Kliper (Клипер, English: Clipper) is a Russian-proposed next generation manned
spacecraftthat was almost selected as the successor to the Soyuz spacecraft. Kliper has been associated with RKK Energia's winged lifting body design proposal in the media; however, two other companies, Khrunichevand Molniya, also submitted proposals to the Russian Space Agency Roskosmos.
Designed primarily to replace the
Soyuz spacecraft, Energia's proposal is intended to be a partly reusable spaceplanethat should be able to glide into the atmosphere at an angle that produces much less deceleration on the human occupants than the current Soyuz.
Energia's Kliper proposal is proposed in two versions: as a pure lifting body design and as a spaceplane with small
wings. The craft is intended to carry up to six people and to be able to perform ferry services between earth and the International Space Station.
July 18, 2006, the state tender of the Russian Space Agency for the Soyuz successor spacecraft that was unofficially tied with suggested ESA financial support was cancelled when Anatoly Perminov announced that none of the three proposals would be chosen by the Russian Federal Space Agency. [ [http://www.flightglobal.com/Articles/2006/07/18/Navigation/200/207935/Farnborough+Russia's+Federal+Space+Agency+cancels+manned+spacecraft.html Flightglobal: Russia's Federal Space Agency cancels manned spacecraft tender] ]
However, Energia's proposal for Kliper continues to be in progress, [ [http://www.flightglobal.com/Articles/2006/07/19/Navigation/200/207953/Farnborough+Energia’s+Kliper+work+continues+with+wind+tunnel.html Flightglobal: Farnborough Air Show - Energia's Klipper work continues] ] without Russian government support, as Energia has announced that they will seek private investment for the craft.
Meanwhile, after the cancellation of the Kliper state tender, the Russian Space Agency has decided to collaborate with the European Space Agency on a study starting in September 2006 to develop a capsule-type spacecraft under the Crew Space Transportation System.
News reports in Russia indicate that Kliper is still expected to be ready for
Russian Space Agencytest flights around the year 2012 [ [http://en.rian.ru/russia/20061226/57833667.html RIA Novosti: Russia remains leader in spacecraft launches] ] , as part of Russian spacecraft upgrade program [ [http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20061220/57396095.html RIA Novosti: Russia implements ambitious space program] ] [ [http://www.energia.ru/english/energia/news/news-2006/public_07-01.html RSC Energia: Concept of Russian Manned Space Navigation] ] . It is also widely expected Facts|date=February 2007 that Energia will spearhead the development of Kliper, since the original design was proposed by them and since the state tender had been cancelled without a winner.
Announcement of the program
In February 2004 FSA deputy director
Nikolai Moiseyevtold journalists that the Kliper project had been included in the Russian federal space program for 2005-15. At that point he announced that if the program is implemented successfully the first launch may even take place in five years' time. Kliper had been developed since 2000 and reportedly relied heavily on research studies as well as proposals for a small Russian lifting bodyspacecraft from the 1990s. Externally its design was comparable to the cancelled European minishuttle Hermes or the NASAstudy X-38. It was planned to be the successor to the veteran spacecraft Soyuz, which has been built in various modifications since 1961.
Early search for support
In 2005 Kliper was displayed in several air shows around Europe and Asia, in order to reach out to international partners who would be interested to co-fund and co-develop the spacecraft. The
Russian Space Agencyespecially looked to Europe as ESAhas become its major partner in space activities during the last years. In May 2005 rumours started in the press that Europe would join the Kliper project in a specially funded venture that would be part of the Aurora Programme. These rumours turned out to be correct when both Russian and European space officials announced their cooperation to build Kliper during the Paris Air Showin Le Bourgeton June 10 2005. [ [http://www.physorg.com/news4524.html Phsorg: ESA to join Russia's Clipper Program (retrieved Dec 27, 2006)] ] [ [http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4286086.stm BBC News: Plans for Euro-Russian Spaceplane (retrieved Dec 27, 2006)] ]
Vladimir Taneev, the leading designer of the Kliper system, speculated on the contribution of Europe to the project in the following way: :"The European companies will likely contribute avionics, materials, and cabin systems. Many different options are on the table, and in the near future we expect to form Russian-European working groups specialized in different subsystems and fields of design."
The Russian Space Agency as well as ESA announced that they would continue to look for other international partners such as
Japanto invest in Kliper. A substantive cooperation with NASA was unlikely, due to the parallel development of America's own next-generation manned launch vehicle, the Crew Exploration Vehicle(CEV).
