- Ronald Reagan Presidential Library
Infobox presidential library
name =Ronald Reagan Presidential Library
location = Simi Valley,
construction_start_date =November 21, 1988
dedication_date = November 4, 1991
Hugh Stubbins and Associates
Reagan Library Foundation
website = [http://www.reaganlibrary.com Reagan Library] The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Center for Public Affairs is the
presidential libraryof Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. Designed by Hugh Stubbins and Associates, the library is located in Simi Valley, California, about convert|40|mi|km northwest of Downtown Los Angelesand convert|15|mi|km west of Chatsworth. The library may be accessed by driving to the Olsen Road exit of State Route 23, which connects to the nearby "Ronald Reagan Freeway", State Route 118.
The street address, 40 Presidential Drive, is numbered in honor of Reagan's place as the 40th President.
Construction of the library began in 1988, and the center was dedicated on November 4, 1991. [cite web |url=http://www.reaganfoundation.org/museum/|title=Museum|accessdate= 2007-11-19|publisher= Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation] The dedication ceremonies were the first time in United States history that five
United States Presidentsgathered together in the same place: Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush.cite news |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE2D81130F932A35752C1A967958260|title=Elite Group to Dedicate Reagan Library|accessdate= 2007-11-19|publisher= " The New York Times"|date=1|month=November|year=1991|last=Mydans|first=Seth] Six First Ladies also attended: Lady Bird Johnson, Pat Nixon, Betty Ford, Rosalynn Carter, Nancy Reagan, and Barbara Bush.cite encyclopedia | author = Melissa Giller | title = Reagan Presidential Library | encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science | volume = 4 | editor = Miriam A. Drake | pages = p. 2456 | year = 2003 | publisher = CRC Press | id = ISBN 0824720806]
When the Reagan Library opened it was the largest of the presidential libraries (with roughly 153,000 square feet). It held that title until the dedication of the William J. Clinton Presidential Library in
Little Rock, Arkansason November 18, 2004. With the opening of the convert|90000|sqft|m2|sing=on Air Force OnePavilion in October 2005, the Reagan Library reclaimed the title in terms of physical size; [cite news |url=http://www.venturacountystar.com/news/2007/nov/03/winds-tear-air-force-one-pavilion-roof-at-reagan/|title=Winds tear Air Force One Pavilion roof at Reagan Library|accessdate= 2007-11-20|publisher= "The Ventura County Star"|date=3|month=November|year=2007] however, the Clinton Library remains the largest presidential library in terms of materials (documents, artifacts, photographs, etc.). [cite web |url=http://www.clintonlibrary.gov/museum.html|title=Clinton Library: Library Museum and Information|accessdate= 2007-11-20|publisher= Clinton Presidential Library and Museum] Like all presidential libraries since that of Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Reagan Library was built entirely with private donations, at a cost of US$60 million. Major donors included Walter Annenberg, Lew Wasserman, Lodwrick Cook, Joe Albritton, Rupert Murdoch, Richard Sills, and John P. McGovern. For fiscal year 2007, the Reagan Library had 305,331 visitors, making it the second-most visited presidential library, following the Lyndon B. Johnson Library; that was down from its fiscal year 2006 number of 440,301 visitors, when it was the most visited library. [cite video |people= |date2= |month2= November|year2= 2007|title=Presidential Libraries on C-SPAN: Exclusive Series Interviews and Additional Footage|url= rtsp://cspanrm.fplive.net/cspan/PresLib/Clinton/Video/preslib112307.rm|format=rm|medium= Documentary|publisher=C-SPAN|accessdate=2007-11-30 |time=1:32:03, 1:32:55]
First Ladies dedicating the library:
Lady Bird Johnson, Jimmy Carter, Rosalynn Carter, Gerald Ford, Betty Ford, Richard Nixon, Pat Nixon, Ronald Reagan, Nancy Reagan, George H.W. Bushand Barbara Bush] As a Presidential library administered by the National Archives and Records Administration(NARA), the Reagan Library, under the authority of the Presidential Records Act, is the repository of presidential records for Reagan’s administration. Holdings include 50 million pages of presidential documents, over 1.6 million photographs, a half million feet of motion picture film and tens of thousands of audio and video tapes.cite web |url=http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/|title=Archives: The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library|accessdate= 2007-11-20|publisher=National Archives and Records Administration] The Library also houses personal papers collections including documents from Reagan’s eight years as Governor of California.
