First World War, cadet training came to a standstill. Many corps survived these hard times, but the Depression and the lack of public interest caused the cancellation of the uniform grant for Army Cadets in 1931 and the instructional grant for 12 and 13 year olds in 1934. In Alberta, only a couple of corps functioned beyond 1934.
The beginning of the Second World War brought a renewed public interest in cadet training. An astounding amount of cadet corps were formed in high schools across the country.
In 1942, recognition of the significant contribution of former cadets to the ongoing war effort, His Majesty King George VI granted the "Royal" prefix to the Canadian Army Cadets, giving it the title of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets. (The Royal prefix was also afforded Sea and Air Cadets at the same time) It is estimated that nearly 230,000 former army cadets served in His Majesty's forces during the
Second World War.
After 1945, quotas were imposed reducing Canada's total cadet population to about 75,000 members. Many of the closed corps, those with membership restricted to boys in one particular school, were disbanded; some of them became open corps, training in militia armouries or in Legion halls; others, acquired their own buildings.
The Korean War stimulated growth among open corps in the early 1950s. Many school corps moved to armouries and drill halls. After 1954, Korea veterans staffed the Area Cadet Offices that began to manage these corps and the summer camps that trained them.
Unification of the Canadian Forces
Following the unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968, a number of changes occurred in the Army Cadet world:
* Sea and Air Cadets came more fully under the control of the Canadian Forces in order to standardize the three Cadet organizations;
* A directorate of cadets was established in Ottawa, at National Defense Headquarters, to set policy and co-ordinate the activities of the Sea, Army and Air cadets;
* The Army Cadet League of Canada was formed in 1971 to provide the Army Cadet Organization the same civilian/CF partnership structure enjoyed by Sea Cadets and Air Cadets through the long established Navy League and the Air Cadet League;
* The Cadet Services of Canada was superseded by the Cadet Instructor List, which was re designated the Cadet Instructor Cadre in July 1994.
Girls in the cadet program
Girls were unofficial participants in cadet training almost from the very beginning of Cadets. Shortly after the Highland Cadet Corps was formed at the Guelph Grammar School in 1882, a female cadet company called the Daughters of the Regiment was started. The Army provided no support for training, or uniforms. Nor could girls attend summer training. On July 30, 1975, the Canadian parliament amended the relevant legislation by changing the word "boys" to "persons", therefore permitting girls to become members of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets. Girls became full participants in the Cadet Organization. The biggest change was during the summer training program. What had been for many decades an exclusively male environment changed dramatically at the Vernon, Ipperwash, Valcartier, Argonaut and Banff Army Cadet Summer Training Centres. Today, boys and girls participate together in all cadet activities with girls regularly in leadership roles amongst cadets.
2004 - 125th anniversary
2004 marked the 125th anniversary of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets. The Army Cadet League of Canada issued a 125th Anniversary pin to be worn by all 25,000+ army cadets across the country. Canada Post honoured the cadets with a stamp, unveiled in Ottawa in March 2004. Many parades honouring the century and a quarter of cadets occurred across Canada, there were Freedom of the City parades in Vernon, Oromocto and Calgary as well as other locations. The original Royal Banner was laid up in Vernon during the final battalion parade on August 19 at the ACSTC, and the new Royal Banner was paraded in front of 1500 cadets and 2000 members of the audience. [http://www.armycadethistory.com/]
Corps training program
RCAC Corps training (Sept-June) covers the following subjects:
*PO 401 -- Drill
*PO 402 -- Fundamental Training
*PO 403 --
*PO 405 -- Map and Compass
*PO 406 --
*PO 409 -- Instructional Techniques (Silver and Gold Star only)
*PO 410 --
*PO 411 --
*PO 412 --
*PO 413 --
Corps training is divided into 4 levels designed to be completed one year at a time.
*Green Star - level one
*Red Star - level two
*Silver Star - level three
*Gold Star - level four
Upon completion of Gold Star a cadet may take the National Star Certification Exam (NSCE), and move into advanced instructional roles at the corps.