A further element of this process was made public on
October 12 2005, when various press agencies revealed that JAXA, the Japanese space agency, had been officially approached by Russia to participate in the project. JAXAhas made it clear that they are more likely to join the project if ESAdoes so first, which is in doubt after ESAmembers rejected a study for Europe's involvement in the Kliper project in December 2005. The addition of Japan would make Kliper a truly multinational project, potentially combining the rugged reliability of Russian launchers with Japanese computer technology. A greater pan-national consensus would have allowed for a lighter funding burden on each participant as well.
Announcements and speculations following the February 2004 press conference suggested a development budget of 10 billion rubles (approximately US$400 million). However in looking at today's costs for human space travel it was clear that the 10 billion rubles figure was a rather low estimate. In May 2005
The Guardianreported that costs are estimated to be roughly US$3 billion (for development and construction of Kliper until 2015) of which the bulk of 1.8 billion was speculated to come from Europe. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/space/article/0,14493,1489679,00.html Guardian: Europe to hitch Spaceride on Russia's rocket (retrieved Dec 27, 2006)] ] Different sources in 2005 have reported that the money needed for the program would be 1.5 billion Euros ($1.8 billion) [ [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,1564,1649104,00.html Deutsche Welle: Europeans take on NASA (retrieved Dec 27, 2006)] ] and on December 12, 2005an article stated it would be €1 billion (solely in relation to development costs). [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1812755,00.html Deutsche Welle: Europe Keen to join Russia in new spaceship project (retrieved Dec 27, 2006)] ]
July 14 2005the Russian government approved the national space program for 2006 to 2015 with a budget of 305 billion rubles (ca. $11 billion - the whole budget for the 10-year period will be 425 billion rubles = ca. 15 billion dollars [ [http://www.forbes.com/finance/feeds/afx/2005/07/15/afx2141304.html Forbes: Russian government agrees to 12.5 billion EUR 10-year spaceprogram (retrieved Dec 27, 2006)] ] ). The budget included the needed funding for the Kliper program. [ [http://www.rbcnews.com/free/20050714122650.shtml RBCNews: Government approves space program for 2006-2015 (retrieved Dec 27, 2006)] ] Thus in face of Europe's denial to fund a €50m feasibility study for the Kliper project at the European space summit in December 2005, Russian space officials have announced that Russia would fund Kliper even without any European contribution.
The most recent article on Kliper stated that the project would have incurred 16 billion rubles (~$600 million) in development costs, 11 billion of which will be financed by the government and 5 billion by contractors. [http://www.flightinternational.com/Articles/2006/02/14/Navigation/177/204620/Kliper+choice+delayed.html Flight International: Kliper choice delayed (retrieved Dec 27, 2006)] ]
First launch and target for regular flights
In 2004 it was announced that it was likely that Kliper would make its first launch as early as 2010 or 2011 – the same time the
Space Shuttlewas scheduled to be retired. However, it was reported by BBCNews on September 27 2005, that the first flight tests were not planned until 2011, with the first manned flights in 2012 and the Soyuz being phased out over time until 2014. An article on December 3, 2005[ [http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20051202/42288677.html RIA Novosti: Russian technologies can put cosmonauts on Moon] ] cited the president of the EnergiaRocket and Space Corporation Nikolai Sevastyanovthat "the first regular lift-off is scheduled for 2012, while a complete transport system will be in place by 2015." After the termination of the Russian Space Agency's tender for a new spacecraft, Energia announced that this would push its Kliper proposal's first flight (if developed at all) back further.
ESA's part in Kliper - Uncertainty over European cooperation
September 28 2005the BBC reported that Alan Thirkettle, head of ESA's Human Spaceflight Development Department, stated that Kliper would be used: "For future exploration, when we have the objective of going to the Moon, it is important to have several possibilities to go there, and within this framework of cooperation to have our own access to orbit around the Moon." In the same context, Alain Fournier-Sicre, head of the ESA permanent mission in the Russian Federation, also stated that: "The objective is to have a vehicle which is more comfortable than the Soyuz capsule which will be used with pilots and four passengers...It's meant to service the space station and to go between Earth and an orbit around the Moon with six crew members."
