- Commutativity
In

mathematics ,**commutativity**is the ability to change the order of something without changing the end result. It is a fundamental property in most branches of mathematics and many proofs depend on it. The commutativity of simple operations was for many years implicitly assumed and the property was not given a name or attributed until the 19th century when mathematicians began to formalize the theory of mathematics.**Common uses**The "commutative property" (or "commutative law") is a property associated with

binary operation s and functions. Similarly, if the commutative property holds for a pair of elements under a certain binary operation then it is said that the two elements "commute" under that operation.In group and

set theory , many algebraic structures are called commutative when certain operands satisfy the commutative property. In higher branches of math, such as analysis andlinear algebra the commutativity of well known operations (such asaddition andmultiplication on real and complex numbers) is often used (or implicitly assumed) in proofs. [*Axler, p.2*] [*Gallian, p.34*] [*p. 26,87*]**Mathematical definitions**The term "commutative" is used in several related senses. [

*Krowne, p.1*] [*Weisstein, "Commute", p.1*]1. A

binary operation ∗ on a set "S" is said to be "commutative" if::$forall\; x,y\; in\; S:\; x\; *\; y\; =\; y\; *\; x\; ,$ : - An operation that does not satisfy the above property is called "noncommutative".2. One says that "x commutes" with "y" under ∗ if::$x\; *\; y\; =\; y\; *\; x\; ,$

3. A

binary function f:"A**"×**"A" → "B" is said to be "commutative" if::$forall\; x,y\; in\; A:\; f\; (x,\; y)\; =\; f(y,\; x)\; ,$**History and etymology**Records of the implicit use of the commutative property go back to ancient times. The

Egypt ians used the commutative property ofmultiplication to simplify computingproducts . [*Lumpkin, p.11*] [*Gay and Shute, p.?*]Euclid is known to have assumed the commutative property of multiplication in his book "Elements". [*O'Conner and Robertson, "Real Numbers"*] Formal uses of the commutative property arose in the late 18th and early 19th century when mathematicians began to work on a theory of functions. Today the commutative property is a well known and basic property used in most branches of mathematics. Simple versions of the commutative property are usually taught in beginning mathematics courses.The first use of the actual term "commutative" was in a memoir by Francois Servois in 1814, [

*Cabillón and Miller, "Commutative and Distributive"*] [*O'Conner and Robertson, "Servois"*] which used the word "commutatives" when describing functions that have what is now called the commutative property. The word is a combination of the French word "commuter" meaning "to substitute or switch" and the suffix "-ative" meaning "tending to" so the word literally means "tending to substitute or switch." The term then appeared in English in "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society " in 1844. [*Cabillón and Miller, "Commutative and Distributive"*]**Related properties****Associativity**The associative property is closely related to the commutative property. The associative property states that the order in which operations are performed does not affect the final result. In contrast, the commutative property states that the order of the terms does not affect the final result.

**Symmetry**Symmetry can be directly linked to commutativity. When a commutative operator is written as a binary function then the resulting function is symmetric across the line "y = x". As an example, if we let a function "f" represent addition (a commutative operation) so that "f"("x","y") = "x" + "y" then "f" is a symmetric function which can be seen in the image on the right.

**Examples****Commutative operations in everyday life***Putting your shoes on resembles a commutative operation since it doesn't matter if you put the left or right shoe on first, the end result (having both shoes on), is the same.

*When making change we take advantage of the commutativity of addition. It doesn't matter what order we put the change in, it always adds to the same total.**Commutative operations in math**Two well-known examples of commutative binary operations are: [

*Krowne, p.1*]

* Theaddition ofreal number s, which is commutative since ::$y\; +\; z\; =\; z\; +\; y\; quad\; forall\; y,zin\; mathbb\{R\}$:For example**4 + 5 = 5 + 4**, since both expressions equal 9.

* Themultiplication ofreal number s, which is commutative since::$y\; z\; =\; z\; y\; quad\; forall\; y,zin\; mathbb\{R\}$:For example,**3 × 5 = 5 × 3**, since both expressions equal 15.*Further examples of commutative binary operations include addition and multiplication of

complex number s, addition of vectors, and intersection and union of sets.**Noncommutative operations in everyday life***Washing and drying your clothes resembles a noncommutative operation, if you dry first and then wash, you get a significantly different result than if you wash first and then dry.