Exhibits and scenery
The museum features continually changing temporary exhibits and a permanent exhibit covering President Reagan’s life. This exhibit begins during Reagan's childhood in
Dixon, Illinoisand follows his life through his film career and military service, marriage to Nancy Davis Reagan, and political career. [cite web |url=http://www.reaganfoundation.org/museum/dtc_home.asp?gid=1&sgid=39|title=Museum > Permanent Galleries > Early Years Gallery|accessdate=2007-11-21|publisher= Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation] The "Citizen Governor" gallery shows footage of Reagan's 1964 " A Time for Choosing" speech and contains displays on his eight years as governor. The gallery includes a 1965 FordMustang used by Reagan during his first gubernatorial campaign, as well as the desk he used as governor. [cite web |url=http://www.reaganfoundation.org/museum/dtc_home.asp?gid=1&sgid=40|title=Museum > Permanent Galleries > “Citizen Governor” Gallery|accessdate=2007-11-21|publisher= Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation] His 1980 and 1984 presidential campaigns are also highlighted, as well as his inauguration suit and a table from the White House Situation Roomis on display. News footage of the 1981 assassination attempt on his life is shown, and information about the proposed Strategic Defense Initiative(SDI — dubbed "Star Wars") is included. [cite web |url=http://www.reaganfoundation.org/museum/dtc_home.asp?gid=1&sgid=41|title=Museum > Permanent Galleries > New Beginnings Gallery|accessdate=2007-11-21|publisher= Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation]
A full scale replica of the
Oval Office— a feature of most presidential libraries — is a prominent feature of this museum as well. [cite web |url=http://www.reaganfoundation.org/museum/dtc_home.asp?gid=1&sgid=42|title=Museum > Permanent Galleries > The Oval Office|accessdate=2007-11-21|publisher= Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation] Other parts of the exhibit focus on Reagan's ranch, the presidential retreat Camp David, life in the White House, [cite web |url=http://www.reaganfoundation.org/museum/dtc_home.asp?gid=1&sgid=43|title=Museum > Permanent Galleries > The President’s Residences|accessdate=2007-11-21|publisher= Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation] and First Lady Nancy Reagan. [cite web |url=http://www.reaganfoundation.org/museum/dtc_home.asp?gid=1&sgid=44|title=Museum > Permanent Galleries > First Lady Nancy Reagan|accessdate=2007-11-21|publisher= Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation] Conspicuouslyweal absent from the permanent exhibit is the Iran-Contra Affair(which had been included in an earlier version of the permanent exhibit), but the episode is briefly mentioned in the Library's orientation film.Fact|date=February 2008disputable The most recent temporary exhibit, which opened on November 10, 2007, titled "Nancy Reagan: A First Lady's Style" features over 80 designer dresses belonging to Nancy Reagan [cite news |first= Monica|last= Corcoran|title= The Nancy Years|url=http://www.latimes.com/features/lifestyle/la-ig-reaganstyle11nov11,0,7609492.story|publisher="The Los Angeles Times"|date=2007-11-08|accessdate=2007-11-22] [cite news |first= Anna|last= Bakalis|title=Style exhibit chronicles Nancy Reagan's life|url=http://www.venturacountystar.com/news/2007/nov/09/nancy-reagan-a-first-ladys-style-at-reagan-her/|publisher="The Ventura County Star"|date=2007-11-09|accessdate=2007-11-22] and will end on November 10, 2008. [cite web |title=Calendar of Events|url=http://www.reaganlibrary.com/visitorguide/calendar.asp|publisher=Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation|accessdate=2007-12-02]
The hilltop grounds provide expansive views of the area, a re-creation of a portion of the
White HouseLawn, and, like many presidential libraries, a piece of the Berlin Wall. An F-14 Tomcat(BuNo 162592) is also located on the grounds.