Although there seemed to be a lot of enthusiasm for Kliper within Alan Thirkettle's team at
ESA(as outlined in the above paragraph), on December 7, 2005, the European space summit of governmental officials of ESAmember states declined to approve a 50-million-euro two-year study focusing on ESA's potential involvement in the Kliper project. In denying funding for the study ESAmembers stated that, among other factors that seemed unfavourable, under the current Russian proposal Europe would not share control over the design of the program and would be limited to being a small industrial contributor. Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA's Director General, put the refusal to fund the study into context: "It is not a question of member states for and member states against. I think the decision could not be taken for reasons that are not linked to Clipper itself. The decision could not be taken because of budgetary restraints." Dordain concluded that he was convinced that European support for Kliper was vital for ESA's future involvement in space transport and that a favourable decision can be achieved until June 2006. In concluding "We need two transportation systems in the world", [ [http://www.nature.com/news/2005/051205/full/051205-7.html Nature: Europe unites over space bugdet] ] Dordain also outlined shortly after the European Space Summit that the primary requirement of Europe's involvement in the Kliper project was to rely on two separate systems to support the ISS as had been proven vital after the Columbia Shuttledisaster in 2003.
Dordain's remarks were echoed by Daniel Sacotte, ESA's director of human spaceflight, microgravity and exploration, in saying simply that "The Russians are not going to finance it, we will finance it from our side", despite adding a cautionary note that "We needed the support from at least two states out of France, Italy and Germany. We didn't get it.". What this means in practical terms remains to be seen; however what is clear is that
ESAofficials are still pushing for Europe's involvement in the Kliper project.
Very negative comments relative to Kliper were brought by the various national delegations at the December meeting, in particular by the French Minister of Research
François Goulard. In short, there remain for the time being member states strongly committed to Kliper, and others just as strongly opposed. The long-term view remains uncertain.
Jean-Jacques Dordainexplained that money allocated to space transportation development, which ESA currently funds in the amount of 300 million for the next 3 years, could be used for Europe's involvement in the project. Given the February 2006 statement that 5 billion rubles (~$200 million) of the development costs will come from "contractors", a limited involvement of ESAin Kliper might have been forthcoming.
Final project selection and end of Russian Space Agency's tender for Kliper
At the end of 2005,
Roskosmosannounced that a tender for Kliper would be held in January 2006 between RKK Energia, Khrunichevand Molniyawith a selection date of February 3, 2006. However concerns about the bids led to a delay in the process, with a resubmittal deadline of March, 2006 and selection was rescheduled for April 2006. Following further delays, the tender was cancelled on 18 July, 2006. [http://www.flightglobal.com/Articles/2006/07/18/Navigation/200/207935/Farnborough+Russia's+Federal+Space+Agency+cancels+manned+spacecraft.html www.flightglobal.com] ]
In late July 2006, the Russian Space Agency and the European Space Agency agreed to collaborate on a different project to develop a new spacecraft. They decided to fund a study under a program labelled Crew Space Transportation System (
CSTS) which started in September 2006 and evaluate a capsule type concept, derived from Soyuz. While this program is the follow-on project of the RSA's and ESA's collaboration on a new spacevehicle, this program is no longer connected to Energia's winged Kliper design.
Energia has announced that it will try to seek private funding to develop and build its winged Kliper spacecraft, but has conceded that without the funding by the Russian government Kliper will take longer until flyoff, if it is eventually developed and built.
Current Progress: Kliper now part of Russian spacecraft upgrade program
It has recently been reported that Kliper will be developed as the final stage of Russian manned and cargo spacecraft "overhaul". According to the article, the spacecraft upgrade program stages are: [ [http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20061220/57396095.html RIA Novosti - Opinion & analysis - Russia set to implement ambitious space program (Part II) ] ]
*Stage one: Starting in 2007, upgrade of Soyuz space vehicles. As a rule, each Soyuz crew consists of two professional astronauts and one space tourist. The revamped Soyuz, due to lift off in 2011, will carry two professionals and two passengers. Most importantly, it will be able to dock with the International Space Station, fly around the Moon and return to Earth at speeds of about 40 000 kilometers per hour (25 000 miles per hour), the equivalent of its
escape velocity. "(Note the similarity to ESA requirements - this may effectively make CSTSdevelopment redundant)"
*Stage Two: Development of the Parom (Ferry) reusable transport system, which will replace the Progress cargo craft. The Parom system will comprise a reusable orbiter and expendable 12-metric-ton freight containers. This is a remarkable achievement because Progress spacecraft can now deliver just 2.5 metric tons of dry and liquid cargo to the ISS.
