Urums, singular Urum IPA2|u'rum (Greek: Ουρούμ "Urúm", Turkish: "Urum", Crimean Tatar: "Urum") is a broad historical term that was used by some Turkic-speaking peoples (Turks,
Crimean Tatars) to define Greekswho lived in Muslimstates, particularly in the Ottoman Empireand Crimea. In contemporary ethnography, the term "Urum" (or "Urum Greek") applies only to Turkic-speaking Greek population.
The term "Urum" is derived from the Arabic word _ar. رُّومُ ("rūm"), meaning "Roman" and subsequently "
Byzantine" (Eastern Roman) and "Greek" (see: Rûm). Since words beginning in [r] were not typical for Turkic languages, earlier speakers would add an extra vowel in order to facilitate the pronunciation. In modern Turkish, the "Urum" spelling, despite being still used by some, is considered obsolete and is replaced by the spelling "Rum".
The term is presently used by the following sub-ethnic groups of Greeks as a way of ethnic self-identification:
*Crimean-Tatarophone Greeks of North Azov (
*Turcophone Greeks of
North Azovian Urums
Historically, the Greeks of Crimea (and later of the adjacent Azovian region; present-day
Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine) were represented by two groups: the Hellenic-speaking Romaioi and the Turkic-speaking Urums (also called Graeco-Tatars). Both groups populated the region for many centuries (they consisted of both the descendants of the 4th century BC – 4th century AD colonizers and those who immigrated from Anatolia at various times), however the latter underwent social and cultural processes, which led to them adopting Crimean Tatar as a mother tongue. In 1777, after the annexation of Crimea by Russia, Catherine the Greatordered all Greeks from the peninsula to settle in North Azov, and they have been known as the North Azovian Greeks ("приазовские греки" "priazovskie greki") henceforth. Some linguists believe that the dialect spoken by the North Azovian Urums differs from the common Crimean Tatar language on a more than just dialectical level and therefore constitutes a separate language unit within the Kypchak language sub-group (see Urum language).
Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Throughout history, they represented an isolated cultural group and rarely settled in towns populated by the Romaioi, despite sharing Greek heritage with them. [http://www.genling.nw.ru/Ethnolin/ethnosite/situation.htm Ethnolinguistic Situation] by Elena Perekhvalskaya (in Russian). Retrieved 2 October, 2006] Unlike Greek, Urum has never been a language of secondary education in Ukraine. Turkologist Nikolai Baskakov estimated that by 1969, 60,000 people spoke Urum as a native language. According to the All-Ukrainian Population Census of 2001, only 112 of the Donetsk Oblast's 77,516 Greeks listed languages other than Greek, Ukrainian and Russian as their mother tongue. [http://www.ukrcensus.gov.ua/rus/results/nationality_population/nationality_popul1/select_51/?botton=cens_db&box=5.1W&k_t=14&p=25&rz=1_1&rz_b=2_1%20&n_page=2 The All-Ukrainian Population Census of 2001: The distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue] . Retrieved 2 October, 2006]
Very little is known about this ethnic subgroup. They are sometimes referred to as the
TrialetiGreeks or the Transcaucasian Turcophone Greeks. Pontian Greekscall them "Τσαλκαλιδείς" ("Tsalkalideis"); a name that refers to the Georgian town, where Urums once made up the largest ethnic community.
From the 18th to the early 20th century the
Caucasusexperienced mass migrations of Greeks from the Ottoman Empire, mainly from the region of Pontus. Many Pontian Greeks spoke Turkish either as part of their Greek-Turkish bilingua, or as a mother tongue due to linguistic assimilation processes that isolated groups of the Anatolian Greeks were exposed to. According to Andrei Popov, throughout the 19th century hundreds of Turkish-speaking Greek Orthodox families from Erzurum, Gümüşhaneand Artvinmoved to Southern Russia and settled on the Tsalka Plateau, in present-day Georgia. [Popov, Andrei. "Pontian Greeks". Krasnodar: Studia Pontocaucasica, 1997. Retrieved 17 July, 2005] During the Soviet era they populated over 20 villages in Georgia's Tsalka, Dmanisi, Tetritsq'aro, Marneuli, and Akhaltsikheregions. In 1926, there were 24,000 Greeks living in Tiflisand the neighbouring area with 20,000 of them being Turcophone. [Volkova, Natalya. "The Greeks of the Caucasus". Krasnodar: Studia Pontocaucasica, 1997. Retrieved 2 October, 2005]
The dialect spoken by the Tsalka Urums is similar to many other Central Anatolian dialects of Turkish. However some linguists, like Nikolai Baksakov, classify it as a separate
Oghuz languagedue to differences in phonetics, vocabulary and grammar. [ [http://etheo.h10.ru/turk01.htm Turkic Languages] . Classification by Nikolai Baksakov. 1969. Retrieved 2 October, 2006] Present-day Urum Turkish is also thought by some to be phonetically closer to Azeri than to the literary Turkish, which leads them to believe that it is rather a dialect of Azeri. [ [http://www.geogen.ge/indexen.php?lang=en&id_menu=22&id_menu_up=4&abc=0&fr=&srch= Azerbaijanis in Georgia] . Retrieved 2 October, 2006] Late Soviet censuses also showed Azeri as the mother tongue of the Tsalka Urums, however this may have been done simply due to the Soviets' somewhat unfavourable attitude towards Turkish culture. No secondary education in Urum Turkish has been available; its speakers attend schools where subjects are taught in Russian or Azeri.
The Tsalka Urums themselves call their language "bizimce" (Turkish: "our language/talk"). With the popularization of the Russian language, many experienced linguistic assimilation and adapted to Russian. Also starting from the 1980s, some sense of a cultural revival has been observed among the Turcophone Greeks. Historian Airat Aklaev's research showed that 36% of them considered Greek their mother tongue despite their lack of knowledge of that language. 96% expressed their desire to learn Greek. [Aklaev, Airat. "Ethnolinguistic Situation and Ethnic Self-Identification Features of the Georgian Greeks". Soviet Ethnography, #5,
1988. Retrieved 2 October, 2006]
In comparison with the Hellenophone Greeks of Georgia, the Tsalka Urums were less exposed to
emigrationafter the fall of the Soviet Union, hence nowadays they constitute the majority of the country's Greek population. Nevertheless some migration did take place, which is why Greeks are no longer the largest ethnic group in Tsalka. Between 1989and 2002their numbers within the region went down from 35,000 to 3,000. Many emigrated to Greeceand to the Krasnodar Krai, Russia(cities of Krasnodar, Abinsk, Sochi, and Gelendzhik).
Crimean Tatar language
Demographics of Ukraine
Demographics of Georgiacolumns |colwidth=30%
Rûm Province, Ottoman Empire
Urumeli Vilayeti Celilesi( Manastır)
Urumeli Ciğeri( Edirne Ciğeri)
* [http://groups.google.com.tr/group/kailar/web/urumeli-ne-demektir-balkan-ne-demektir Urumeli]
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