Selected Army Cadets attend summer training at locations across Canada. The training supports and expands the Local Headquarters program. Courses last from two the six weeks, with most cadets attending the two week "Basic" Course in their first year. Experienced cadets may apply to be employed as staff cadets to assist the adult instructors.
ummer Training Courses
Summer Training Courses are as follows:
*Cadet -- Basic (2 Weeks)
*Cadet -- Basic Marksman (3 Weeks)
*Cadet -- Basic Military Band (3 Weeks)
*Cadet -- Basic Pipes and Drums (P&D) (3 Weeks)
*Cadet Leader (CL) (6 Weeks)
*Cadet Leader (CL) -- Marksman (6 Weeks) (Connaught CSTC Only)
*Cadet Leader (CL) -- Military Band (6 Weeks)
*Cadet Leader (CL) -- Pipes and Drums (P&D) (6 Weeks)
*Cadet Leader Instructor (CLI) -- Adventure (6 Weeks)
*Cadet Leader Instructor (CLI) -- Drill and Ceremonial (D&C) (6 Weeks)
*Cadet Leader Instructor (CLI) -- Marksman (7 Weeks) (Connaught CSTC Only)
*Cadet Leader Instructor (CLI) -- Military Band (6 Weeks)
*Cadet Leader Instructor (CLI) -- Pipes and Drums (P&D) (6 Weeks)
*Cadet Leader Instructor (CLI) -- Physical Education and Recreational Training (PE+RT) (6 Weeks)
*Cadet Leader Instructor (CLI) -- Rifle Coach (6 Weeks)
Once a cadet has completed a Cadet Leader Instructor course he or she may work at a summer training centre (CSTC) as a staff cadet or attend an advanced training course or exchange, such as:
*Advanced Military Band
*Advanced Pipes and Drums
*Army Cadet Leadership & Challenge
*Federal Republic of Germany Exchange
*Outward Bound: Wales/Scotland
*The Basic Parachutist Course
*Maple Leaf Exchange
*National Rifle Team (Bisley)
*Other various exchanges under the ACE (Army Cadet Exchange) Program
The Pioneer Course offered at Vernon ACSTC in the summers of 2004, 2005, 2006, and was discontinued for the 2007 training year.
ummer Training Centres
There are 8 Army Cadet Summer Training Centres across
Canadaand they are:
*Argonaut Army Cadet Summer Training Centre
*Blackdown Army Cadet Summer Training Centre
Connaught National Army Cadet Training Centre(CNACSTC)
*Mont St-Sacrement Cadet Summer Training Centre
*Rocky Mountain National Army Cadet Summer Training Centre (RMNACSTC)
*Valcartier Army Cadet Summer Training Centre
*Vernon Army Cadet Summer Training Centre
*Whitehorse Cadet Summer Training Centre (WCSTC)
In accordance with Cadet Administrative and Training Orders [http://www.cadets.forces.gc.ca/support/cato-oaic/intro_e.asp] (CATO) 40-03 and 46-01 Annex D the following are the rank badges of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets. [http://www.cadets.forces.gc.ca/_docs/cato-oaic/4003_b.pdf ARMY CADET RANKS AND CADET CORPS ESTABLISHMENT] [http://www.cadets.forces.gc.ca/_docs/cato-oaic/4601D_b.pdf Army Cadet Badges (See Appendix 6)] In addition to the rank-specific criteria given below, all appointments are subject to the approval of the cadet's Commanding Officer, who generally promotes based on the advice of Platoon Officers and unit training staff.
The official phrasing for the ranks uses the word "Cadet" as a preface — as an example, Cadet Corporal. However, custom omits "Cadet" in casual reference. Thus, Corporal is the usual wording. Generally, where there is a need to distinguish between cadets and Canadian Forces members, ranks will be written or spoken as Cadet Corporal and abbreviated as C/Cpl.
While it is customary within the organization to refer to a cadet receiving a rank as being "promoted," the official documentation (Queens Rules and Regulations (Cadets) and CATO) vary: the senior document describing progression as an "appointment", the other describing progression as "promotion". In keeping with Commonwealth military tradition, certain rank titles may vary depending on the kind of unit a corps is affiliated with - for example, an artillery unit or an armoured unit.