*Stage Three: This stage will witness the launch of a Kliper-type reusable space shuttle featuring technologies that will be streamlined during the first and second stages.
"The stages described in this report are very consistent to Energia's "Concept of national manned space navigation" proposal, as described by chief Nikolay Sevastiyanov on
May 24, 2006[ [http://www.energia.ru/english/energia/news/news-2006/public_07-01.html] ] ."
Energias' lead designer of the Kliper project has said that there are plans for a manned flight in 2012. [ [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,391480,00.html FOXNews.com - International Space Race Heats Up as More Players Jump In - Science News | Science & Technology | Technology News ] ]
Given the Russian Space Agency's preference for Energia's lifting body proposal this part of the article concentrates entirely on Energia's design for Kliper.
designwas another attempt to solve the geometric problems of spacecraft. Soyuz has an Orbital Module, a hollow sphere, to be used for eating and hygiene, and an airlock located above the Reentry module (the capsule), with the docking mechanism at the top. In the event of an emergency, it would be lifted away from the rocket along with the reentry module, and the fairing over the spacecraft was designed to successfully split apart either circumferentially just below the reentry module in such an emergency or longitudinally if the flight should be successful. Kliper was designed with the Orbital Module below its reentry module, and the docking mechanism below that. This was made possible by constructing a reentry module broader than the orbital module, so that a pair of rocket nozzles for orbital maneuvering could have been fitted alongside it, as the later Salyutspace stations had.
In connection with this new design, Kliper will feature a launch escape system that will enable it to detach from the
carrier rocketif an abort of the mission during orbital ascent is required. An abort will be possible during every phase of the launch with the limitation of the first seconds after launch. [ [http://en.rian.ru/science/20050614/40521455.html RIA Novosti - Science & Technologies - Russia's new spaceship to save crew in possible LV accident ] ]
Lifting body design
On return from space, Kliper's
lifting bodydesign would not only allow a smoother descent into Earth's atmosphere than the capsuledesign, such as Soyuz; but also permit control. RKK Energiaclaimed that the craft would be able to land in a predetermined one-square-kilometer area. Artistic impressions showed that the Kliper would have resembled a cylinder topped by a cone. Originally, landing proposals involved both a landing by parachuteand as an alternative, in a modified version, a landing on a runway similar to an aircraft, or the Space Shuttle. However, leading designer Vladimir Daneevcommented on this issue in June 2005: :"We are 99% sure that it will be a spaceship with upturned little wings, enabling the Kliper to land on any class-one military airfield with a runway from three to three and a half kilometers in length." [http://en.rian.ru/science/20050614/40521455.html http://en.rian.ru] ]
Kliper, as a vehicle alone, would have been primarily a manned spaceship, carrying six cosmonauts and payloads of up to 700 kilograms (mostly experiments and other equipment used for carrying through experiments in orbit) and was planned to stay in orbit for approximately 15 days independently and for up to 360 days if docked to the International Space Station. This highlighted both the Russian/European and the American change in space transportation philosophy. Rather than focusing on the lifting of cargo and a crew, in the same way as the
Space Shuttleor Buran, the Russian space agency adopted a 'people first' philosophy with the aim of 'bolting' extra capabilities for more advanced missions onto Kliper at a later date. Each orbiter was intended to make 25 flights prior to retirement.
Using a space tug
During autumn of 2005 Kliper's design was changed again. In order to fit the Kliper on the planned upgraded version of the Soyuz-2 rocket, labeled the Soyuz-2-3, Kliper would be 'split up' into two spacecraft, the Kliper crew vehicle and
Parom, a space tug. Parom would have been a permanent orbital spacecraft awaiting Kliper in orbit, docking with it and then providing orbital manoeuvering and boosting Kliper to higher orbits in order to dock with the International Space Station. The Parom was planned to be indefinitely reusable, refueling itself via the cargo container, space station, or spacecraft that it is attached to. [ [http://www.russianspaceweb.com/kliper.html Kliper (Clipper) spacecraft ] ] [ [http://www.flightinternational.com/Articles/2005/11/01/Navigation/200/202471/Lighter+Kliper+could+make+towed+trip+to+ISS.html Lighter Kliper could make towed trip to ISS-01/11/2005-Flight International ] ]
Final version of Energia's proposal
The version of Kliper presented during the bid in January 2006 differs again from the original design. It showed a lifting body with larger wings, that, according to Energia officials, could be folded around the core crew module and unfold after atmospheric re-entry in order to provide cross-range and better landing accuracy for the spacecraft. The light Kliper version proposed was stripped down to 7 tons and uses the 'split-up'-option with
Paromas a spacetug.
