List of Polish wars

List of Polish wars

Below is a list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces participated or took place on Polish territory.

Piast Poland

During the Middle Ages, the Polans ever since first being established as Dukes, starting with Mieszko I, then Boleslaw I and so on, fought to conquer larger territories, then having to defend keeping these conquered territories from the Holy Roman Empire. At the same time Poland tried to conquer its eastern neighbours, such as Ruthenia. Occasionally, it encountered Bohemian, Tartar, Prussian and Lithuanian raids.

* 972, against Germany, see battle of Cedynia
* 1003–1005, against Germany
* 1007–1013, against Germany
* 1015–1018, against Germany
* 1018, against Kievan Rus
* 1072, against Bohemia
* 1109, against Germany
* 1146, against Germany
* 1156, against Germany
* 1241, Mongol invasion of Poland, with prominent Battle of Legnica
* 1326–1333, against the Teutonic Order, see Battle of Płowce

Jagiellon Poland

For years having been attacked by Poland, the independend Prussians and Pomeranians neverthe-less had been able to ward off the Poles. With the aid of the Lithuanian Jagiellons, Poland thought itself powerful enough to attack neighbors to the north – the Teutonic Order.

* 1409–1411, the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War (1409-1411), Poland allied with Lithuania against the Teutonic Order, see battle of Grunwald
* 1414, Polish-Teutonic War (1414) known as Hunger War
* 1422, Polish-Teutonic War (1422), known as Gollub War ending with the Treaty of Melno
* 1431–1435, Polish-Teutonic War (1431–1435)
* 1439, against the Hussites, see battle of Grotniki
* 1444, with Hungary against Turkey see battle of Varna
* 1454–1466, Thirteen Years' War, Civil war between cities in Prussia, mainly Prussian Confederation against the Teutonic Order
* 1467–1479, War of the Priests ("Pfaffenkrieg", Warmia Stift Feud)
* 1509–1510, Polish-Moldavian War
* 1519–1521, Polish-Teutonic War (1519–1521), leading to the Prussian Homage in 1525
* 1524, Ottoman-Tatar Invasion of Lithuania and Poland.

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

The 17th century saw fierce rivalry between the then major Eastern European powers – Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. At its heyday, the Commonwealth comprised the territories of present-day Poland, and large parts of Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Russia, and represented a major European power. However, by the end of the 18th century a series of internal conflicts and wars with foreign enemies led to the dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the partitioning of most of its dependent territories among other European powers.