*TheRubik's Cube is noncommutative. For example, twisting the front face clockwise, the top face clockwise and the front face counterclockwise (FUF') does not yield the same result as twisting the front face clockwise, then counterclockwise and finally twisting the top clockwise (FF'U). The twists do not commute. This is studied ingroup theory .**Noncommutative operations in math**Some noncommutative binary operations are: [

*Yark, p.1*]

*subtraction is noncommutative since $0-1\; eq\; 1-0$

*division is noncommutative since $1/2\; eq\; 2/1$

*matrix multiplication is noncommutative since:$egin\{bmatrix\}0\; 2\; \backslash 0\; 1end\{bmatrix\}=egin\{bmatrix\}1\; 1\; \backslash 0\; 1end\{bmatrix\}cdotegin\{bmatrix\}0\; 1\; \backslash 0\; 1end\{bmatrix\}\; eqegin\{bmatrix\}0\; 1\; \backslash 0\; 1end\{bmatrix\}cdotegin\{bmatrix\}1\; 1\; \backslash 0\; 1end\{bmatrix\}=egin\{bmatrix\}0\; 1\; \backslash 0\; 1end\{bmatrix\}$**Mathematical structures and commutativity*** An

abelian group is a group whose group operation is commutative. [*Gallian, p.34*]

* Acommutative ring is a ring whosemultiplication is commutative. (Addition in a ring is by definition always commutative.) [*Gallian p.236*]

* In a field both addition and multiplication are commutative. [*Gallian p.250*]**Notes****References****Books***cite book | first=Sheldon | last=Axler | title=Linear Algebra Done Right, 2e | publisher=Springer | year=1997 | id=ISBN 0-387-98258-2:"Abstract algebra theory. Covers commutativity in that context. Uses property throughout book.

*cite book| first=Frederick | last=Goodman | title=Algebra: Abstract and Concrete, Stressing Symmetry, 2e | publisher=Prentice Hall | year=2003 | id=ISBN 0-13-067342-0:"Abstract algebra theory. Uses commutativity property throughout book.

*cite book|first=Joseph|last=Gallian|title=Contemporary Abstract Algebra, 6e|year=2006|id=ISBN 0-618-51471-6:"Linear algebra theory. Explains commutativity in chapter 1, uses it throughout."**Articles***http://www.ethnomath.org/resources/lumpkin1997.pdf Lumpkin, B. (1997). The Mathematical Legacy Of Ancient Egypt - A Response To Robert Palter. Unpublished manuscript.:"Article describing the mathematical ability of ancient civilizations."

*Robins, R. Gay, and Charles C. D. Shute. 1987. "The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus: An Ancient Egyptian Text". London: British Museum Publications Limited. ISBN 0-7141-0944-4:"Translation and interpretation of theRhind Mathematical Papyrus ."**Online Resources***Krowne, Aaron, PlanetMath|title=Commutative|urlname=Commutative, Accessed 8 August 2007.:"Definition of commutativity and examples of commutative operations"

*MathWorld|title=Commute|urlname=Commute, Accessed 8 August 2007.:"Explanation of the term commute"

* [*http://planetmath.org/?op=getuser&id=2760 Yark*] . PlanetMath|title=Examples of non-commutative operations|urlname=ExampleOfCommutative, Accessed 8 August 2007:"Examples proving some noncommutative operations"

*O'Conner, J J and Robertson, E F. [*http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Real_numbers_1.html MacTutor history of real numbers*] , Accessed 8 August 2007:"Article giving the history of the real numbers"

*Cabillón, Julio and Miller, Jeff. [*http://members.aol.com/jeff570/c.html Earliest Known Uses Of Mathematical Terms*] , Accessed 8 August 2007:"Page covering the earliest uses of mathematical terms"

*O'Conner, J J and Robertson, E F. [*http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Servois.html MacTutor biography of François Servois*] , Accessed 8 August 2007:"Biography of Francois Servois, who first used the term"**See also***

Anticommutativity

*Binary operation

*Commutant

*Commutative diagram

*Commutative (neurophysiology)

*Commutator

*Distributivity

*Particle statistics (for commutativity inphysics )

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