On November 8, 2007, Reagan Library National Archives officials reported that due to poor record-keeping, they are unable to say whether roughly 80,000 artifacts have been stolen or are lost inside the massive museum complex.cite news |first= Steve|last=Chawkins |coauthors= Catherine Salliant|title= The Talk of the Reagan Library|url=http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-reagan9nov09,0,6173080.story?coll=la-home-local|publisher= "
The Los Angeles Times"|date= 2007-11-09|accessdate=2007-11-21] A "near-universal" security breakdown was also blamed, leaving the artifacts vulnerable to theft. Many of the nation's presidential libraries claim to be understaffed and underfunded.cite news |first=Ricardo|last=Alonso-Zaldivar|coauthors= Catherine Salliant|title=Reagan Library Has Lost Thousands Of Artifacts|url=http://www2.tbo.com/content/2007/nov/10/na-reagan-library-has-lost-thousands-of-artifacts/|publisher= Tampa Bay Online|date= 2007-11-10|accessdate=2007-11-21] The National Archives labeled the Reagan library as having the most serious problems with their inventory. In an audit, U.S. Archivist Allen Weinsteinrebuked the library's poor inventory software for the mishap. Frederick J. Ryan Jr., president of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation's board of directors, said the allegations of poor management practices at the library reflect badly on the National Archives. Nevertheless, the library accepts the criticism of the audit's and have undertaken a massive inventory project that will take years to complete. Ryan said Nancy Reagan expressed "surprise and disappointment" when he spoke with her regarding the affair.
Air Force One Pavilion
A convert|90000|sqft|m2|sing=on exhibit "hangar" serves as the setting for the permanent display of the
Boeing 707aircraft utilized as " Air Force One" during Reagan's administration. [cite web |url=http://www.reaganfoundation.org/airforceone/|title=Air Force One Pavilion|accessdate=2007-11-23|publisher=Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation] The aircraft, SAM 27000, was also used by six other presidents in its active service life from 1973–2001, including Richard Nixonduring his second term, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush.cite web |url=http://www.reaganfoundation.org/airforceone/facts_stats.asp|title=Facts and Stats|accessdate=2007-11-23|publisher=Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation] In 1990 it became a backup aircraft after the Boeing 747s were brought into service and was retired in 2001. The aircraft was flown to San Bernardino International Airportin September 2001 where it was presented to the Reagan Foundation. In what was known as "Operation Homeward Bound," Boeing, the plane's original manufacturer, disassembled the plane and transported it to the library in pieces.cite press release | title = Reagan Air Force One Moves to Presidential Library | publisher = Boeing | date = 2003-06-20 | url = http://www.boeing.com/news/feature/reagan707/news_release1.html | accessdate = 2007-12-03] After the construction of the foundation of the pavilion itself, the plane was reassembled and restored to museum quality, as well as raised onto pedestals twenty-five feet above ground. [cite web | title =The Journey of Air Force One| publisher =Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation|url =http://www.reaganlibrary.com/airforceone/dtc_home.asp?pageid=4&gid=10| accessdate = 2007-12-03|page=3] The pavilion was dedicated on October 24, 2005 by Nancy Reagan, President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush. [cite speech | title = President Participates in Opening Ceremony for Air Force One Pavilion | first = George W. | last = Bush | authorlink = George W. Bush | date = 2005-10-21 | location = Simi Valley, California| url = http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/10/20051021-2.html | accessdate = 2007-11-23]
SAM 27000 is part of a comprehensive display of presidential travel that also includes a Johnson-era Sikorsky VH-3 "Sea King," call sign "
Marine One",cite web |url=http://www.reaganfoundation.org/airforceone/dtc_home.asp?gid=7|title=Permanent Galleries|accessdate=2007-11-23|publisher=Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation] and a "presidential motorcade" — Reagan's 1984 presidential parade limousine, a 1982 Los Angeles Police Departmentpolice car (as well as two 1980s police motorcycles), and a 1986 Secret Service vehicle used in one of President Reagan's motorcades in Los Angeles. [cite web |url=http://www.reaganfoundation.org/airforceone/dtc_home.asp?gid=7&sgid=66|title=Museum > Permanent Galleries > Presidential Motorcade|accessdate=2007-11-23|publisher=Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation] The pavilion is also home to the original O'Farrell's pub from Ballyporeenin the Republic of Irelandthat President and Mrs. Reagan visited in June 1984, now called the "Ronald Reagan Pub." Also featured are exhibits on the Cold Warand Reagan's extensive travels aboard "Air Force One".
On June 9, 2008 Secretary of Education
Margaret Spellingsjoined Nancy Reagan to dedicate the Reagan Library Discovery Center, located in the Air Force One Pavilion.cite news|work=The Ventura County Star|accessdate=2008-06-15|date=June 9, 2008|url=http://www.venturacountystar.com/news/2008/jun/09/unmatched-creativity-at-reagan-library-students/|title='Unmatched creativity' at Reagan Library's Discovery Center|author=Carlson, Cheri] The center is an interactive youth exhibit in which fifth through eight grade students participate in role-playing exercises based on events of the Reagan administration.