The Kliper program was proposed as the Russian-European counterpart to the American Orion Spacecraft and was therefore designed (similar to the Orion) to be part of a modular system that enabled it to be both a LEO-shuttle type vehicle as well as part of a spacecraft able to go beyond Earth orbit to the Moon and even Mars (there were outline suggestions of lunar applications in September 2005). The modular design would have included the Kliper crew module and - depending on the mission - a mission module or propulsion module. Although far fetched, this corresponds to announcements by the
Russian Space Agencythat according to a lunar mission study, using the Soyuz, a landing on the Moon could be achieved within the next decade. [ [http://www.mosnews.com/news/2005/11/24/moon.shtml Mosnews.com ] ]
Information on Kliper's beyond LEO mission capabilities were expanded further by RSC Energia, with a picture released in December 2005 of what a possible Kliper interplanetary configuration might have looked like. The design was entirely theoretical but made for a view of where
RSC Energiasaw the Kliper operating, and how it might have done so. This configuration was unlike anything seen so far for a manned space vehicle, with the solar arrays needed for electrical power vastly bigger than the habitable volume at the centre. It was also unclear what the mode of propulsion was. The very large solar array suggested an ion propulsionsystem might have been contemplated for such a mission, though it might also simply be that there was another reason for such a large array, such as increased power for better telemetry transmission rates over large distances.
The present Soyuz rocket would not be able to lift Kliper into low earth orbit, because the spacecraft (the version designed without
Parom) was expected to weigh between 13 and 14.5 metric tons (with payload and crew) whereas Soyuz only has a lifting capacity of around 8 metric tons. It was originally planned to heavily enhance the Soyuz rocket - a project that was labelled the Onega rocketor Soyuz-3. Until fall of 2005 it was much more likely that Kliper would have used an Angara-A3 rocket, which was scheduled to make its first launch 2012 (however the Angara program has been delayed and Angara-A3 may not be developed in light of the funding of the development of Soyuz 2-3) or possibly a Zenit rocketthat is built in Ukraine.
At the end of 2005, Kliper's design was changed again (as outlined above) and the most likely solution for a carrier rocket became the
Soyuz 2-3, an upgraded Soyuz 2rocket. This enhanced Soyuz should have been able to launch Kliper into space because of weight reduction resulting in the use of the Paromas a space tug. [http://www.flightinternational.com/Articles/2005/11/01/Navigation/200/202471/Lighter+Kliper+could+make+towed+trip+to+ISS.html Flight International] ]
With regard to launch sites for Kliper, further information became available as of October 2005, with a planning-stage declaration from Nikolai Moiseev, Deputy Director of the Russian Space Agency that Kliper could have been launched from ESA's
Guiana Space Centrein French Guiana. Though this aim had already been suggested, the comment was made in the context of facility upgrades for Kourou that are already under way since 2003 and are expected to be finished in 2007 with the first launch of a Soyuz rocket from French Guiana in 2008. It had been suggested that Kliper could have been launched from both Baikonurand Kourou, by Alan Thirkettle, head of ESA's human spaceflight, microgravity and exploration directorate, in December 2005. [ [http://www.space.com/businesstechnology/051207_tech_wednesday.html SPACE.com - Russia's Next Spaceship: Alternative to NASA's CEV ] ]
* Crew Space Transportation System (CSTS) - possible replacement programme to Kliper
Crew Exploration Vehiclethe American counterpart program
European Space Agency
Russian Space Agency
Shuttle Derived Launch Vehicle
* [http://www.russianspaceweb.com/kliper.html Images and information at Russian Space Web]
* [http://www.astronautix.com/craft/kliper.htm Images and information at Astronautix]
* [http://www.buran.ru/htm/cliper.htm Kliper section at www.buran.ru] (in Russian) (Also see buran.ru author's comments about this section at Новости Космонавтики forum: [http://www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?p=123141#123141 1] , [http://www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?p=123145#123145 2] ).
* [http://missiles.ru/foto_MAKS-2005_Press-tur.htm Winged Kliper at MAKS-2005 Air Show] (August 2005)
* [http://www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/content/photogallery/gallery_032/index.shtml Kliper mock-up photo gallery] (May 2005). Also see the [http://www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=1156 thread at Новости Космонавтики forum] about the presentation on
November 30 2004(in Russian).
