- Principality of Salerno
The Lombard Principality of Salerno was a South Italian state, centered on the port city of
Salerno, formed out of the Principality of Beneventoafter a decade-long civil war in 851.
Through its origins, it owed allegiance to the Western Emperor, but throughout its history was practically independent (and even for brief periods entered into the vassalage of the
In 841, the prince of Benevento,
Sicard, died. Immediately, his chief army officer, Radelchis, seized power in Benevento and imprisoned Sicard's heir and brother, Siconulf, in Taranto. Amalfitan merchants rescued Siconulf from prison and he was proclaimed prince in Salerno. A civil war erupted in the Italian Mezzogiorno. In 847, the Emperor Lothair Ihad Guy I of Spoletoand Sergius I of Naplesmediate a division of the great Lombard principality. In 849, Louis, King of Italy, the "Radelgisi et Siginulfi principum Divisio Ducatus Beneventani" divided the principality into two sections: one with its capital at Salerno and another with the original Benevento.
Salerno consisted of
Taranto, Cassano, Cosenza, Paestum, Conza, Potenza, Sarno, Cimitile ( Nola), Capua, Teano, and Sora. It was a maritime power with numerous seaports, including Salerno itself, and controlled mostly the western half of the old duchy.
The principality did not enjoy stability in its early years. In 851, Siconulf died and his son Sico was still a child. He was deposed and replaced by his regent, Peter, in 853 and Peter was succeeded that year by his son Adhemar. Adhemar's stormy princeship ended violently: a revolt deposed him and Guaifer, the scion of a local family of note, the Dauferidi, had him blinded and imprisoned. Guaifer succeeded him in the princely office with the support of the people. He stabilised the principality during his long reign of nineteen years. His successors reigned for similarly lengthy periods and Salerno surpassed Benevento in greatness in a short time.
During Guaifer's reign, Capua made itself independent. Salerno was still technically a vassal of the Western emperor, but it was practically independent. The prince even allied himself with the
Saracens. In 880, Guaifer was removed in a precedent-setting act by his son: Guaimar I forced him into a monastery and took up the reins of government. The chronicles of his reign describe him in despotic terms and he does not seem to have been popular. He did reverse the alliance with the Saracens in favour of closer ties to the emperor, then Charles the Bald. In 887, however, he broke with the West and did homage to the Byzantine Emperor and received the title of " patricius". In 900 or 901, his son, Guaimar II, forced him into his own monastic foundation of San Massimo and began his reign.
Guaimar II raised Salerno to greatness. He was a more religious prince than his father, who had been pious by the standards of the time. He introduced the
Cluniac reformsto Salerno. He was also more inclined to war with the Moslems and took part in the famous Battle of the Gariglianoin 915. In this he was the ally of the Byzantines, as he was throughout his reign, with the exception of a brief period in the 920s. He increased his prestige and influence through marriage alliances with the Beneventans and Capuans, and even entered into successful schemes against the Byzantine Campania, where he gained much ground. Guaimar further worked to stabilise his dynasty by altering the pattern of succession: he appointed his son Gisulf I as co-prince in 943 and Gisulf succeeded in 946.
The succession was not uncontested from without. The allied forces of
John III of Naplesand Landulf II of Beneventoinvaded, but an alliance with the Amalfitans saved Gisulf's reign. Gisulf like his father remained with the Greeks, even warring with the pope. He concluded a treaty with the latter and came to the defence of Pandulf Ironhead, the prince of Benevento and Capua. Though his neighbours seemed to constantly be opposing him, the Ironhead reinstalled him after an insurrection of 974, which had been supported by his brother and the neighbouring Greek cities. Gisulf did not have any children at his death and Salerno passed into the wider realm of the Ironhead, who bestowed it on his son Pandulf II.
From 978, Prince Gisulf's death, to 983, when the Salernitans reinstated a dynasty of their choosing, the principality was under the rule of "foreigners": either of the Capuan princely house or the dukes of Amalfi. The Amalfitans took advantage of the Ironhead's death in 981 to seize it from Pandulf II and
Manso I of Amalfiwas made prince. He was unpopular, and a Spoletan, John, son of Lambert, was elected after the expulsion of the Amalfitans. Discordant relations prevailed with Amalfi until the end of the principality a century later.
Zenith and decline
brought Salerno to its greatest heights, but it did not survive him.
He too used the Normans for mutual gain. He can be considered chiefly responsible for the rise of the
Hautevillesin the Mezzogiorno. He opposed Pandulf of Capua, unlike his father, and he united his principality with that one for the first time since Pandulf Ironhead. In 1038, he sought the arbitration of both emperors over matters concerning Pandulf, but only the Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad II, responded, and Salerno became fully Western in allegiance. Conrad made Guaimar a powerful prince, and he extended his authority militarily over the coastal city-states of Gaeta, Naples, and Amalfi. He opened up the Campania, Apulia, and Calabriato conquest, but his successes were reversed by Conrad's son, Henry III, who, in 1047, removed Guaimar from Capua and restructured the nature of his suzerain-vassal relationships to limit his power. In 1052, Guaimar was assassinated and his son and successor, Gisulf II, showed none of his political acumen.
Under Gisulf, Salerno declined. He made useless war on Amalfi and on his Norman neighbours, finally on
Robert Guiscard, the duke of Apulia, himself. Though Salerno remained wealthy and opulent to the end of his reign, he misused this wealth during the siege of 1077 and lost his city and his principality to the Guiscard. With Gisulf's defeat, Salerno ceased to be the capital of a large principality and its once vast domain was completely merged into the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria, the peninsular possession of the Hauteville family. Salerno did continue as the most important city of southern Italy until the end of Hauteville rule in 1194.
Schola Medica Salernitanaof Guaimar III survived until Napoleontimes and it is considered the first University in Medicineof the world.
List of Princes of Salerno
Cathedral of Salerno
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*Gwatkin, H.M., Whitney, J.P. (ed) et al. "The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III".
Cambridge University Press, 1926.
*Norwich, John Julius. "The Normans in the South 1016-1130".
Longmans: London, 1967.
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