* 1561–1570 First Livonian War, First Northern War or Northern Seven Years' War (Polish: I Wojna o Inflanty, Pierwsza Wojna Północna). Participants and monarchs: Poland (Zygmunt II August), Denmark (Frederick II), Sweden (Eric XIV), Russia (Ivan IV the Terrible). Result: inconclusive, see Treaty of Stettin
* 1577 - Danzig rebellion and the Siege of Danzig (1577) by king Stefan Batory. Result: inconclusive: In return for ransom and recognition of him as the sovereign, King Batory discarded the Karnkowski constitution of 1570. []
* 1576–1582, Livonian War, Second Livonian War (Polish: II wojna o Inflanty). Participants: Russia (Ivan IV the Terrible), Poland (Stefan Batory). Results: Polish victory Peace treaty in Jam Zapolski
** 1577 - First Campaign of Batory
** 1579 - Second Campaign of Batory
** 1580 - Third Campaign of Batory
* 1588 - War of Polish succession (1587-1588) - civil war of the election (Polish: Wojna o sukcesję polską) Participants: factions of Sigismund III Vasa and Maximilian III. Battles: siege of Kraków, battle of Byczyna (24 Jan 1588). Result: victory and coronation of Zygmunt III Waza.
*1589 - Tatar Invasion.
*1591–1593 - Kosiński Uprising (Polish: Powstanie Kosińskiego). Cossack uprising under Krzysztof Kosiński against Poland (Kresy magnates). Important battles: battle of Piątek, battle of Czerkasy. Result: Polish victory
*1593 - Tatar Invasion.
*1594–1596 - Nalewajko Uprising (Polish: Powstanie Nalewajki). Cossack uprising under Semen Nalewajko/Sejmon Nalewajka and Hryhor Łoboda against Poland (Stanisław Żółkiewski). Important battles: battle of Ostry Kamień, battle of Łubnie, battle of Sołonica. Result: Polish victory
*1595–1621, Magnate wars in Moldavia, against Ottoman Empire/Turkey. Result: Polish defeat
**1620–1621 - Ottoman-Commonwealth War (1620-1621) - Polish defeat at the Battle of Cecora, then Polish victory - Commonwealth stopped Ottomans great invasion Battle at Chocim
*1600–1629, Polish-Swedish Wars, Third Livonian War (Polish: III wojna o Inflanty). Participants: Poland (Zygmunt III Waza), Sweden (first Charles IX of Sweden, then Gustavus Adolphus). Result: inconclusive/Swedish minor victory, see also Armistice of Altmark (Stary Targ).
** War against Sigismund
** Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1611
** Polish–Swedish War (1617–1618)
** Polish-Swedish War of 1620-1622
** Polish-Swedish War of 1625-1629
*1605–1618, Polish-Muscovite War (1605 - 1618) against Russia
** First Dimitriad: 1605-1606
** Second Dimitriad 1607-1609
* 1606–1608 - Zebrzydowski Rebellion, a civil war in Poland. Minor victory of king Zygmunt III Waza.
*1618–1648, Thirty Years' War – minor involvement on the Habsburg side, mostly noticeable in the series of wars with Sweden (see above and below)
*1620-1621 - Ottoman-Commonwealth War (1620-1621) - Polish defeat at the Battle of Cecora ends the Magnate wars in Moldavia
*1624 - Tatar Invasion.
*1625 - Żmajła Uprising. (Polish: Powstanie Żmajły). Cossack uprising under Marek Żmajło and Michał Doroszenko (Myhailo Doroshenko) against Poland (Stanisław Koniecpolski). Important battles: battle of Kryłów, battle of Cybulnik. Result: Polish victory (see Treaty of Jezioro Kurukowe (ugoda kurukowska)).
*1629 - Fedorowicz Uprising. (Polish: Powstanie Fedorowicza). Cossack uprising under Taras Fedorowicz against Poland (Stanisław Koniecpolski). Important battles: battle of Korsuń, Noc Taraswowa battle of Perejasław. Result: Polish victory, although Cossacks gained some minor freedoms (see Treaty of Perejasław).
*1632–1634, Smolensk War, against Russia. Comonwealth win Battles at Smolensk
*1633 - 1634, Ottoman-Commonwealth War (1633-1634)
*1637 - Pawluk Uprising. (Polish: Powstanie Pawluka). Cossack uprising under Paweł Pawluk against Poland (Mikołaj Potocki). Important battles: battle of Kumejki. Result: Polish victory, see Treaty of Borowica.
*1638 - Ostrzanin Uprising. ("Powstanie Ostranicy"). Cossack uprising under Jakub Ostrzanin, Dymitr Hunia, and Karp Skidan against Poland (Mikołaj Potocki, Jeremi Wiśniowiecki. Important battles: battle of Żołnin, capitulation at Starzec. Result: Polish victory, see Treaty of Słoboda
*1644 - Tatar Invasion.
*1648–1654, Chmielnicki Uprising, the largest and most successful Cossack uprising against Polish domination.
*1654–1656, Polish-Russian War (1654-1656), against Russia.
*1655–1661, Northern Wars – against Sweden
*The wars against Sweden, Brandenburg, Russia and Transylvania, known as The Deluge.
*1658–1667, Polish-Russian War (1658-1667) against Russia. Ends with Treaty of Andrusovo.
*1666–1671, Polish-Cossack-Tatar War (1666-1671). Ends with the Ottoman-Commonwealth War (1672-1676)
*1672–1676, Ottoman-Commonwealth War (1672-1676), against the Ottoman Empire
*1683–1699, War of the Holy League (1683–1699) together with Austria, Venice and Russia against the Ottoman Empire. Poles under John III Sobieski save Vienna from Turks.

During the 18th century, European powers (most frequently consisting of Russia, Sweden, Prussia and Saxony) fought several wars for the control of the territories of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. At the end of the 18th century, some Poles attempted to defend Poland from growing foreign influence in the country's internal affairs. These late attempts to preserve independence eventually failed, ultimately ending in Poland's partition and the final dissolution of the remains of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

* 1700–1721, Great Northern War – on the side of the anti-Swedish coalition
* 1733–1738, War of the Polish Succession
* 1768–1774, Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774
** Confederation of Bar
* 1792, Polish-Russian War of 1792 – against Russia
* 1794, Kościuszko Uprising – against Russia

19th century Partitions and World War I

Poles unsuccessfully struggled to win back their independence throughout the 19th century. At first, they put their hopes in Napoleon. Later, they tried to ignite national uprisings every now and then – most of them bloodily repressed.
* 1797-1805 - on the French side Polish Legionary fought in Italy and South Germany
* 1803 - Haitian Revolution – on the French side, see Polish Legions in Italy
* 1806-1807 - Prussian Campaign Napoleon establish Duchy of Warsaw, Polish Army fought on the French side
* 1809 - Franco-Austrian War (see Napoleonic Wars) – on the French side
* 1808–1814, Peninsular War – on the French side many Polish brilliant victories
* 1812–1814, Franco-Russian War – on the French side
* 1830–1831, November Uprising – against Russia
* 1863–1864, January Uprising – against Russia
* 1914–1918, World War I

Second Polish Republic and World War II

In the turmoil of the First World War, Poles managed to regain independence and then to expand their territory in a series of local wars and uprisings; only to be occupied again during the next world war. The second half of the 20th century was more peaceful, but still tense, as Poland was involved in the Cold War on the Soviet side.