* [http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/ESA_Permanent_Mission_in_Russia/SEMG5R9DFZD_0.html ESA on its permanent cooperation with Russia in space and Putin's commitment to the Kliper project] - 2004
* [http://www.esrin.esa.int/SPECIALS/ESA_Permanent_Mission_in_Russia/SEMONS5DIAE_0.html Europe envisages cooperation on new Russian space plane]
July 1, 2005
In the news
December 20, 2006- [http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20061220/57396095.html RIAN Opinion & analysis: Russia set to implement ambitious space program (Part II)]
*July, 2006 - [http://www.energia.ru/english/energia/news/news-2006/public_07-01.html RSC Energia: Concept of national manned space navigation]
*April, 2006 - [http://www.energia.ru/english/energia/news/news-2006/public_02-01.html Russian Space - Manned Spaceflight To Be Cost-Efficient]
February 14, 2006- [http://www.flightinternational.com/Articles/2006/02/14/Navigation/177/204620/Kliper+choice+delayed.html Kliper choice delayed]
January 31, 2006- [http://flightinternational.com/Articles/2006/01/31/Navigation/200/204434/Energia+holds+lead+in+Kliper+contest.html Energia holds lead in Kliper contest]
January 18, 2006- [http://www.roscosmos.ru/NewsDoSele.asp?NEWSID=1322 Tender to build new-generation spaceship has started. (in Russian)]
January 17, 2006- [http://en.rian.ru/russia/20060117/43045501.html Clipper spacecraft constructor to be announced in February 2006]
December 9, 2005- [http://edition.cnn.com/2005/TECH/space/12/09/russia.esa.clipper.reut/ ESA vows to clinch cash for shuttle]
December 9, 2005- [http://www.gulf-times.com/site/topics/article.asp?cu_no=2&item_no=63923&version=1&template_id=39&parent_id=21 Europe keen to join Russia in new spaceship project]
December 6, 2005- [http://www.space.com/news/051205_clipper.html Europeans Unlikely to Back Russia's Manned Space Vehicle]
November 1, 2005- [http://www.flightinternational.com/Articles/2005/11/01/202471/Lighter+Kliper+could+make+towed+trip+to+ISS.html A lighter version of Kliper (which would work in combination with the Parom space tug) is under consideration by RSA and ESA]
October 12, 2005- [http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20051014a4.htm Japanese Space Agency confirms its invitation to participate in the project]
October 6, 2005- [http://www.physorg.com/news7024.html Short note concerning the RSA's outline intention to use the Kourou launch site for Kliper]
September 28, 2005- [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4286086.stm ESA chiefs release more information on the collaboration]
August 21, 2005-- [http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/WEBONLY/resource/aug05/0805nshut.html ESA and Russia collaborate on Kliper]
July 15, 2005-- [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,1564,1649104,00.html Europeans take on NASA]
* June, 2005 -- [http://www.1tv.ru/owa/win/ort6_videopage.main?sender=news&p_topic_id=78194&p_video_num=1&counter1_href=287212&counter2_href=id=268366;t=56 Report on the Paris Air Show, partly about Kliper (in Russian)]
June 17, 2005-- [http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/WEBONLY/wonews/jun05/0605nparis.html Spectrum article on Kliper at Le Bourget]
June 15, 2005-- [http://en.rian.ru/russia/20050615/40528022.html Europe and Russia team up for the Kliper spacecraft]
June 15, 2005-- [http://english.pravda.ru/science/19/94/379/15647_lebourget.html Article in the Pravda over the European-Russian partnership with Kliper (English)]
June 10, 2005-- [http://en.rian.ru/science/20050614/40521455.html Information on Kliper's launch escape system]
February 15, 2005-- [http://english.pravda.ru/science/19/94/379/14964_klipper.html Article in the Pravda on planned Kliper exposition at Le Bourget'2005 airshow]
* September 2004 -- [http://www.mosnews.com/news/2004/09/16/kliper.shtml Mosnews - Russia Prepares Launch of New Space Shuttle] -- (with image of barebone Kliper)
* April 2004 -- Energija's Nikolaj Brjuchanov and ESA's Joerg Feustel-Buechl on Kliper in ARD (German TV) [http://www.daserste.de/wwiewissen/thema_dyn~id,oialj0zadyy2227v~cm.asp] (in German)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.