- Faddeev–Popov ghost
In

physics ,**Faddeev-Popov ghosts**(also called**ghost fields**) are additional fields which need to be introduced in the realization ofgauge theories as consistent quantum field theories. There is also a more general meaning of the word "**ghost**" intheoretical physics , which is discussed in the section on General ghosts in theoretical physics.**Overcounting in Feynman path integrals**The necessity for Faddeev-Popov ghosts follows from the requirement that in the

path integral formulation of quantum field theories, the path integrals should not overcount field configurations related by gauge symmetries since those correspond to the same physical state. Consequently, the measure of the path integrals contains an additional factor, which does not allow obtaining various results directly from the action using the regular methods (e.g., Feynman diagrams). It is possible, however, to modify the action such that the regular methods will be applicable. This often requires adding some additional fields, which are called the "ghost fields". This technique is called the**Faddeev-Popov procedure**(see alsoBRST quantization ). The ghost fields are a computational tool, and they do not correspond to any real particles in external states: they "only" appear asvirtual particle s inFeynman diagram s.The exact form or formulation of ghosts is dependent on the particular gauge chosen. The Feynman-'t Hooft gauge is usually the simplest gauge, and is assumed for the rest of this article.

**pin-statistics relation violated**The Faddeev-Popov ghosts violate the

spin-statistics relation .For example, in Yang-Mills theories (such as

quantum chromodynamics ) the ghosts are complex scalar fields (spin 0), but they anticommute (likefermions ).In general, anticommuting ghosts are associated with

boson ic symmetries, while commuting ghosts are associated withfermion ic symmetries.**Gauge fields and associated ghost fields**Every gauge field has an associated ghost, and where the gauge field acquires a mass via the

Higgs mechanism , the associated ghost field acquires the same mass (in the Feynman-'t Hooft gauge only, not true for other gauges).**Appearance in Feynman diagrams**In

Feynman diagram s the ghosts appear as closed loops, attached to the rest of the diagram via a gauge particle at each vertex. Their contribution to the S-matrix is exactly cancelled (in the Feynman-'t Hooft gauge) by a contribution from a similar loop of gauge particles with only 3-vertex couplings or gauge attachments to the rest of the diagram. (A loop of gauge particles not wholly composed of 3-vertex couplings is not cancelled by ghosts.) The opposite sign of the contribution of the ghost and gauge loops is due to them having opposite fermionic/bosonic natures. (Closed fermion loops have an extra -1 associated with them; bosonic loops don't.)**Ghost field Lagrangian**The Lagrangian for the ghost fields $c^a(x),$ in Yang-Mills theories (where $a$ is an index in the adjoint representation of the

gauge group ) is given by:$mathcal\{L\}\_mathrm\{ghost\}\; =\; partial\_mu\; overline\{c\}^apartial^mu\; c^a\; +\; g\; f^\{abc\}(partial^muoverline\{c\}^a)\; A\_mu^b\; c^c.$The first term is a kinetic term like for regular complex scalar fields, and the second term describes the interaction with thegauge field s. Note that in "abelian" gauge theories (such asquantum electrodynamics ) the ghosts do not have any effect since $f^\{abc\}\; =\; 0$ and, consequently, the ghost particles do not interact with the gauge fields.**General ghosts in theoretical physics**The Faddeev-Popov ghosts are sometimes referred to as "

**good ghosts**". The "**bad ghosts**" represent another, more general meaning of the word "ghost" intheoretical physics : states of negative norm—or fields with the wrong sign of the kinetic term, such as Pauli-Villars ghosts—whose existence allows the probabilities to be negative.

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