* 1918–1919, Polish-Ukrainian War, against the West Ukrainian People's Republic over control of Lwów (L'viv) and eastern Galicia
* 1918–1919 Greater Poland Uprising – against Germany
* 1919, Polish-Czechoslovak border conflicts defending Cieszyn Silesia against Czechoslovakia
* 1919, First Silesian Uprising – against Germany
* 1919, Polish Coup in Wilna (Vilnius).
* 1919–1921, Polish-Soviet War
* 1920, Second Silesian Uprising – against Germany
* 1920, Polish–Lithuanian War
* 1921, Third Silesian Uprising – against Germany
* 1936–1939 - Spanish Civil War (Polish Dabrowski Brigade)
* 1938 - Polish-Lithuanian Crisis
* 1939–1945, Second World War – on the Allied side
** 1939, Invasion of Poland
** Polish contribution to World War II
** 1943–1945 Italian Campaign, the Polish Legion takes Monte Cassino.
** 1943 - Warsaw Ghetto Rising.
** Operation Tempest
*** 1944 - Operation Ostra Brama
*** 1944 - Lwów Uprising
*** 1944 - Warsaw Rising
**1942-1945, Massacres of Poles in Volhynia

People's Republic of Poland

*1968, invasion of Czechoslovakia on the Soviet side, see Prague Spring

Third Polish Republic

* 2001, 2001 war in Afghanistan – on NATO side
* 2003, Invasion of Iraq – on the U.S. side
** Polish contribution to the 2003 invasion of Iraq

Polish uprisings

The Polish concept of uprising is derived from the system of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where the szlachta was supposed to play an important role in the governing of the country. Unsatisfied noblemen were allowed to form Rokosz, the legal rebellion against government. Rebellion movements were shaped in the Confederation, a council whose members voted.

Following the example, national uprising were perfectly organised movements against the oppressors. Many of them occurred during the century of uprisings (1764–1864), and were, with small exceptions, all defeated.

Uprisings against the Russian Empire

*Confederation of Bar 1768
*Kościuszko Uprising 1794
*November Uprising 1830–1831
*January Uprising 1863–1864
*1905 Uprising 1905

Uprisings against the Austrian Empire

*Kraków Uprising 1846
*Galician Uprising 1846–1848

Uprisings against the German Empire

(Polish: "powstania wielkopolskie") were a series of 5 military insurrections of the Polish people in the Greater Poland region (also called the Grand Duchy of Poznań) against the occupying Prussian and German forces, after the partitions of Poland (1772-1795).
** Greater Poland Uprising 1794 - to help the Kościuszko Uprising
** Greater Poland Uprising 1806 - to help Napoleon I to liberate Poland and create the Duchy of Warsaw
** Greater Poland Uprising 1846 - part of the all-Polish 3-partition uprising
** Greater Poland Uprising 1848 - part of the Spring of Nations
** Greater Poland Uprising (1918–1919) (1918-1919) - Poland regains independence after the World War I

The next era of uprising started with forming years of the Poland after World War I:

The Silesian Uprisings (Polish: "Powstania śląskie") was a series of three military insurrections (1919–1921) of the Polish people in the Upper Silesia region against the occupying German/Prussian forces in order to liberate the region and join to Poland, that regained her independence after the World War I (1914–1918)

*First Silesian Uprising: 16 August-26 August 1919
*Second Silesian Uprising: 19 August-25 August 1920
*Third Silesian Uprising: 2 May-5 July 1921


*Sejny Uprising - August 22-29, 1919, against Lithuania

Polish uprisings against Nazi Germany

*Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (the largest of Ghetto Uprisings in Poland) 1943
* Operation Tempest, all-national uprising against Germany on the approach of the Soviet army
** Warsaw Uprising 1944
** Operation Ostra Brama 1944
** Lwów Uprising 1944

Anti-communists protests:

* Poznań 1956 protests.
* Polish 1970 protests.
* Solidarity movement 1980–1989

See also

* History of Europe
* List of wars
* Military of Poland
* Polish-Ottoman Wars
* Polish-Russian Wars
* Polish-Swedish wars

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