Forms of address
* Junior Cadets are typically addressed by their last name by all ranks; however, a superior might address them as simply "Cadet," "Recruit," or "Private," especially in situations where names aren't known, as at multi-unit events or at the beginning of a Cadet year.
* Warrants, Sergeants and both grades of corporal are typically addressed by their juniors as "(Rank) So-and-So," or, conversationally, as "(Rank)." Superiors and equals will often use last name only.
* Master and Chief Warrant Officers are addressed by their juniors as "Sir" or "Ma'am." Superiors and equals might use some suitable contraction of the rank - "Warrant," "Master Warrant," or possible substitute "Mr." or "Miss" for the rank. Superiors and equals will rarely use last name only.
* Additionally, cadets often hold an appointment in addition to their rank, and many of these are used as an alternate form of address (e.g. Drum or Pipe Major, Company or Regimental Sergeant Major, etc.).
* In formal situations; for example, being called up for an award or promotion; a cadet's full rank and his/her surname is generally used.
Rank quotas and appointments
The number of cadets in a cadet corps determines how many cadets may be appointed to each rank. Until January 1988 cadet officer ranks were authorized. The ranks were represented by plain slip-ons with stripes designating the rank; one stripe for cadet lieutenant, two for captain, three for major, and four for lieutenant-colonel. As corps became smaller the practice fell into disuse. While cadet officer ranks are no longer authorized, because of their size, the only corps that still use them are private schools such as St. Andrew's College and Bishop Ridley College where all students aged 12 to 18 are cadets.Notes:
#A cadet corps with a quota of 0-29 is authorized one Cadet Master Warrant Officer or one Cadet Chief Warrant Officer.
#There is no minimum or maximum number of the following ranks: Cadet Sergeant, Cadet Master Corporal, Cadet Corporal, and Cadet Private.
#For a cadet corps with a quota of 150 +, regions are to contact D Cdts 4-4.
Different appointments can also be held throughout the ranks:
*Section 2 I/C
*Platoon or Troop 2 I/C
*Platoon or Troop Commander
*Squadron (SSM), Battery (BSM) or Company Sergeant Major (CSM)
*Company Quarter Master Sergeant
*Drill Sergeant Major (DSM)
*Regimental Sergeant Major (RSM)
"See also" CIC Roles and duties
Officer positions in the cadet program are filled by members of the Canadian Forces Reserve sub-component
Cadet Instructors Cadre(CIC) and, occasionally, other members of the Canadian Forces. Typical duties include:
*Commanding Officer (CO)
*Deputy Commanding Officer (DCO)
*Training Officer (TrgO)
*Standards Officer (StdsO)
*Troop/Platoon Commander (Pl Cmdr)
*Unit Human Rights Advisor (UHRA)
There are also various other positions that officers can hold either at the area, regional or at the national level, as well as specialist instructor and support roles at both the corps and summer training facility level.
Army Cadet Corps are identified by a one to four digit number and their affiliated unit. Numbers are assigned by the Director of Cadets. Generally the lower the number, the older the cadet corps.
Partnership with Canadian Forces
Along with the Sea Cadets and Air Cadets, the Army cadets make up a program sponsored by the Canadian Forces funded primarily through the Department of National Defence. The Canadian Forces provides training, pay and allowances for reserve force cadet instructors; uniforms for instructors and cadets; transportation, facilities and staff for summer training; the training program and training aids; and policy and regulation regarding the operation of the cadet organization. The civilian Army Cadet League provides local support by way of accommodation, utilities, liability insurance, transportation and training aids not provided by the CF.
List of Canadian organizations with royal patronage
* [http://www.cadets.ca/directory-repertoire/intro_e.asp RCAC Unit Directory]
* Cadets Canada - corporate identity
History of the Cadet Instructors Cadre
= References =
* [http://www.cadets.ca/armcad/intro_e.asp Official site]
* [http://www.cadets.ca/directory-repertoire/intro_e.asp RCAC Unit Directory]
* [http://www.armycadetleague.ca/ Army Cadet League of Canada]
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