Center for Public Affairs
Reagan Library has hosted many events, including the funeral of Ronald Reagan in June 2004, and the first Republican presidential candidates' debate of the 2008 primaries. On May 23, 2007,
Secretary of State Condoleezza Riceand Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downerheld a brief private talk and a press conference. [cite news |first=Jill|last=Serjeant|title=Rice, Australian minister evoke Reagan in Iraq talk|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN2344413120070523|publisher=Reuters|date=2007-05-23|accessdate=2007-11-23] On July 17, 2007, Polish President Lech Kaczyńskipresented Poland's highest distinction, the Order of the White Eagle, to Mrs. Reagan. [cite web |url=http://poland.usembassy.gov/events_2007/president-kaczynski-presents-order-of-the-white-eagle-to-late-president-ronald-reagan--18-july-2007.html|title=President Kaczynski Presents Order of the White Eagle to Late President Ronald Reagan|accessdate=2007-11-23|date=2007-07-18|publisher=U.S. Department of State]
Ronald Reagan's funeral
Following the president's death, Reagan's casket was driven by hearse to the Reagan Library on June 7, 2004. There, a memorial service was held in the library lobby with Mrs. Reagan, the president's children and close relatives, as well as friends present. The Reverend Dr. Michael Wenning officiated the service.
From June 7th to 9th, Reagan's casket lay in repose in the library lobby, where about 105,000 people paid their respects by walking past the casket. [ [http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0406/10/ltm.04.html CNN.com - Transcripts ] ] After flying the body to
Washington, D.C., lying in statein the Capitol rotunda, and a national funeral service in the Washington National Cathedral, Reagan's casket was brought back to the library in California for a last memorial service and interment.
A tomb had been previously built for the eventual use of Reagan and his wife. Following a sunset service on the library grounds the previous evening, early on the morning of June 12, 2004 President Reagan was laid to rest in the underground vault. [ [http://www.suhor.com/burial_of_a_president.htm Ronald Reagan's Burial | A-Behind-the-Scenes Diary | Suhor Industries ] ]
2008 Republican primary debates
On May 3, 2007, the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation and
Nancy Reaganhosted the first 2008 Republican primary debate in the Library's Air Force One Pavilion. The candidates present included Kansas Senator Sam Brownback, former Virginia Governor Jim Gilmore, former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani, former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee, Representative Duncan Hunterof California, Senator John McCainof Arizona, Representative Ron Paulof Texas, former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney, Representative Tom Tancredoof Colorado, and Tommy Thompson, former Governor of Wisconsinand President George W. Bush’s first Secretary of Health and Human Services. Mrs. Reagan, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, and Fred Ryan, Chairman of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation were among those in attendance. Candidates discussed the War in Iraq, the War on Terror, taxes, healthcare, abortion, stem-cell research, gay rights, illegal immigration, and made at least 20 individual references directly or in passing, to Ronald Reagan and his presidency. [cite web|date=May 4, 2007|author=Nagourney, Adam and Marc Santora.|url= http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/04/us/politics/04repubs.html?hp|title= ’08|Republicans Differ on Defining Party’s Future|publisher=" The New York Times"|accessdate=2007-05-04]
On January 30, 2008, after the Republican candidates were narrowed to four —
Mitt Romney, Mike Huckabee, Ron Paul, and John McCain— the Library was the scene of the final GOP debate, once again hosted by the Reagan Foundation and Mrs. Reagan. [cite news|title=Romney Blasts McCain over Iraq War Charge|url=http://youdecide08.foxnews.com/2008/01/30/romney-mccain-out-of-step-with-conservative-mainstream/|work=Associated Press|publisher=Fox News|accessdate=2008-01-31|date=January 30, 2008]
* [http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/ The Official Website of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library]
* [http://www.reaganlibrary.com/welcome.asp The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library Foundation]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qun6HLLYqUY Video of the Gravesite of Ronald Reagan at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g_Kc0TLXs58 Video of the Replica of the Oval Office at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library]
* [http://www.archives.gov/ U.S. National Archives and Records Administration]
* [http://genealogy.wikia.com/wiki/Ronald_Reagan_%281911%29 Ronald Reagan Genealogy] - Wiki Research Project on the Reagan Family History
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